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Meaning and Process of

Doing Philosophy
INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN
The Thinker
Activity

• Do a primetime reporting format such as Magandang Gabi Bayan,


Saksi, State of the Nation, Aksyon Balita, CNN News of topics: the
Pilosopo and the Philosopher

• Group according to interests: sculpting, singing, poem, drawing


etc.
Rubrics

• Content 5 points
(the message and content of the performance
is appropriate to the topic discussed)
• Organize 5 points
(the performance started and ended properly,
all the members of the group participated and
the flow of the performance is organized)
• Creativity 5 points
(the performance is creative, enticing, appealing
and interesting to the learners)
• TOTAL 15 points
Questions

Identify what is a philosopo and a philosopher?


Why is the important of being a philosopher?
Act out a philosopher
Unlocking
15 minutes
1. In the Philippines, the term “pilosopo” connotes the image of a comical, and sometimes
annoying, character. Often used to describe someone who plays with words, or twists
commonsensical reasoning in order to come across as funny. Sometimes the pilosopo is also
describes as “KSP” (Kulang sa Pansin) because their incessant questionings gives the impression
that they are desperate for attention. A pilosopo can either be a philosopher or not. No, a
philosopher is not a pilosopo because he/she does not play with words, or twists reasoning just for
the fun of it or just showing that he/she is singularly smart and inquisitive. Yes, a pilosopo is a
philosopher, if his/her intention in playing with words and overturning usual forms of reasoning is in
order to view things in a different way or he/she asks questions that stem from a genuine
confusion, astonishment and wonder and touched the understanding of the meaning of life.
Philosophy, etymologically comes from two Greek words, philo, meaning “to love” and Sophia,
meaning “wisdom”. Originally meant “love of wisdom”. It is also defines as the science that by
natural light of reason studies the first causes or highest principles of all things.
2. Four things considered in defining Philosophy:
Science because the investigation is systematic, it follows procedures like other sciences. Natural light of
Reason – the philosopher uses natural capacity to think or simply, human reason alone or unaided
reason.
Study of all things – human beings, society, religion, language, God and plants etc.
First Cause or Highest Principles – a principle is that from which something proceeds in any manner
whatsoever. The First Principles:
Principle of identity-whatever is is; whatever is not is not
Principle of non-Contradiction – impossible for a thing to be and not to be at the same time, and at the
same respect
Principle of Excluded Middle – a thing is either is or is not, being or not being, no middle ground
Principle of Sufficient Reason – nothing exists without a sufficient reason for its being and existence.
3. Branches of Philosophy include:
Metaphysics is really an extension of a fundamental and necessary drive in every human being to know what is real.
Appearance around us are reduced to reality. Such that Thales, a Greek philosopher claimed that everything is water.
Both the idealist and materialists metaphysical theories are similarly based on unobservable entities: mind and water.
Plato a student of Socrates said that nothing we experience in physical world with our five senses is real, reality in fact
is know what we claim to know 2. How we can find out what we wish to know: and 3. How we can differentiate truth
from falsehood. Two parts of knowledge are: 1 induction – as believed by the empiricists like John Locke- through
senses processed to be a general ideas. 2. Deduction – as believed by rationalists like Rene Descartes – finding
general law according to which particular facts can be understood or judged.
5. Logic – just the opposite. It is the unchanging, eternal immaterial, and can be detected only by the intellect
Ethics – is to know between good from evil or right from wrong. It is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature
of moral virtue and evaluates human actions. Philosophy is not content with traditional or habitual ethics but adopts a
critical perspective and on a transition from a traditional, religion-based morality to philosophical ethics. Socrates said
to be happy is to live a virtuous life.
4. Epistemology – deals with nature, sources, limitations, and validity of knowledge. Epistemology explains: 1. How
we comes from the Greek word logike and was coined by Zeno, the Stoic. Etymologically, it means a treatise on
matters pertaining to the human thought. It concerns with the truth or the validity of our arguments. Aristotle devise a
logical method. As to him humans are posses with reason and use it for decisions to influence others.
6. Aesthetics – the science of the beautiful in its various manifestation including the sublime, comic, tragic, and ugly.
Importance of aesthetics: 1. It vitalizes our knowledge. 2. It helps us to live more deeply and richly. 3. It brings us in
touch with our culture.
Unscramble the Jumbled

Direction:
Arrange the following jumbled letters to identify
the different principles, tools and techniques in
creating a business.

1. GOLIC
2. IPOESMOLYGEMT
3. SEACITETH
4. CHITES
5. RESPHOHILPO
Analysis

Pilosopo
Philosopher
Branches of Philosophy
Valuing

Mention the importance of Philosophy in daily lives


Generalization

Identify Philosophy from pilosopo


Determine the branches of philosophy
Quizz
5 minutes
With 70 percent efficiency the learners should answer the following questions: (remediation be
devised if needed)
____1. Which of the following item referred us the love of wisdom
a. Pilosopo b. philosopher c. philology d. philosophy
____2. Among the four things considered in the definition of philosophy which is referred when
we say that philosophy studies human beings, society, religion, language, God, and plants among
others
a. science b. natural light of reasons c. study of all things d. highest principle
____3. From items in question #2 which is referred to when we say that philosophy is based on a
principle from which something proceeds in any manner whatsoever.
____4. From the First Principles which is described as whatever is is; and whatever is not is not,
everything is what it is?
a. Principle of identity b. Principle of Non-Contradiction c. Principle of Excluded Middle d. Principle
of Sufficient Reason
Quizz
____5. From items in question #4. Which is referred to when we say that nothing exists without a
sufficient reason for its being and existence?
a. Principle of identity b. Principle of Non-Contradiction c. Principle of Excluded Middle d. Principle
of Sufficient Reason
____6. The knowledge of good and evil
a. metaphysics b. logic c. aesthetics d. ethics
____7. From items in #6 which is referred to as the science of what is beautiful
____8. From items in #6 which is referred to as the fundamental and necessary drive in every
human being to know what is real.
____9. The student of Socrates, and a good example of a metaphysician.
a. Thales b. Plato c. Aristotle d. Euclides
____10. From items in #9 which of the choices said that to be happy, a person has to live a
virtuous life?
Application

Journaling:
Important effect of philosopher in your life
Agreement

Assignment:
Review modern philosophers and record findings in your notes.

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