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Introduction to Biochemistry

By: Dhiraj Kr. Chaudhary


IAAS, Lamjung
Date: 2071/1/3
Biochemistry
• Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes
occurring in living organisms.
• By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the
flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give
rise to the complexity of life.
• The main focus of pure biochemistry is in understanding how biological
molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells, which in
turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of whole organisms.


Importance of Biochemistry:
• Help to know structure and functions of Biomolecules
• Gives idea about chemistry of genes.
• Makes easy to know central dogma of molecular biology.
• Enzymatic action of physiological process can be easily understand.
• Important in genetic engineering.
Scope of Biochemistry:
• Biotechnology
• Chemical manufacturing companies
• Food and Drink (includes brewing)
• Health and Beauty Care
• Research Companies and Laboratories
• Agriculture and fisheries
• Blood Service
• Cancer research institutes
• Environmental Pollution Control
• Forensic Science
• Hospitals
• National Blood Services
• Public Health Entities
• Public Health Laboratories
Scope and Importance of Biochemistry in Agriculture:
• To evaluate nutritive value of cereals, pulses, poultry and cattle feed.
• Development and exploitation of better genotypes.
• Removal and inactivation of toxic or anti nutritional factors present in
food grains in general and grain legumes in particular by breeding and
chemical treatments.

• Food preservation and processing technology and post-harvest physiology


of fruit crops and vegetables and their nutritional quality.
• Biochemistry of disease and pest resistance.
• Formulation of balanced diet
• Use of nonconventional sources of protein foods viz., single cell proteins,
fish protein concentrates, mushrooms and leaf proteins.
• Developments in the field of inter mediatory metabolism i.e. synthesis and
degradation of constituents of living tissues.
Biomolecules:
• The four main classes of molecules in biochemistry (often
called biomolecules) are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
• Many biological molecules are polymers: in this
terminology, monomers are relatively small micromolecules that are linked
together to create large macromolecules known as polymers.
• When monomers are linked together to synthesize a biological polymer,
they undergo a process called dehydration synthesis.
• Different macromolecules can assemble in larger complexes, often needed
for biological activity.

 Carbohydrates
 Lipids
 Proteins
 Nucleic Acids
Relation of Biochemistry with other sciences:
• Molecular Genetics
• Pharmacology
• Molecular Biology
• Chemical Biology
• Medicines
• Biotechnology
• Agriculture
• Microbiology
• Pathology
• Forensic Science
Molecular Logic of Biochemistry:
• All biomolecules follows the basic rules of Biochemistry.
• All living bodies consists of some biomolecules
• The identity of individuals is determined by unique shape of genes.
• All biomolecules have a specific functions
• All biochemical reactions are generated by biocatalyst or enzymes.