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Classical Realism

• Aristotle
– 384-322 B.C.
• He was a student at
Plato’s Academy
• He opened his own
school, The Lyceum.
Aristotle’s Ontology
• Prime Matter
– Principle of Potentiality
• Pure Form
– Principle of Actuality
• FORM and MATTER are
separate concepts, but
they are never found
alone, but matter is prior
to form.
PURE
FORM Mind Rationality Law
Actuality
PURE Examples
MATTER Body Materiality of
behavior
Potentiality

=
• The Universe is one of orderly Aristotle’s

design
All things exist according to a
Epistemology
rational design
• All things have a rational
function or purpose.
– Acorns become Oak trees, not Elm
trees
• Man’s defining characteristic is
Rationality.
– Homo Sapiens- the rational
animal.
• Syllogistic Logic
– All men are mortal
– Socrates is a man
– Therefore, Socrates is Mortal
THEORY OF CASUATION Aristotle’s
Epistemology
Material Matter Wood,nails

Formal Design Blueprint

Efficient Agent Carpenter

Final Purpose House


Aristotle’s
• The Golden Mean is
described as "the
Axiology
smaller is to the larger,
what the larger is to the
whole.“
• It's also known as the
Golden Section or the
Divine Proportion. It
divides a line in such a
way as to create an
ideal relationship
between the parts.
• Man’s purpose is to
lead a rational life of
moderation.

• The “Good” life is one


of avoiding extremes
Francis
Modern Realism Bacon
Ontology
Argued against Syllogistic
logic. Deductive A priori
reasoning is flawed because
you have TRUTH in hand
before you begin.

Truth is arrived at through


reason (inductive reasoning).
The Material world exists
independent of human minds
Modern Realism Francis
Bacon
Epistomology

The scientific (inductive)method


• Hypothesis
• Gather evidence
• Formulate Theory

Axiology
• The good life is attained through
scientific skepticism.
– Examine all previously accepted
knowledge.
The Four
Idols

The IDOL of the DEN Limited


experience
The IDOL of the TRIBE Follow the
Majority
The IDOL of the Current
MARKETPLACE (faddish)
language
The IDOL of the Emotion
THEATER
AIMS of
EDUCATION

Idealism As A
Philosophy of Education
• Absolutist- The search for “TRUTH”- True Ideas
• Rationalist- The search for truth is a rational process. Thus,
to be educated, is to reason effectively.
• Subjectivist- Individuals should strive for self-realization
• Character Development
– Wisdom
– Moral conviction
– Good will
– Loyalty
METHOD of
EDUCATION

Idealism As A
Philosophy of Education
• Depth over breadth
• Concepts over specific facts
• Confront problems that arise from the “human condition.”
• “Self-Directed” learning
• Lecture to stimulate thought, not to convey information
CURRICULUM

Idealism As A
Philosophy of Education
• Materials that promote “critical thinking.”
• Focus on reading and writing.
• Reading materials should foster discussion of “big ideas.”
• Classic works are favored because they have passed the
test of time.
• Student writing should emphasize both personal
expression and clear reasoning.
ROLE OF THE
TEACHER

Idealism As A
Philosophy of Education

• Socrates might serve as the prototype


– Socratic questioning
• Teachers serve as role models
– Intellectual
– Moral
• An Idealist teacher tends to see teaching as a calling- more
than just an occupation
Aims of
Education

Realism as a Philosophy of Education


• Absolutist- Education should focus on the truth of the
natural and physical world
• Empiricist- Teach students the scientific method of
problem solving by exploring the material world
• Objectivist- Emphasize basic skills and basic facts-
“3Rs” There are objective skills and facts that all
students should learn.
• Character Development:
– Establish high standards and increased rigor and hold
students accountable
– Emphasize practical knowledge that will prepare students for
the world of work
Methods of
Education
Realism as a Philosophy of Education
• Direct teaching techniques are preferable.
• Students should be presented information in an
organized, efficient and logical format.
• Given the “information overload” in today’s society, it is
important that “non-essential” learning should be
eliminated.
• Students should be taught based upon their strengths
and abilities.
• Scientific testing should be used to diagnose and place
students in settings most appropriate to their needs
• Technology should be utilized whenever appropriate in
schools
Curriculum

Realism as a Philosophy of Education


• Curricula should be practical and useful
• Curricula should concentrate on the “Basics” and avoid
fads and frills.
• Curricula should be highly organized, correlated and
aligned throughout the scope and sequence offered by
schools
• Curricula should be based upon pre-established
standards and criteria.
• Curricula should be “experiential” whenever possible
Role of the
Teacher

Realism as a Philosophy of Education


• A Realist teacher should be a subject matter expert.
• A Realist teachers should be able to present material in
an organized and systematic way.
• A Realist teacher should be able to explain the lesson
objectives in a way that is understandable to the learner.
• A Realist teacher should be able to effectively assess
students in such a way that all students are challenged
and motivated to learn.
• A Realist teacher should understand current research
and technology and be able to utilize it in the classroom.
Pragmatism

• A 20th Century Philosophy


• Often considered to be the “American”
philosophy
– William James
– George Herbert Mead
– John Dewey
William James- Percepts & Concepts
William James- Percepts & Concepts
William James- Percepts & Concepts
William James- Percepts & Concepts
William James- Percepts & Concepts
William James- Concepts
William James- Percepts
William James- Making Meaning
John Dewey –
Experience and
Education
John Dewey –
Experience and
Education
John Dewey –
Experience and
Education
The either/or of the two positions

Traditional Progressive
John Dewey – 1 imposition from expression and

Experience above cultivation of


individuality

and Education 2
3
external discipline
learning from
free activity
learning through
p. 19 4
text/teachers
acquire them as
experience
attaining ends which
means of make
by drill direct vital appeal
5 prepare for remote make most of present
future opportunities
6 static aims and awareness of changing
materials world
Ontology

• “What is real?” This is not a useful


question.Human beings process
perceptions through our senses and
construct concepts or ideas. Reality is
being constantly constructed through
our experiences.
Epistemology

• Truth is relative to a particular time,


culture, place. We learn by making
meaning of our experiences. We learn
by solving meaningful problems.
Axiology

• We derive our moral sense through


the social consciousness of the human
race. Through personal experience we
form habits, beliefs, feelings and
emotions. These are always shaped
by our social world.
Aims

• Education is a social process and


school is a form of community life.
School should promote personal
growth on the part of every child.
Methods

• Methods should emerge from an


understanding of a child’s powers and
interests. A teacher should guide a
child towards educative experiences
that connect personal growth within
community.
Curriculum

• Curriculum should grow out of life


experiences. It should be centered in
authentic problem solving and inquiry.
Role of the Teacher

• The teacher should be a guide, not a


dispensor of information. Teachers
should know their students and their
subjects equally well so they can
direct students towards educative
experiences

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