Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 182

Classroom Management

Strategies for Effective


Instruction
Keith Lakes, Behavior Consultant
Lisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior Consultant
Upper Cumberland Special Education Co-operative

October 2002

1
Today’s Agenda

Welcome and Opening Activities


The Characteristics of an Effective Teacher
Effective Behavior Management Strategies
Organizing and Managing the Learning Environment
Designing Lessons to Enhance Student Learning
Closing Activities

Lunch is on your own


Breaks will be taken as needed

2
Goals and Objectives…
1. To identify the characteristics of effective
teachers
2. To understand why children misbehave and
identify effective strategies for dealing with
student misbehavior
3. To identify techniques for organizing and
managing effective learning environments
4. To identify characteristics of effective lesson
planning
5. To identify resources and materials dealing with
positive and effective classroom management

3
Presentation Techniques
(Utilizing the Principles of Adult Learning Theory)

Discussion
Small and large group activities
Cooperative learning strategies (i.e., jigsaw,
think-pair-share)
Self-Reflection
Question and answer sessions
Active Learning Strategies (i.e., role play,
scenarios, simulations)
others

4
Classroom management is…
…all of the things that a teacher does to organize
students, space, time and materials so that
instruction in content and student learning can
take place.

Two major goals…


1. To foster student involvement and cooperation
in all classroom activities
2. To establish a productive working environment.
-First Days of School, Wong

5
Describe a
well-
managed
classroom
6
Characteristics of a Well-
Managed Classroom…
Students are deeply involved with their work

Students know what is expected of them and are


generally successful

There is relatively little wasted time, confusion, or


disruption

The climate of the classroom is work-oriented, but


relaxed and pleasant.

7
A well-managed classroom
is…
A task oriented environment

A predictable environment

Is ready and waiting for students

8
Brainstorming Activity…
Think of as many responses to the following
statement as you can…

An effective
teacher is…..

9
A Dangerous Educator…
Believes that this job is not about relationships
Believes that this is just a job, and when the
school day is over, the work’s all done.
Believes that he/she can handle any situation,
alone.
Believes that, “It was good enough for me, by
golly, it oughta’ be good enough for them.”
Believes that all these kids need is “a good
whippin’.”

10
A Dangerous Educator…
Believes that what he/she does outside of
here has no bearing
Believes that anger shouldn't be part of the
curriculum
Never makes time to just sit and listen
Believes that this kids have no right to be mad
Believes that he/she can’t make a difference
Believes that punishment is more effective
than discipline

11
A Dangerous Educator…
Thinks you shouldn’t smile until Thanksgiving.
Believes that morality and values should only
be taught at home
Sees the act, not the young person behind it.
Believes that strict adherence to the rules is
the most important goal of any child’s day.
Forgets he/she is modeling.
Is a “structure monster”.
-Malcolm Smith
12
The Effective Teacher…
Establishes good control of the
classroom
Does things right, consistently
Affects and touches lives
Exhibits positive expectations for ALL
students
Establishes good classroom
management techniques
13
The Effective Teacher…
Designs lessons for student mastery
Works cooperatively and learns from
colleagues
Seeks out a mentor who serves as a
role model
Goes to professional meetings to learn
Has a goal of striving foe excellence

14
The Effective Teacher…
Can explain the district’s, school’s, and
department or grade level’s curriculum
Realizes that teaching is not a private
practice
Is flexible and adaptable
Listens, listens, listens
Understands the research process

15
The Effective Teacher…
Teaches with proven research-based
practices
Knows the difference between an
effective teacher and an ineffective one

16
In summary…
An effective teacher…

Has positive expectations for student success

Is an extremely good classroom manager

Knows how to design lessons for student


mastery

17
Understanding Our
Students
Dealing With Student Behavior in
Today’s Classrooms

18
Why Kids Misbehave
Basic has several “Functions”:
 Attention from peers or adults
 Attain power/control
 Revenge or Retaliation
 Feels Good/Play
 Fear of Failure
 Getting something (Sensory Input)
 Imitation

19
Proactive Intervention Strategies

Classroom Rules
Classroom Schedule
Physical Space
Attention Signal
Beginning and Ending Routines
Student Work
Classroom Management Plan

 adapted from the Tough Kid series, and CHAMPs

20
Classroom Rules…

21
The Rules for Rules:
Keep the number to a minimum
(approx. 5).
Keep the wording simple.
Have rules represent you basic
expectations
Keep the wording positive, if possible.
Make your rules specific.
Make your rules describe behavior that
is observable.

22
Classroom Rules, cont.
Make your rules describe behavior that
is measurable.
Assign consequences to breaking the
rules.
Always include a “compliance rule”.
Keep the rules posted.
Consider having rules recited daily for
first two weeks then periodically..

23
Examples…
Inappropriate Rules: Preferred Rules:
 Be responsible
 Keep hands, feet, and
objects to yourself.
 Pay attention  Raise your hand and
 Do your best wait for permission to
speak.
 Be kind to others
 Sit in your seat unless
 Respect authority you have permission to
 Be polite leave it.
 Walk, don’t run, at all
times in the classroom.

24
Consequences
The best consequences are reasonable and
logical

A reasonable consequence is one that follows


logically from the behavior rather than one that
is arbitrarily imposed

The best logical consequences teach the


students to choose between acceptable and
unacceptable actions.

25
Activity….
For the following types of student behavior,
develop both an example of a logical consequence
AND an illogical consequence…

 Chews gum
 Turns in sloppy paper
 Walks in the classroom noisily
 Passes paper in incorrectly
 Arrives late
 Does not bring textbook
 Does not bring pencil or pen

26
Possible Corrective Consequences
Proximity management
Verbal reprimand/Warning
Time owed after class
In-class time-out
Parental contact
Restitution
Principal Notification Form
Disciplinary Referral

It should be noted that prior to enacting corrective


consequences, positive reinforcement strategies should be
utilized.

27
Classroom Schedules…

28
Classroom Schedules
Avoid “Down Time”

Approximately 70% of the school day is


geared for academic engagement. (5.2 hrs.)

Begin each activity on-time.

“The best behavior plans are excellent academic


lesson plans.” – source unknown

29
Classroom Schedules
Budget your academic time
 Example: 1 hr. allotment
 5 min. Teacher-directed review
 10 min. Introduction of new concepts
 10 min. Guided practice, working on
assignment
 25 min. Independent/Cooperative work
 10 min. Teacher-directed corrections

30
Physical Space…

31
Physical Space
Arrange desks to optimize the most
common types of instructional tasks you
will have students engaged in.
 Desks in Rows, Front to Back
 Desks in Row, Side to Side
 Desks in Clusters
 Desks in U-Shape

32
Physical Space, cont.
Make sure you have access to all parts of the
room.

Feel free to assign seats, and change at will.

Minimize the disruptions caused by high traffic


areas in the class.

Arrange to devote some of your bulletin


board/display space to student work.

33
Physical Space, cont.
If needed, arrange for a “Time-Out”
space in your classroom that is as
unobtrusive as possible.

Desks do not have to be in traditional


rows, but all chairs should face forward
so that all eyes are focused on the
teacher

34
Students Who Cause Behavioral
Problems:
Aggressive (the hyperactive, agitated,
unruly student)
Resistant (the student who won’t work)
Distractible (the student who can’t
concentrate)
Dependent (the student who wants
help all the time)

35
Location for Students who
cause behavioral problems:
Separate—disruptive students;
maybe aggressive and resistant
students

Nearby—disruptive students;
maybe distractible, dependent, and
resistant

36
Prepare the Work Area…
Arrange work areas and seats so that you can
easily see and monitor all the students and areas
no matter where you are in the room
Be sure that students will be able to see you as
well as frequently used areas of the classroom
Keep traffic areas clear
Keep access to storage areas, bookcases,
cabinets, and doors clear
Learn the emergency procedures
Make sure you have enough chairs for the work
areas

37
Prepare the Work Area…
Be sure to have all necessary materials in easily
accessible areas
Test any equipment to make sure that it works
BEFORE you use it
Use materials such as tote bags, boxes, coffee
cans, dishpans, etc. to store materials that students
will need.
Arrange work areas where students can go for
reading and math groups, science, lab areas,
project work, learning centers, and independent
study. (Remember, you may not need these areas
on the first days of school.

38
Prepare the Student Area…
Plan areas for student belongings
 Coats
 Binders
 Backpacks
 Books
 Lunchboxes
 Lost and found items
 others

39
Prepare the Wall Space…
Cover one or more bulletin boards with colored
paper and trim, and leave it bare for the
purpose of displaying student work and artifacts.
Display your discipline plan in a prominent
place.
Post procedures, assigned duties, calendar,
clock, emergency information, schedules,
menus, charts, maps, decorations, birthdays,
and student work.
Have a consistent place for listing the day’s or
week’s assignments

40
Prepare the Wall Space…
Post a large example of the proper
heading or style for papers to be done
in class
Post examples of tests students will
take, assignments they will turn in, and
papers they will write
Display the feature topic, theme,
chapter, or skill for the day or the
current unit
41
Prepare the bookcases…
Do not place the bookcases or display wall
where they obstruct any lines of visions
Rotate materials on the shelves, and leave
out only those items that you are willing to
allow students to handle
Do not place books or other loose materials
near an exit where they can easily disappear
or where they may hide emergency
information

42
Prepare the Teaching Materials…
Let students know what materials you want them to
bring from home. Have a place and a procedure ready
for the storage of these materials.
Have a seating plan prepared.
Have basic materials ready
Find and organize containers for materials.
Store seldom used materials out of the way
Place electronic media where there are electrical outlets
and where the students will not trip over the wires;
have extension cords, adapter plugs, and batteries
Obtain a supply of the forms that are used for daily
school routines
Organize, file, inventory
43
Prepare Yourself and Your Area…
Do not create a barrier between
yourself and the students.
Place your desk away from the door so
that no one can take things from your
desk and quickly walk out.
Communicate to your students that
everything in and on you desk is to be
treated as personal property and off
limits to them
44
Prepare Yourself and Your Area…

Keep your personal belongings in a


safe location
Have emergency materials handy
 Personal items
 Extra lunch money
Obtain the materials that you need
before you need them

45
Teachers who are
ready maximize
student learning and
minimize student
misbehavior.
46
Attention Signals…

47
Attention Signal
Decide upon a signal you can use to
get students’ attention.

Teach students to respond to the


signal by focusing on you and
maintaining complete silence.

48
Example: The “Hand Raise”
Say: “Class, your attention please.”

At the same time, swing right arm in a circular


motion from the 9:00 position to the 12:00
position.

This prompts all students to stop, look at you and


raise hand.

49
Advantages to Hand Raise
It can be given from any location in the
room.
It can be used outside the classroom.
It has both a visual and auditory
component.
It has the “ripple effect”.

50
Discipline, Routines and
Procedures…

51
PUNISHMENT
VS.
DISCIPLINE
52
Punishment
Why Do We Punish?
 Because it works

 Punishment is effective for approximately 95%


of our students
 It’s quick
 Punishment produces a rapid (but often
temporary) suppression of behavior
 It requires lower level thinking skills.

53
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: strives to replace an unwanted behavior
with a desirable behavior

P: takes away a behavior by force, but


replaces it with nothing*

54
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Is firm and consistent, but peaceful

P: inflicts harm in the name of good*

55
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Positive behavioral change is
expected

P: The worst is expected, and the


worst is often received*

56
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: May may the youth angry at fist,
but calls for self-evaluation and change
rather than self-degradation

P: Agitates and often causes anger


and resentment on the part of the child
(which may have caused the behavior
in the first place)*

57
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Takes time and energy but
consequences are logical and
encourage restitution

P: Is immediate and high-impact but


is hardly ever logical*

58
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Allows child to rebuild self-esteem

P: Damages fragile self-esteem*

59
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Disciplinarian is in control of
his/her own emotions

P: Allows anger to be released


physically by punisher, allowing for
dangerous loss of control on adult’s
part*

60
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Is not threatening, dangerous or
abusive

P: Can be physically and emotionally


dangerous*

61
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Allows for reflection and restitution

P: Does not allow the child to make


up for his/her behavior*

62
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: is caring but takes time and
planning

P: is often “off the cuff” and


emotionally charged*

63
Important Aspects of a Well-
Disciplined Classroom…
Discipline
Procedures
Routines

Effective teachers introduce rules,


procedures, and routines on the very
first day of school and continue to teach
and reinforce them throughout the
school year.
64
The number one problem in
the classroom is not
discipline; it is the lack of
procedures and routines.

65
Discipline vs. Procedures…
Discipline: Concerns how students BEHAVE
Procedures: Concerns how things are DONE

Discipline: HAS penalties and rewards


Procedures: Have NO penalties or rewards

A procedure is simply a method or process


for how things are to be done in a
classroom.

66
Students must know from the very
beginning how they are expected to
behave and work in a classroom
environment.

DISCIPLINE dictates how students are


to behave

PROCEDURES and ROUTINES dictate


how students are to work

67
Procedures…
Are statements of student expectations necessary to
participate successfully in classroom activities, to learn,
and to function effectively in the school environment

Allow many different activities to take place efficiently


during the school day, often several at the same time,
with a minimum of wasted time and confusion

Increase on-task time and greatly reduce classroom


disruptions

Tell a student how things operate in the classroom, thus


reducing discipline problems
68
A PROCEDURE is A ROUTINE is what
how you want the student does
something done automatically
without prompting
It is the or supervision
responsibility of the
the teacher to Becomes a habit,
communicate practice, or custom
effectively for the student

69
A smooth-running class is
the responsibility of the
teacher, and it is the
result of the teacher’s
ability to teach
procedures.
70
Procedures answer questions
such as…
What to do when the bell rings
What to do when the pencil breaks
What to do when you hear an emergency alert
signal
What to do when you finish your work early
What to do when you have a question
What to do when you need to go to the restroom
How to enter the classroom
Where to put completed work

71
Activity…
Choose one of the items from handout
#____

Develop a set of procedures for the item


of your choice

Display

Gallery Walk
72
Three Steps to Teach Procedures…
1. EXPLAIN. State, explain, model, and
demonstrate the procedure.

2. REHEARSE. Practice the procedure under


your supervision.

3. REINFORCE. Reteach, rehearse, practice,


and reinforce the classroom procedure until
it becomes a student habit or routine.
73
Discipline with the Body…not
the Mouth…
1. EXCUSE yourself from what you are doing

2. RELAX. Take a slow relaxing breath and CALMLY approach


the student with a meaningful look.

3. FACE the student directly and CALMLY wait for a response.

4. If there is no response, WHISPER the student’s first name


and follow with what you want the student to do, ending with
“please”. RELAX and WAIT.

5. If the student does not get to work, RELAX and WAIT. Repeat
Step 4 if necessary.

74
6. If backtalk occurs, relax, wait and KEEP QUIET. If the
student wants to talk back, keep the first principle of
dealing with backtalk in mind:
IT TAKES ONE FOOL TO TALK BACK.
IT TAKES TWO FOOLS TO MAKE A
CONVERSTAION OUT OF IT.

7. When the student responds with the appropriate


behavior say, “Thank you,” and leave with an affirmative
SMILE. If a student goes so far as to earn an office
referral, you can deliver it just as well RELAXED. After
all, ruining your composure and peace of mind
does not enhance classroom management.

-Adapted from Fred Jones, Positive Classroom


Discipline and Positive Classroom Instruction

75
Beginning and Ending
Routines…
Entering Class
 Goal: Students will feel welcome and will
immediately go to their seats and start on a
productive task.
 Greet the students at the door.
 Have a task prepared for students to work on as
they sit down.
 Do your “housekeeping”.
 Keep tasks short (3-5 min.)
 When you’ve finished, address the task.

76
Beginning and Ending
Routine, cont.
Ending Routine
 Goal: Your procedures for ending the
day/class will:
 Ensure that students will not leave the
classroom before they have organized their
own materials and completed any necessary
clean-up tasks.
 Ensure the you have enough time to give
students both positive and corrective feedback,
and to set a positive tone for ending the class.

77
Beginning and Ending
Routines, cont.
Dismissal
 Goal: Students will not leave the classroom until
they are dismissed by you (not the bell).
 Explain that the bell is a signal for you.
 Excuse the class when things are reasonably quiet and
all “wrap up” activities are completed.
 General Rule:
 Dismiss primary students by rows
 Dismiss older students by class

78
Student Work

Design efficient procedures for assigning,


monitoring, and collecting student work.

5 Major Areas of Managing Student Work:


 Assigning Class Work and Homework
 Managing Independent Work Periods
 Collecting Completed Work
 Keeping Records and Providing Feedback
 Dealing with Late/Missing Assignments

79
Ponder This…
You don’t build your football team on
the day of the game.

You don’t drill a well when you get


thirsty.

And you don’t discuss procedures once


an emergency has begun.
80
Classroom Management
Plan…

81
Classroom Management Plan…
8 Components:
1) Level of Classroom Structure – based on
risk factors of your students.
2) Guidelines for Success – attitudes, traits,
or behaviors to help achieve success.
3) Rules – specific, observable, and
measurable behavioral objectives
4) Teaching Expectations – What, how, and
when expectations will be taught

82
Classroom Management Plan…
5) Monitoring – How you will monitor the
progress of the expectations.
6) Encouragement Procedures – How you will
encourage students to demonstrate
motivated and responsible behavior.
7) Correction Procedures – How you will
respond to irresponsible behavior.
8) Managing Student Work – What procedures
and systems you will use to manage student
work.

83
CHAMPS video…

84
For Every Activity…
Make sure students know your
behavioral expectation.

Consider the CHAMPs level of


structure:

85
CHAMPs…
Conversation: Under what circumstances, if
at all, can the students talk to each other
during the activity.

 Can students engage in conversations with each


other during this activity?
 If yes, about what?
 How many students can be involved in a single
conversation?
 How long can the conversation last?

86
CHAMPs, cont.
Help – How do students get their
questions answered during the activity?

 How do they get your attention?


 If students have to wait for help, what
should they go while they wait?

87
CHAMPs, cont.
Activity – What is the activity?

 What is your expected “end product”?


 This will likely change daily, according to
your lesson plans.

88
CHAMPs, cont.
Movement – Under what circumstance,
if at all, can students move about
during the activity?
 If yes, for what?
 Pencil Restroom
 Drink Hand in/pick up materials
 Other…
 Do they need permission from you?

89
CHAMPs, cont.
Participation – What does appropriate
student work behavior during the
activity look/sound like?

 What behaviors show that students are


participating fully and responsibly?
 What behaviors show that a student in not
participating?

90
Dealing with Anger…

91
How do YOU
deal with an
angry student?
92
Angry Students
Goal: To help channel and direct the
student to constructive outcomes.
 Assist the child in learning acceptable ways
of expressing this emotion.

Caution!!
 Caution should be taken to avoid
repressing or destroying the feeling of
anger.

93
Anger
Anger may be…
 A defense to avoid painful feelings
 Associated with failure
 Associated with low self-esteem
 Associated with feelings of isolation
 Related to feelings of anxiety over where
the child has no control

94
Anger vs. Sadness
Child – anger and sadness closely
related.
 Expresses sadness as anger.

Adult – expresses sadness as sadness.

95
Angry Child Interventions
1)Catch the child being good. Tell
what behaviors please you.

 Respond to positive efforts and reinforce


good behavior.
 “Thanks for sitting in your seat quietly.”
 “You worked hard on that project, and I admire
you effort.”

96
Angry Child Interventions

2)Deliberately ignore inappropriate


behavior that can be tolerated.

 Tell child what you are doing.


 If attention seeking, it will get worse
before better.
 Be consistent

97
Angry Child Interventions
3) Provide physical outlets and other
alternatives.

 Pre-plan opportunities for child to release


stored energy
 Consider meaningful work

98
Angry Child Interventions
4) Manipulate the surroundings.

 Look for triggers both inside/outside your


class.
 Re-examine your rules.
 Consider the child’s physical space.

99
Angry Child Interventions
5) Use closeness and touching.

 Move physically closer to the child


 Consider gently placing your hand on the
child’s shoulder
 Works best with younger children

100
Angry Child Interventions
6) Express interest in the child’s
activities.

 Develop the relationship


 Teachers are often the best therapists

101
Angry Child Interventions
7) Ease tension through humor.

 Attempt to “joke” the child out of an


episode.
 This will help “save face”.
 Be careful to distinguish between humor
and teasing.
 If sarcastic tone, child may become more
angry.

102
Angry Child Interventions
8) Explain situations to the child.

 Assist the child in understanding what


situations can contribute to their anger
 Assist the child in learning appropriate
alternative responses.
 Allow for practice/role play

103
When An Explosion is
Pending…
The Crisis Cycle:

 StimulusThoughtsFeelings
 ActionConsequence

104
The Curve of Explosion
Stimulus- initiates the process.
Period of Escalation- child calls on available
coping skills.
 Anger will resolve or escalate
 Begins to think less and feel more
 Try to get child to talk
 Use Active Listening skills
 Monitor your Para-Verbal Communication
 Assume a Calm Demeanor

105
The Curve of Explosion, cont.
Do’s
 DO use positive expectations.
 DO use “I” statements.
 DO reflect the emotion you hear.
 DO use non-verbal affirmation.
 DO try to direct the youth into a problem
solving mode.

106
The Curve of Explosion, cont.
Don’ts
 Don’t lead with the rules.
 Don’t lead with the consequences.
 Don’t begin statements with the word,
“You”.
 Don’t ask “Why” questions.

107
The Curve of Explosion, cont.
Out of Control- behavior is driven by
emotion.
 Thought process is repressed.
 Avoid threats of disciplinary sanctions.
 All youth to “vent” safely.
 Physical restraint may be required.

108
The Curve of Explosion, cont.
Period of De-escalation.
 Thought processes begin to stabilize.
 Emotional control is re-established.
 Student may be tired.
 Student may request to be left alone.

109
Behavior
Modification…

110
Pre-Corrections
“Thank you for not smoking.”
Serves as a gentle reminder of
expectations.
Gives students an opportunity to
mentally prepare before an activity.
Always respond to sincere efforts to
comply.

111
Classroom Behavior Modification
using: “Pre-Correction for Classroom”

Seven steps:
 “1) Identify the context and the likely problem
behavior.
 2) Specify the expected behaviors.
 3) Systematically modify the context.
 4) Conduct behavioral rehearsals.
 5) Provide strong reinforcement for expected
behaviors.
 6) Prompt expected behaviors.
 7) Monitor the plan.

112
Pre-Correction Scenario
1) Context – students entering classroom
immediately after recess.
 Predictable behavior – students shouting,
laughing, and pushing before complying
with teacher direction.

2) Expected Behavior – Entering the room


quietly, go to desks, begin task, keep
hands to self.
113
Pre-Correction Scenario, cont.
3) Context modification – Teacher meets
students at door, has them wait and
then go to desk to begin entry tasks.

4) Behavior rehearsal – Teacher reminds


students just before recess of expected
behaviors. Asks “student” to tell what
are expected behaviors.

114
Pre-Correction Scenario, cont.
5) Strong reinforcement – Students are told that
if they cooperate with teacher requests, they
will have additional break and 5 extra minutes
for recess.

6) Prompts – Teacher gives signals at the door to


be quiet and points to activity on Chalkboard.
Teacher says “ssshh” to noisy students and
praises students who are beginning work.

115
Pre-Correction Scenario, cont.
7) Monitoring plan – Teacher uses a
watch to measure how long it takes for
all students begin their tasks
immediately (within 10 seconds).

116
5 Steps to Correction
1) List Previous Positive Behavior.
 “Elizabeth, yesterday you did such a good job
staying in your seat and paying attention. I really
appreciate how you behaved.”

2) State Current Behavior.


 “However, today Elizabeth, you’ve been out of
your seat, disrupting class several times.”

117
5 Steps to Correction, cont.
3) State Expectations.
 “Elizabeth, what I expect from you is, for you to
go to your seat, sit in your seat, pay attention,
and only talk to your neighbors when I give you
permission.”
4) Child Repeats.
 “You want me to go to my seat, sit down, listen,
and keep my mouth shut.”

118
5 Steps to Correction, cont.
5)Praise Any Efforts.
 Acknowledge any compliance
 Be positive
 Be sincere
 Be encouraging
 You need a positive relationship with the
student to use this effectively.

119
If you want it…teach it. If
you expect to maintain it,
encourage it, acknowledge it,
and reinforce it.

 source unknown

120
Post-Correction
Adapted from the “Life Space Interview” model, Fritz
Redl.

Allows the child an opportunity to process and learn from


the experience.

Should be done by the adult who witnessed the incident.

Should be done within 24 hours. (As soon as both


parties are calm)

121
5 Steps to Post-Correction
1) Youth’s Perception-
 Adult should:
 Listen
 Refrain from judgments and corrections
 Ask questions which help student with
description
 Attempt to find out what student was trying to
achieve

122
5 Steps to Post-Correction,
cont.
2)Adult’s Perception-
 Discuss what parts of incident you see same and
differently
 Provide reality base

3)Connection Incident to Pattern of behavior


 Assist student in seeing a behavior pattern he/she
has developed

123
5 Steps to Post-Correction,
cont.
4) Explore Alternative Behaviors-
 Prompts may be used
 Important to let student find options

5) Develop A Plan-
 May use behavior contract
 Assure student of adult commitment
 Discuss consequences for next incident

124
“Always say what you
mean, and mean what you
say…but don’t say it in a
mean way.”
 Nicholas Long

125
Classroom Environment…

126
“No improvement will occur in
instruction until the classroom
climate improves.”

“Classrooms have personalities


just like people.”

-63 Ways of Improving Classroom Instruction


(Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons)

127
Classroom Environment
Polsky’s Diamond – Dr. Howard Polsky

 The Five Ranks of Social Power:


 Leaders
 Lieutenants
Members
 Status Seekers
 Scapegoats

128
Polsky’s Diamond, cont.
The Social Interaction with-in diamond
is prompted by the need for 3 things….

1)Power – influence over one’s own life


2)Affiliation – belonging
3)Achievement – status

129
….so their behaviors look like:
 Social functions of Behavior:
 Attention Seeking (adult/peer)
 Power/control
 Fear of failure/frustration
 Imitation

 Other functions of Behavior:


 Getting something (sensory input)
 Revenge or retaliation
 Avoidance (person/activity, demands or requests)
 Feels Good/Play

130
Social Skills…
How do “Tough Kids” meet these needs?

 Behavioral Excesses-
 Aggression Arguing
 Hitting Fighting
 Shouting Teasing
 Blaming Provoking

 Behavioral Deficits-
 Using self-control Cooperating
 Problem Solving Helping
 Sharing Making good decisions
131
Need for Social Skills
In order to assist the child in meeting
the 3 needs, effective social skills
instruction should be employed.

Social Skills: Basic skills needed to


successfully interact with adults and
peers.

132
6 Components of an
Effective Social Skills Program
1)Rationale
2)Modeling
3)Concept Teaching
4)Role Playing/Behavior Rehearsal and
Practice
5)Coaching
6)Contingent Reinforcement
133
Social Skill Topics
Basic Social Skills:

 Body Basics- (FEVER)


 Face person
 Eye contact
 Voice volume/tone/rate
 Expression should match
 Relaxed posture

 Starting, Joining, and Maintaining a Conversation


 With Adults
 With Peers

134
Social Skills Topics, cont.
Basic Social Skills:
 Recognizing and Expressing Feelings
 Playing Cooperatively
 Solving Problems
 Using Self-Control
 Solving Arguments
 Dealing with Teasing
 Dealing with Being Left Out
 Accepting “NO”
 Following Directions

135
Social Skill Topics, cont.
Intermediate to Advanced Skills:
 Accepting negative feedback
 Learning how to say “NO”.
 Assertiveness
 Resisting peer pressure
 Resisting teasing
 Managing anger
 etc.

136
Social Skills Assessment
Social Skills Survey
 Can be completed by student
 May be determined by age/maturity
 Can be completed by teacher
 Can be completed by parent
 Average and rank scores
 Deliver necessary Social Skills Instruction

137
Social Skills Programs
Second Steps

Skill Streaming

Tough Kid Series

SCORE Skills
138
Designing Lessons to Enhance
Student Learning…

142
Why Plan?

Plan
Ahea
d 143
The Correct Question…
DON’T ASK: “What am I going to cover
tomorrow?”

DO ASK: “What are my students going to


learn, achieve, and accomplish tomorrow?”

The role of the teacher is not to cover.


The role of the teacher is to UNCOVER.

144
Learning has nothing to do with what
the teacher COVERS.

Learning ahs to do with what the


student ACCOMPLISHES.

145
What is a lesson plan?
Teacher’s guide
Design for the learning of the student
Series of student centered learning
Focused on what the student needs to
know and be able to do
Covers one day or several days
Allows for the teachable moment
146
Experienced Teacher Standards
1. Demonstrates Professional Leadership
2. Demonstrates Knowledge of Content
3. Designs/Plans Instruction
4. Creates and Maintains Learning Climate
5. Implements/Manages Instruction
6. Assesses and communicates Learning
Results
7. Collaborates with Colleagues/Parents/Others
8. Engages in Professional Development

147
Performance Criteria
Standard 3
Focuses instruction on one or more of KY’s
learning goals and academic expectations
Develops instruction that requires students to
apply knowledge, skills, and thinking processes
Integrates skills, thinking processes, and
content across disciplines
Creates/utilizes learning experiences that
challenge, motivate, and actively involve the
learner
Creates and uses learning experiences that are
developmentally appropriate for learners

148
Performance Criteria
Standard 3
Develops and incorporates strategies that
address physical, social, and cultural diversity
and that show sensitivity to others
Arranges the physical classroom to support
the types of teaching and learning to occur
Includes creative and appropriate use of
technology to improve student learning
Develops and implements appropriate
assessment processes

149
Performance Criteria
Standard 3
Secures/uses a variety of appropriate school
and community resources to support learning
Develops/incorporates learning experiences
that encourage students to be adaptable\,
flexible, resourceful, and creative
Uses knowledge required from past teaching
experiences to anticipate instructional
challenges

150
Thinking About Lesson
Planning
Who Am I Planning For?
What Am I Supposed To Do?

151
Two Types of Assignments…
Ineffective Assignments:
 The teacher tells the class what is to be covered
 Chapter 7; Moby Dick; long division; ecosystems

Effective Assignments:
 The teacher tells the students what they are to
have accomplished or mastered at the end of the
lesson
 Teach with the end in mind

152
Creating Effective Assignments…
Think what you want the students to
accomplish

Write each step as a single sentence.

Write in simple language

Duplicate the list of steps and give it to the


students

153
Effective Assignments…
Must have structure and be precise

Structure
 The assignment must have a consistent and familiar
format that the students can recognize as their
assignment
 The assignment must be posted daily in a consistent
location BEFORE students enter the room

Preciseness
 The assignment must state clearly and simply what the
students are to ACCOMPLISH

154
To teach for learning, use words, especially
verbs, that show learning has taken place.

Bloom’s Taxonomy
 Knowledge
 Comprehension
 Application
 Analysis
 Synthesis
 evaluation

155
If the classroom is a fish
bowl…

Piranha

Catfish

Goldfish
156
Piranha…..
Are usually the “trouble-makers”
Can be passive aggressive or overtly
aggressive
Have negative attitude
Have attendance problems
Are “at risk”
Etc., etc., etc……
157
Catfish…..
Go with the flow
Are usually good-natured, but have
limited motivation
Are social beings
Tend to cooperate; follow MOST rules
Perform to the average or just enough
to stay out of trouble with mom/dad
Etc., etc., etc……
158
Goldfish…..
Are in the top 10-15% of their class
Are “teacher pleasers”
Are highly motivated to perform well
Show enthusiasm for learning
May be “over achievers” and /or high
achievers
Etc., etc., etc…….
159
Pre-Planning Strategies
1. Determine the learning styles of your
students
2. Determine reading levels/skills of students
3. Inventory access to technology
4. Connect writing to what is being taught
5. Focus on academic expectations and core
content
6. Establish a variety of instructional strategies

160
Essential Questions
What do I want all students to know and be able
to do at the end of this lesson?
What will I do to cause this learning to happen?
What will students do to facilitate this learning?
How will I assess to find out if this learning
happened?
What will I do for those who show through
assessment that the learning did not take place?

161
Think-Pair-Share

“Best Practices” in Lesson Planning


Some Guiding Principles

Adapted From: 63 Ways of Teaching or Learning


Anything by Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons

162
Thinking It Through…
Lesson Content
Learning Level
Instructional Methods, Materials,
Activities
Student Activities
Evaluation Tools, Strategies, Activities

163
The Lesson Plan Rubric
Academic Focus
Instructional Strategies
Student Engagement
Writing Strategy
Reading Strategy
Technology Strategy
Assessment Strategy
164
Unmotivated Students…

165
The Unmotivated Student…

Problems often emerge during late


elementary or middle school.
Often initiated by early academic problem.
Begins to see school as a place of
“drudgery”.
Will most often become discipline problem.
At risk of becoming a “drop out”.

166
Unmotivated Student, cont.
Factors That Influence Motivation:
 Fear of Failure – “Better to look bad, than
stupid”. Safer not to try.
 Lack of Meaning – May not see relevance
to assignments.
 Emotional Distress – Anxiety/Depression
from influences at home.
 Learning Disability – Give up in frustration.

167
Unmotivated Student, cont.
 Lack of Challenge
 Desire for Attention – look helpless to
teacher
 Peer Concern – not cool to like school
 Low Expectation – no encouragement from
home
 Expression of Anger – due to pressure
from parents

168
Unmotivated Student
Interventions
Assess the origin,(records, teachers, etc)
Talk with the Student Privately – develop the
relationship.
Provide a Warm, Accepting Climate
Stay Close to the Student
Introduce the Lesson with Enthusiasm
Give Clear Direction and Feedback
Present Tasks in Manageable Doses
Orchestrate the Student’s Success
Highlight the Student’s Talents

169
Unmotivated Student
Interventions, cont.
 Vary Your Teaching Style
 Relate Instruction to Student’s Interests
 Make Instruction Relevant to Real World
 Provide Hands-on Activities
 Apply “Meaningful Work”…CHAMPs
 Allow Student Some Control over What and How He
Learns
 Praise Student’s Efforts and Accomplishments
 If Student is Too Cool, consider incentives, rewards,
group recognition ( spark some competition)
 Challenge the Student

170
HYPERACTIVITY…
Constant movement Provide structured high
activity tasks

Easily distracted
Allow for control
movement
Lack of control
Reward on-task
behaviors
Verbal
Use color codes for
Does not attend to cues recognitions of behaviors

171
INATTENTION…
Passive Focus attention on key
elements of activity

Minimal problem- Develop and mental map


solving skills with student

Dependent learner Facilitate routine success

Help the student self-


Views ability versus monitor performance
effort as a problem

172
IMPULSIVITY…
Speaks before thinking Provide short and specific
out answers directions

Cannot monitor Reflective evaluation


behavior
Develop problem-solving
Impatient with
repetition Model expected behaviors

Avoids anxiety Allow behavior outlets

173
DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR…
Refuses to do work Reinforce positive
behavior
Defy authority
Use high interest
Intimidates other personally relevant
students material

Distract teaching Provide short successes


through verbal or
physical means

174
Key Ideas…

175
Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom that
Reflects Excellent Instruction in the Area
of Behavior Management
The classroom is organized in a manner that encourages
order, participation, independence, and continuous
learning
There is a small number of meaningful rules
Students understand and enforce rules
The teacher is constantly teaching independent behavior
management skills
The teacher spends an appropriate amount of time at the
beginning of the school year establishing the culture and
climate for positive acceptable behavior
Student’s demonstrating appropriate behaviors constantly
receive positive reinforcement

176
Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom that
Reflects Excellent Instruction in the Area
of Behavior Management
The teacher handles inappropriate behavior in a firm,
fair, consistent, and caring manner
The teacher’s interactions with students are positive
and reinforce the importance of student success
The teacher has several motivators that reinforce
and shape student positive behaviors
Classroom instruction is well organized, meaningful,
and allows for student differences (individual and
group)
Classroom management strategies are appropriate to
the environment and needs of the students

177
Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom that
Reflects Excellent Instruction in the Area
of Behavior Management
There is an established communication between
home and school
Students receive constant positive reinforcement for
doing good work and encouragement to do better
Student work is displayed throughout the classroom
and behavior and learning reinforcers are visible
throughout the room

178
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful
at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement

The teacher has the ability to KNOW


and effectively RELATE to his/her
students
 Establishes rapport and trust
 Separates unacceptable behavior from
student as a person
 Knows total student in and out of school
 Knows student’s interests/likes/dislikes

179
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful
at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement

The teacher has practical and current


KNOWLEDGE of behavior management
strategies
 Classroom design
 Classroom management
 Establishing baseline data
 Developing a behavior plan

180
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful
at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement

The teacher APPLIES behavior


management strategies in a FLEXIBLE
and TIMELY manner
 Ability to quickly analyze situation and
appropriately apply techniques
 Has good timing-when and where to react
and respond

181
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful
at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement

The teacher is CONSISTNET, has good


FOLLOW-THROGUH, and FOLLOW-UP
WITH STUDENTS
 Is clear and predictable from day 1
 Communicates expectations often
 Can re-establish respect after encounters
 constantly reinforces expected behavior

182
Teachers who are successful at behavior
instruction and reinforcement…

Have a keen AWARENESS of the classroom


ATTEND to more than one matter at a time
Train students to follow established classroom
PROCEDURES/ROUTINES without disturbing others
PACE their instruction without unnecessary delays
Use a variety of techniques to keep students
INTERESTED and INVOLVED
Use various techniques to check student INVOLOVEMNT,
LEARNING, and ATTENTION
Use EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES with individual students
that guide other student’s behavior

183
Word Wall Activity…
In your group, discuss the term(s) that you
have chosen.

Think about what we have discussed about


this item today.

Share:
 Your thoughts and
 A factual statement

184
Now What?

Where do I go from here?

185