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AIR MOVEMENT IN

AND AROUND
BUILDING
by H.porani abiraami
FACTORS

 The air flow pattern in the room is affected by 2


factors :
1. pressure distribution around the building
2. inertia of the moving air
 windows placed in the wind ward wall-indoor
pressure rises to equal the high external
pressure on the wall
 Windows placed In the leeward side-indoor
pressure falls to level of the lower external
pressure
WHAT MAKES AIR TO MOVE
1. The landform or topography of a site
 Slopes and depression lad to different levels
of air temperature and air movement
 Cooler air-collect in depression-air
temperature is low
 Air speed increases-wind ward slope

 Air speed: maximun-crest

minimum-leeward side
 Air movement is affected by –pressure
difference
 Air flow-high pressure to low pressure zones
2.Vegetation pattern
 effective shade and reduces heat gain
 Causes-pressure difference

increases and decreases air flow


 Trees also affect air flow

 PLACEMENT: should make a narrowing


path
 Reduction in area _ increases air speed
3. Open spaces and built form
 Open space –conjuction with built form
 Allow for freer air movement –LARGE
OPEN SPACES
4.plan form
• Affects air flow in and around the building

• Perimeter to area ratio in very important

• Physical obstacles in the path of air flow


creates air pressure difference
• Causes air flow pattern

• Plan form can be determined to creat high and


low pressure ares
4.Building orientation
 air patterns affects the amount of natural
ventilation
5.Roof forms
 Roof form and overhangs also affects air
movement patterns
 By varying the roof projection with respect
to the building width pressure differences
between windward and leeward sides could
either be increased or decreased
6.Fenestration pattern and configuration
 The area of the opening and the location should
affect air movement
 This is because temperature differences cause air
to rise
 Opening at higher level causes air to flow-stack
effect
 Vortexes are formed wherever the air flow is
separated from the surfaces of solid bodies
 On wind ward side-vortexes are at
increased pressure
 Leeward side at a reduced pressure

 If the building has an opening facing a high


pressure zone and another facing a low pressure
zone, air movement will be generated through
the building
ORIENTATION OF THE BUILDING
 If the building plan is oriented by 45 degree with
the flow of air,greater velocity is created along
the windward direction the wind shadow will be
much broader
 The suction effect will be increased and increased
indoor air flow will result

 With smaller outlet opening suction effect


will be reduced ,if not reversed.
CROSS VENTILATION
 Refers to the coditions where a given space is
connected by apertures to both pressure and
suction areas of the exterior.
 When a room is not cross ventilated the indoor
velocity is low especially wind perpendicular to
inlet window
 It is inferred that satisfactory ventilation is
possible where air has to pass from one roomt o
another
 In the absence of outlet or with a solid partition
there will be no air flow through the building.
With windward opening and no outlet , pressure
is created which makes it even worse
 Air flow loses much of its kinetic energy each
time it is diverted around or over an obstacles
 To be effective,the air movement must be
directed at the body surface
 That is wind should be directed in the space with
the occupants through the living zone
EFFECT OF FLY SCREENS
 Essential in tropics
 Considerable reduction in air flow through
windows , especially if the external wind is slow.
 Fly screens is dependent on the combinations of
wind direction and number and position of the
inlet windows
 It doesnot merely give additional resistance to air
flow but causes the wind to slip over it
,preventing the initial entry of the air besides
reducing th speed of that air which pass through.
POSITION OF THE OPENING
 If the opening at the inlet side is at a high level
,regardless of the outlet opening position, the air
flow will take place in near the ceiling and not in
the living zone
 larger solid surface creates a larger pressure
built up and pushes the air stream in the
opposite direction , both in plan and section.
 Therefore in a 2 storey building the air flow in
the ground floor may be satisfactory,but not on
the upper floor.
 Possible remedy is an increased roof
parapet
WINDOW ORIENTATION WITH RESPECT TO
THE WIND

 Optimum ventilation-windows should directly


face the wind
 In some cases ,better conditions can be achieved
when the wind is oblique to the inlet
windows ,when good ventilation is required
in the room
 When windows are placed opposite main air
stream flows from inlet to outlet
 these take up-circular motion around the
room, increasing air flow around the wall
 When they are placed adjacent to each other,
better ventilation is obtained with the wind
perpendicular to the inlet window than when it is
oblique
 Therefore better ventilation condition are
obtained when the air stream has to change
direction within the room, than when the flow is
direct from inlet to outlet
WINDOW SIZE
 Depends to a great extent on whether the room is
cross-ventilated
 Wind oblique to the window there is an appreciable
effect when the window size is increased
 When the wind is perpendicular to the window
,pressure differences along the wall are too small for
the increase in window size to have more than a
slight effect
 Ventilation with average and maximum velocities
with inlet and outlet openings of different widths,with
inlet/outlet ratio of 1:3 to 3:1.these are located
perpendicular or opposite walls
SIZE OF OPENINGS
 Best arrangement is full wall openings on
both sides ,with adjustable sashes or closing
devices which can assist in channelling the
air flow in the required direction.
 formula:

smaller inlet opening with a large


outlet=(pressure*area) –largest air velocity
CONTROLS OF OPENINGS
1. Sashes:
it can divert air flow upward . only
casement or reversible pivot sash will channel it
downward into the living zone
2. Canopies :
eliminate pressure build up over the
window . thus pressure below the window will
direct the airflow upward. A gap between the
building face and the canopy would ensure a
downward pressure
3.Louvers :
position if the blades channels the air flow
AIR FLOW AROUND THE BUILDING
 The effect of tall buildings in the mixed
development shows how the air stream
separates on the face of a tall buildings-part of it
moving up and over the part of it is moving down
to form a large vortex leading to very high
pressure.
If a low building is placed in the wind shadow of
the tall building ,the increase in the height of the
obstructing block will increase the air flow
through the low building in the direction opposite
to the direction of the wind
 Due to the momentum of air ,the air flow tends to
maintain a straight path after it has been
diverted
 It will take sometime to return to the ground
surface after the obstacles ,to occupy all he
available cross section
 Stagnant mass of air is formed on the leeward
side at a reduced pressure
 Vortex is formed- the movement is light and
referred as wind shadow
VENTILATION AND AIR FLOW
illustration
IN HOT AND DRY CLIMATE
 Air intake openings should be located so that the
coolest and most dust free air is taken and if
necessary the air can be conducted to the points
where it is needed
 Thus cool conditions prevail at dawn can be
maintained inside then building for longer times
 If double roof is used roof will be warmer than
the ceiling and hot air rises to the roof ,there will
be no convection currents only conduction
 This increases lot of temperature. this can be
avoided by ample ventilation of the roof space
IN WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE

 Openings must be placed suitably in relation to


the prevailing breezes to permit natural air flown
through the internal spaces at body level,ie the
living zone
 Such openings should be large enough and fully
openable
 No fixes glass panes

 Openings should be free from the effect of outside


obstructions
 Air flow should not pass over the hot surfaces
IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE
 Orientation of the openings :
towards the breeze prevailing during the
warm-humid season,to utilize its cooling effect
towards the sun during the cold season,to
utilise the heating effect of radiation
 Two small openings ,one high level and one low
level
BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Manual of tropical housing and building


 Man climate and architecture

 Climate responsive architecture