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Medical Images history

Images

What is an image?
Images

What is an image?

An Image is a visual representation in form of a function f(x,y) where f is


related to the brightness (or color) at point (x,y)

Shape?
Images

What is an image?

An Image is a visual representation in form of a function f(x,y) where f is


related to the brightness (or color) at point (x,y)

Shape?

Most images are defined over a rectangle

Continuous in amplitude and space


Capturing light

Describe the effect of


the pinhole size.
Capturing light

Describe the effect of


using lenses.
Gaussian Ray Diagram

A positive lens has two focal points


both are at the same focal distance f from the lens
Parallel rays of light converge in the focus

light rays coming out of a focus are refracted


Gaussian Ray Diagram

Please draw what you think would happen after light crush the lens
Gaussian Ray Diagram

Please draw what you think would happen after light crush the lens
Gaussian Ray Diagram

Homework.

How does the geometry of the lenses change the projection of the light?

Enunciate 3 applications in which the use of lenses is imperative

https://www.westechoptical.com/products/singlets
Medical images
Medical images
Medical images

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Medical images
Medical images

1895 Conrad Roentgen's discovered the X-ray.

He noticed that the invisible rays were able to penetrate some solids (like
human flesh) better than others (like bone or metal).

He was awarded the first Nobel Prize in 1901.


1920s Fluoroscopy
Patients swallowed radio-opaque barium.

That is how cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and bowel as well as ulcers,
diverticulitis, and appendicitis were initially diagnosed by radiologists.

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Medical images

¿Who was Maria Skłodowska?

¿Do you recall any relationship


between her and medical imaging?

¿Why was she famous?


Medical images

https://www.pinterest.es/pin/388576274069956390/
Medical images

1950s Nuclear medicine entered as diagnostic imaging tests.

In these tests, the source of the X-rays is not an X-ray tube but rather
radioactive compounds, which typically emit gamma rays as they decay

1970s Ultrasound and MRI


Unlike X-ray and nuclear medicine, ultrasound uses no ionizing radiation -
just sound waves

MRI , initially on resistive magnets with weak magnetic fields, producing


images with low spatial resolution

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Medical images
Medical images
Medical images

What is an digital image?


Medical images

What is an digital image?

discrete samples f [x,y] representing continuous image f (x,y). Each


element of the 2-d array f [x,y] is called a pixel or pels (from “picture
element“)
200 x 200
Medical images

25 x 25

100 x 100

50 x 50

Digital Image Processing: Bernd Girod, © 2013-2015 Stanford University --


Introduction 5
Medical images

Why are there usefull?

How would you get a non-digital image nowadays?

Give 3 examples of how to get them and how


to visualise them.
Why do we process images?
Acquire an image
Correct aperture and color balance –
Reconstruct image from projections

Prepare for display or printing


Adjust image size
Color mapping, gamma-correction, halftoning

Facilitate picture storage and transmission!


Efficiently store an image in a digital camera
Send an image from space

Enhance and restore images Touch up personal photos


Color enhancement for security screening

Extract information from images


Read 2-D bar codes
Character recognition

Many more
Medical images
Lab 1.
Using a digital camera take at least 21 pictures of any clinical area and
create a mosaic using them all

i.e.

Considerations:
Use Matlab to reach the goal of this practice
Create you own code. Do not commit any kind of plagiarism
Comment your code so others can understand what you do

Submission
You have one week time to submit your work
In TEMA platform you will need to upload the folder with the original
images, the .m code and any other function you created.
Thank you