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Variability in

Learner Language
Rezza Anugerah
F2201171022
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Introduction

▸Second-language acquisition proceeds in discrete


sequences
▸Learners sometimes make an error, sometimes
they do not
▸Variability
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Three Approaches
“ Lingustic Sociolinguistic Psycholinguistic

as a feature of
general social
performance internal
factors (class,
errors. performance
ethnicity, etc)
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Systematic Variation
Sociolinguistic Models

The Labovian Paradigm

Speech Variable
Style Rules
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Systematic Variation
Sociolinguistic Models

The Labovian Paradigm


Speech Style -> style shifting
▸Social factors as gender, social class, ethnicity, etc
▸Attention as topic, interlocuter, and setting.
▸Example : -ing which may be pronounced -In
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Systematic Variation
Sociolinguistic Models

Variable rules
▸ An aspect of that competence that underlies
production.
▸ Example : be
He is going to He’s going to He gonna go to
go to school go to school school
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Systematic Variation
Sociolinguistic Models

The Dynamic Paradigm


▸Environmental weight, a specific linguistic environment.
▸Code switching, a speaker who have access to more than
one lect.
▸Free Variation, more forms are used randomly to show the
same function.
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Systematic Variation
Sociolinguistic Models

Social psychological models


▸The language attitudes of speakers to their actual
language use.
▸Convergence, adjust their normal speech.
▸Divergence, make their speech dissimilar.
▸Speech maintenance, do not make any changes.
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Psycholinguistic Models

Planning
Monitoring
Models
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Psycholinguistic Models

Planning models
▸Conceptualizer, situational factors and specific
communicative intentions.
▸Formulator, pre-verbal message is converted into a speech
plan.
▸Articulator, converts the speech plan into actual speech.
▸Speech comprehension system, feedback which enable to
make adjustments in the conceptualizer.
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Psycholinguistic Models

Monitoring
▸Speaker may monitor their output
▸Implementing a plan and make appropriate
adjustments, compare the final result with original
intention.
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Free Variation
▸Two or more forms are used randomly to show the same
function.
▸A 10-year-old Portuguese boy;
▸No look my card
▸Don’t look my card
▸Free variation occurs during an early stage of development
and then disappears as learners develop better organized L2
systems.
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THANKS!