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# Medical Images history

Images

What is an image?
Images

What is an image?

## An Image is a visual representation in form of a function f(x,y) where f is

related to the brightness (or color) at point (x,y)

Shape?
Images

What is an image?

## An Image is a visual representation in form of a function f(x,y) where f is

related to the brightness (or color) at point (x,y)

Shape?

Capturing light

## Describe the effect of

the pinhole size.
Capturing light

## Describe the effect of

using lenses.
Gaussian Ray Diagram

## A positive lens has two focal points

both are at the same focal distance f from the lens
Parallel rays of light converge in the focus

## light rays coming out of a focus are refracted

Gaussian Ray Diagram

Please draw what you think would happen after light crush the lens
Gaussian Ray Diagram

Please draw what you think would happen after light crush the lens
Gaussian Ray Diagram

Homework.

How does the geometry of the lenses change the projection of the light?

## Enunciate 3 applications in which the use of lenses is imperative

https://www.westechoptical.com/products/singlets
Medical images
Medical images
Medical images

http://baldaivirtuves.info/leonardo-da-vinci-human-anatomy-drawings/leonardo-da-
Medical images
Medical images

## 1895 Conrad Roentgen's discovered the X-ray.

He noticed that the invisible rays were able to penetrate some solids (like
human flesh) better than others (like bone or metal).

## He was awarded the first Nobel Prize in 1901.

1920s Fluoroscopy

That is how cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and bowel as well as ulcers,
diverticulitis, and appendicitis were initially diagnosed by radiologists.

http://baldaivirtuves.info/leonardo-da-vinci-human-anatomy-drawings/leonardo-da-
Medical images

## ¿Do you recall any relationship

between her and medical imaging?

## ¿Why was she famous?

Medical images

https://www.pinterest.es/pin/388576274069956390/
Medical images

## 1950s Nuclear medicine entered as diagnostic imaging tests.

In these tests, the source of the X-rays is not an X-ray tube but rather
radioactive compounds, which typically emit gamma rays as they decay

## 1970s Ultrasound and MRI

Unlike X-ray and nuclear medicine, ultrasound uses no ionizing radiation -
just sound waves

## MRI , initially on resistive magnets with weak magnetic fields, producing

images with low spatial resolution

http://baldaivirtuves.info/leonardo-da-vinci-human-anatomy-drawings/leonardo-da-
Medical images
Medical images
Medical images

Medical images

## discrete samples f [x,y] representing continuous image f (x,y). Each

element of the 2-d array f [x,y] is called a pixel or pels (from “picture
element“)
200 x 200
Medical images

25 x 25

100 x 100

50 x 50

Introduction 5
Medical images

## Give 3 examples of how to get them and how

to visualise them.
Why do we process images?
Acquire an image
Correct aperture and color balance –
Reconstruct image from projections

## Prepare for display or printing

Color mapping, gamma-correction, halftoning

## Facilitate picture storage and transmission!

Efficiently store an image in a digital camera
Send an image from space

## Enhance and restore images Touch up personal photos

Color enhancement for security screening

## Extract information from images

Character recognition

Many more
Medical images
Lab 1.
Using a digital camera take at least 21 pictures of any clinical area and
create a mosaic using them all

i.e.

Considerations:
Use Matlab to reach the goal of this practice
Create you own code. Do not commit any kind of plagiarism
Comment your code so others can understand what you do

Submission
You have one week time to submit your work
In TEMA platform you will need to upload the folder with the original
images, the .m code and any other function you created.
Thank you