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BASIC

CONCEPTS IN
ASSESSMENT
Introduction
• Assessment decisions could
substantially improve student
performance, guide the teachers in
enhancing the teaching-learning
process and assist policy makers in
improving the educational system.
Introduction

• However, poor assessment


procedures could adversely affect the
students, teachers and administrators.
Introduction
• Assessment of learning is…

 A tricky business

 Dealing with intangibles and


characterizing them
Introduction

• Assessment was essentially


confined to pencil-paper
testing of the cognitive levels
of learning (Bloom, 1954).
Introduction
• Students are assessed in order
to enhance the teaching-learning
process guided by the principle
that education is a lifelong activity
and does not cease after one’s
graduation from school.
Introduction
• Most common method in
assessing student learning is
through tests (teacher-made or
standardized).
Introduction
• Tests, coupled with other
observational performance-based
techniques, provide a powerful
combination for objective and
precise assessment procedure.
EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT
Testing – Knowledge of the
subject matter is measured
through standardized test results.

Perception – Knowledge of the


subject matter is measured
through scaling.
MEASUREMENT
 is a part of educational
evaluation process whereby some
tools or instruments are used to
provide a quantitative description
of the progress of student towards
desirable educational goals.
Process of quantifying individual’s
achievement, personality,
attitudes, habits and skills
MEASUREMENT
• quantification appraisal of
observable phenomena
• Process by which information
about the attributes or
characteristics of things are
determined and differentiated.
EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT

•Qualities- refers to the


performance
•Quantities- refers to the
numbers
FUNCTIONS OF MEASUREMENT

1. INSTRUCTIONAL
a) Principal (basic purpose)
- to determine what knowledge, skills,
abilities, habits and attitudes have
been acquired
- to determine what progress or extent
of learning attained
- to determine the strengths,
weaknesses, difficulties and needs of
students
FUNCTIONS OF MEASUREMENT
b) Secondary (auxiliary functions for
effective teaching and learning)
- to help in study habits
- to develop the effort-making capacity
of the students
- to serve as aid for guidance,
counseling and prognosis
FUNCTIONS OF MEASUREMENT

2. ADMINISTRATIVE/SUPERVISORY
- to maintain standards
- to classify or select for special purposes
- to determine teachers efficiency,
effectiveness of methods, strategies
used (strengths, weaknesses, needs)
- to serve as basis or guide for curriculum
making and developing
- to inform parents of their children’s
progress in school
TYPES OF MEASUREMENT
• Objective – as in testing
- more stable
Through the use of test question or pen and
paper test
• Subjective – as in perceptions

Whether one uses an objective or subjective


assessment procedure, the underlying
principle in educational measurement is
summarized by the formula
Measurement of Quantity or Quality of
Interest = True value plus random error.
Test or Testing
• Is a systematic procedure to
determine the presence / absence of
certain characteristics or qualities in a
learner.
• A technique of obtaining information
needed for evaluation purposes.

– Test
– Quizzes
– Measuring instruments
TESTS
• Classification of Tests
according to manner of response:
Oral or Written
according to method of preparation
subjective / essay and
objective
according to nature of answer
intelligence test, personality
test, diagnostic test, achievement
test, scale test and so on.
Classification of Measuring
Instrument
1. Standard Tests
a) Psychological test – intelligence test,
aptitude test, personality (rating scale) test,
vocational test and professional interest
inventory
b) Educational Test - entrance exam test,
summative test
2. Teacher – made test
Planning, Preparing, Reproducing, Administering,
Scoring, Evaluating, Interpreting
Indicators, Variables, and
Factors
Variables
-A quantity or function that may
assume any given value or set of
values.
-An educational variables(denoted
by an English alphabet, like x) is a
measurable characteristic of a
student.
Indicators, Variables, and
Factors
Indicators
-The building blocks of educational
measurement upon which all other
forms of measurement are built.
- A group of indicators constitute a
variable
Indicators, Variables, and
Factors
- An indicator I= denotes the
presence or absence of a
measured characteristics. Thus:
I=I, if the characteristics is present
I=0, if the characteristics is absent
Indicators, Variables, and
Factors

Factors
-A group of variables form a
construct or a factor.
Indicators, Variables, and
Factors
Example:
The following variables were measured in a battery
of tests:
x1 = computational skills
x2 = reading skills
x3 = vocabulary
x4 = logic and reasoning
x5 = sequences and series
Assessment
• Once measurement are taken of an
educational quantity or quality of
interest, then the next step is to
assess the status of that educational
phenomenon.
Various roles of assessment

 Summative role
 Diagnostic role
 Formative assessment
 placement
Summative role
 Are used to evaluate student
learning, skills acquisition, and
academic achievement at
the conclusion of defined
instructional period.
Diagnostic role/test.
•A form of pre assessment that
allows a teacher to determine
students individual strength,
weaknesses, knowledge and
skills prior to instruction.
Formative assessment
•Guides the teacher on his/her
day-to-day teaching activity.
•It allows the teacher to redirect
and refocus the course of
teaching a subject matter.
Placement
•A test usually given to a
student entering an
educational institution to
determine academic ability or
skill level in order to place
them in correct class or course.
Evaluation of Learning and
Programs

CONTEXT INPUTS PROCESS

OUTPUT OUTCOME

A system model for evaluation


SUMMARY