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O NetBIOS include Name service, Session service and
Datagram service
O NetBIOS name cache contains NetBIOS names and
their corresponding IP addresses that were recently
resolved by local computer
O Supporting Protocols within IP layer are ARP,
O Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) specifies maximum
amount of data that a frame can carry within a



O IP add is a unique 32 bit logical add written in

dotted decimal.
O An IP add is used to communicate with
various networking devices over a network
O Each of the decimal numbers in an IP add is
called an octet.


O A Unique, 32-bit address used by computers to
communicate over a computer network

Types of IP Address

Static Dynamic



O Dynamic IP addresses are assigned o the

devices that require temporary connectivity to
the network or non permanent devies such as
O The most common protocol used for
assigning Dynamic IP address is DHCP
(Dynamic host configuration protocol).
O The DHCP provides IP add to the computer



O Static IP add are assigned to the devices on

the network whose existence in the network
remains for a longer duration.
O These static IP address are semi-permanent
IP add which remain allocated to a specific
device for longer time ,EX- Servers.


|   |
O IP address structure consists of two addresses,
Network and Host
O IP address is divided into five classes

IP Address

Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E


|   ||
Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3 Byte 4

Class A Network ID Host ID

Class B Network ID Host ID

Class C Network ID Host ID

Class D Multicast Address

Class E Reserved for future use



O Class A consists of 8-bit network ID and 24-

bit host ID.
O Class A will have 2 24 -2 numbers of host
available .
O Class A provide 125 network blocks while
each block in class A provides 16,777,216
host add.
O Reserved host add are one for network add
and another for Broadcast add.

 ||

O Network block to and to are reserved
for special purpose .
O Network block to is
used for private network.


! "

O Class B consist of 16 bit network ID and 16

bit Host ID. Class B will have 216-2 number
of host add available to the network.
O This add class consists of 16,384 network
blocks. each network block contains 65,536
host add.
O The first block starts from to



O Network block from to are reserved for private add.
O Class B provides 16 special and reserved
network address blocks.
O The remaining 16,368 network add blocks
are used for assigning add to various


 

O Class C add consist of 24 bit network ID and

8 bit host ID.
O Class C add support 2,097,152 network
blocks. the first network block starts from to
O Class C provides 256 network blocks which
are reserved for private addresses. The
remaining 2,096,896 network block use for
public use.

!  ||

O Each block of class C addresses provides

256 host addresses.
O Network block to are reserved for private



O - The first byte of the address

represents 14 which lies between 0 and
127, hence Class A address.
O - The first byte of address is
134 which lies between 128 and 191 hence
the address belongs to Class B.
O - As first byte is 193 which is
between 192 and 223, hence the address
belongs to Class C.


O Class D add is designed for multicasting.

O Each add in the class defines particular group
of hosts over the internet.
O This class consists of one block of add.
O First byte of class D specifies decimal values
from 224 to 239.


 #

O Class E add is reserved for special purpose.

O First byte of class E specifies decimal values
from 240 to 255 .




O Used to achieve communication on the Internet
O Unicast address uniquely identifies a host in a
network and belongs to class A, B and C
O Multicast address defines an address for a group
and belongs to class D
O Broadcast address allows user to send data packet
to all machines on a given network and is last
address of that network


O Allows you to divide a network into smaller sub-
O Each subnet has its own sub-network address
O Subnet can be created within Class A, B, or C based


O Specifies part of IP address used to identify a
O Subnet mask when logically ANDed with IP address
provides 32-bit network address

Subnet Mask

IP Address Operation Network Address



O Has predetermined number of 1s

O Class A, B and C contains 1s in network ID fields for
default subnet mask

Class A 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
Class B 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
Class C 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000


O Ruled out fixed size network address

O Network address can vary from 0-bit to 31-bit
O Uses Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
addressing scheme
O CIDR address notation:
First 18 bits represent
network ID
IP address


(  &')(&*

O Used by CIDR to allocate IP addresses to subnets

depending up on the requirement
O Allows network administrator to create variable size
subnets within a network
O Employs two different subnet masks at router which
are ANDed one after another to the address


#$(& |

O For example, if an organization is given a Class

C address and the organization needs to have
five subnets VLSM employs two subnet masks.
O If the IP address is, consider the
first subnet mask with 26 1s that is or in binary format
which provides four subnets having 64
addresses in each subnet.


#$(& ||

O Further, one of the subnet having 64 host

addresses is divided in two subnet having 32
hosts addresses by applying a mask of 27 1s
that is or
to one of the subnet from the four subnets. Refer
to the figure in next slide.


#$(& ||| ±± ± ± ±


The Moneymaker bank has been granted an IP address by IANA. The Bank has started its branches in
Delhi, Bangalore, and Mumbai. It is seen that

Ë The Delhi branch requires 64 networks while each network

needs 254 addresses
Ë The Bangalore branch must have 128 networks while each
network needs 126 addresses
Ë The Mumbai branch requires 128 networks while each
network needs 62 host addresses.

Design the subnetworks, give slash notation for each

subnetwork and calculate the number of addresses which still
remain available after allocation of addresses.


Implementing VLSM to create subnets within a




Create subnets for each branch


O IP addresses which are never used on the public

Types of Special

Loop-back Link-Local
Private Address
Address Address



O Latest version of IP addressing over IPv4

O Implements 128-bit network in contrast to 32-bit IP
address used by IPv4
O Address notation consists of 32 hexadecimal digits
with every 4 digits separated by a colon


O Utility tools used for keeping track about hosts on
the network and network structure
O Ping (Packet Internet Groper) ± Used by computer
network to test whether intended host is reachable
across IP network
O Tracert ± Used by Windows operating system to
increase time-to-live (TTL) value of data packets
O Pathping ± Provides useful information about
network errors, network latency and network loss at
hops between source and destination address

, |&|  |
O Host cannot carry IP address from one network to
O IP address is valid only when the host is connected
to a particular network
O When a host moves from one network to another it
requires IP addressing structure to be modified
O To maintain network connectivity of host within new
Ë Change IP address from one network to another
Ë Use two IP addresses


, |&|  ||

O To maintain network connectivity of host within new

Ë Change IP address from one network to another -
Provides network connectivity for mobile host when it
travels from one network to another by changing IP
address of mobile host
Ë Use two IP addresses - Host uses home address
when it is in permanent home network and uses care-
of-address when it moves to foreign network


 &|  |

O Mobile IP includes
two agents to make
address changes
invisible to the rest of
the Internet

Home Foreign
Agent Agent


 &|  ||
O Home agent
Ë Involves a routing device attached to home network of
mobile host
Ë Transmitting data packet from host to mobile host

Home Foreign Mobile
Agent Agent Host

O Foreign agent
Ë Usually a router that is attached to foreign network
Ë Receives packet sent by home agent and delivers
these packets to mobile host


O While communicating with a remote host, a mobile

host has to undergo three phases



O Mobile IP sometime may provide with inefficient

communication which can be either severe or
O Inefficiency may be caused due to:
Ë Double Crossing

Ë Triangle Routing



O An IP address defines unique address of a device over a

O An IP address is a 32 Byte address and is divided into
various classes namely Class A, Class B, Class C, Class
D and Class E
O In Classless addressing, network address field can
extend further to Host Id field
O Subnetting allows one to create multiple logical networks
within a single Class A, B, or C address based network
O A subnet mask is a 32-bit IP address, when bit-wise
ANDed with given IP address provides with the address
required to identify a subnet

! ||

O CIDR makes use of VLSM to allocate IP addresses to

subnets depending upon the need of the organization
O Routing devices on the Internet discard any IP datagram
or packet using private IP addresses
O A Loop-back address is a test address which acts as a
test mechanism of network devices and protocols
O IPv6 implements 128-bit network in contrast to 32-bit IP
address used by IPv4
O Mobile IP allows mobile devices to move from one
network to another while maintaining the connectivity to
the Internet