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CS 351

Database Management Systems 1

Prelims Notes 1
- Database Management System
- A set of programs that enables users to store, modify, and extract
information from a database
- It also provides users with tools to add, delete, access, modify, and
analyze data stored in one location. User Interface Program
Database Application



- Relational Database Management System
- A special system software that is used to manage the organization,
storage, access, security and integrity of data.
- Stores information in a set of "tables", each of which has a unique
identifier or "primary key". The tables are then related to one another
using "foreign keys". A foreign key is simply the primary key in a
different table. Diagrammatically, a foreign key is depicted as a line with
an arrow at one end.

The History of Oracle
August 1977 - Oracle founded by Larry Ellison, Bob Miner, Ed Oates and
Bruce Scott.
- Oracle was initially named after "Project Oracle“, a
project for the C.I.A, and the company that developed
Oracle was dubbed "Systems Development Labs", or
1978 - SDL was renamed Relational Software Inc (RSI).

1979 - Oracle release 2

- First customers were the USA Air Force and CIA.

1982 - RSI was renamed Oracle Systems Corporation to match RSI’s

popular database name .

1983 - Oracle release 3
- This version was assembled using C programming language and
could run in mainframes, minicomputers, and PCs – or any
hardware with a C compiler.
- It supported the execution of SQL statements and transactions
- This version also included new options of pre-join data to
increase Oracle optimization.
1984 - Oracle release 4
- It included support for reading consistency, which made it much
faster than any previous version.
- It also brought us the introduction of the export/import utilities
and the report writer, which allows one the ability to create a
report based on a query.
1985 - Oracle release 5
- It is equipped with the capability to connect clients’ software
through a network to a database server.
- It added security features such as auditing, which would help
determine who and when someone accessed the database.
1986 - Oracle version 5.1
- It supported distributed queries.
- SQL*Plus ( A tool that offers ad hoc data access and report
writing) and SQL*Forms ( An application generator and runtime
system with facilities for simple application deployment) were
1988 - Oracle release 6 was released together with PL/SQL language
- It provided a host of new features including:
a. Support of OLTP high-speed systems.
b. Hot backup capability . DBA’s could do a backup while the
database was still online.
c. Row level locking which locks only the row or rows being
used during a writing operation, rather than locking an entire
- Oracle Parallel Server was introduced in Oracle version 6.2 and
was used with DEC VAX Cluster. This new feature provided high
availability because more than one node (server) could access
the data in database.
1992 - Oracle release 7
- It provided a vast array of new features and capabilities in areas
such as security, administration, development, and performance.
- It addressed security concerns by providing full control of who,
when, and what users were doing in the database.
- It allowed monitoring of every command, the use of privileges
and the user’s access to a particular item.

- Oracle release 7.1 introduced parallel recovery and read-only

table spaces.
- Dynamic SQL, user-defined SQL functions and multiple same-
type triggers.
- The first 64-bit DBMS was introduced within this version as well
as the VLM (Very Large Memory) option.
1996 - Oracle release 7.3
- It offered customers the ability to manage all kinds of data types;
including video, color images, sounds and spatial data.

- Oracle's first biometric authentication for a commercially

available database was released.
- This technology could analyze human characteristics, both
physical and behavioral, for purposes of authentication.
1997- Oracle release 8
- It was designed to work with Oracle's network computer (NC).
- This version supported Java, HTML and OLTP.
1998 - Oracle release 8i
- The first database to support Web technologies such as Java and

2000 - Oracle 8i Parallel Server
- It was working with Linux which eliminated costly downtime.
2001 - Oracle release 9i
- Oracle Real Application Cluster came with Oracle 9i Database .
- This feature provides software for clustering and high availability
in Oracle database environments.
- The first relational database that supported native XML.
- Version 9i release 2 enabled Oracle to integrate relational and
multidimensional database.
- It featured table compression technology that reduced the size
of tables by 3 to 10 times and increased the performance when
accessing those tables.
2003 - Oracle release 10g
- It featured Grid Computing technology.
- The first Oracle version to support 64-bit on Linux.

2005 - Oracle release 10g Express Edition
- Oracle gave small businesses and startup corporations a viable
option to integrate Oracle into the workplace at no cost.

July 11, 2007- Oracle release 11g

- Featured the following:
a. Oracle Database Replay, a tool that captures SQL statements
and lets you replay them all in another database to test the
changes before you actually apply then on a production
b. Transaction Management using Log Miner and Flashback
Data Archive to get DML statements from redo log files.
c. Virtual Column Partitioning
d. Case sensitive passwords
e. Online Patching
f. Parallel Backups on same file using RMAN