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Wind loading and structural response

Lecture 20 Dr. J.D. Holmes

Large roofs and sports stadiums


Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Entertainment centres, exhibition centres, sports arenas etc

• Quasi-steady approach is not applicable

• Resonant effects can be significant

• Bending moments in arches and domes are sensitive to distribution of wind


load
Large roofs and sports stadiums

• General flow characteristics :

Separation Shear layer positions:


“bubble” High turbulence
Low turbulence

Fluctuating re-
Stagnation attachment
Point point

• Mainly attached flow on large roofs


Large roofs and sports stadiums

• General flow characteristics :

Separation
point

• On arched roof, separation occurs downstream of apex


Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Mean pressure distributions :

C p
 1.0

U.W.O.
Wind-tunnel tests

• Fluctuations in pressure will generate downwards pressures for short times


Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Mean net pressure distributions (cantilevered stadium roof):

blocked at rear
C/L

0.0
0.1 0.2 0.0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.4 0.1
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8
-1.0
-1.1
-1.2
-1.3
-1.4

gap at rear reduces net pressures


Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Arched roof :

he

wind loads depend strongly on R/S (rise/span)


less strongly on L/S and he/S
Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Arched roof (Cp) :

-0.3 -0.5 -0.6 -0.8 -0.4 0 +0.5

+0.3
+0.4
+0.2

-0.5
-0.3 -0.4
-0.25

R/S = 0.2 he/R = 0.45 L/S = 1.0  = 0o

increasing L/S  pressures on roof become more negative


Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Arched roof (Cp) :


+0.4
-0.3
0 +0.2 +0.3

+0.2
-0.7 +0.3
-1.0

-0.7 -0.4
-0.5 0 +0.2

-0.7 +0.1
-0.4 -0.6 -0.2
0
-0.5
-0.5 -0.6 -0.4

-0.5
higher negative values -0.45
-0.6 -0.9
-0.7
Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Arched roof (Cp) :

-0.7 0

-0.15 -0.2 +0.5


-0.3 -0.5 +0.4
-0.5
-0.15 +0.2

-0.7

-0.9
-0.3 -0.4
lower negative values -0.25 -0.5

-0.2
positive

R/S = 0.5 he/R = 0.45 L/S = 1.0  = 0o


Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Structural loads - effective static load distributions

Instantaneous pressure distributions vary greatly from time to time due to


turbulence, vortex generation etc. Shapes may vary greatly from the
mean pressure distribution

Need to identify those distributions which produce maximum load effects


Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Structural loads - effective static load distributions

Wind-tunnel methods for design wind loads :

1) Direct approach : simultaneous time histories from the whole roof are recorded
and stored. Later weighted with structural influence coefficients to obtain time
histories of load effects. Instantaneous pressure distributions are identified and
averaged.

2) Correlations between pressure fluctuations at different parts of the roof are


measured and used to determine effective static load distributions (Lecture 13, Chapter
5)

Correlations for separated parts of a large roof are low: hence potential
for significant reduction in peak effective loads and peak load effects
(b.m.’s, axial forces etc.)
Large roofs and sports stadiums
• Structural loads - effective static load distributions
Arch roof (Kasperski,1992) :
Large roofs and sports stadiums
• Structural loads - effective static load distributions

Sydney Olympics, 2000

Superdome Stadium
Australia
Large roofs and sports stadiums
• Structural loads - effective static load distributions

Sydney Olympics, 2000 - 1/500 wind-tunnel model

Stadium
Superdome
Australia
Large roofs and sports stadiums
• Structural loads - effective static load distributions

Stadium Australia (Sydney Olympics, 2000)

N 21
6
9 24
3 18

2 5 20 23
8 17
11 15

1 19 22
4 7 10
12 14
13 16

Panel layout for wind-tunnel testing


Large roofs and sports stadiums
• Structural loads - effective static load distributions

Stadium Australia (Sydney Olympics, 2000)


WSW wind pressure coefficient for minimum load in Member 23 Area 8

-1.2

-0.8

-0.4

180
160
140
120
100
80 20
60
40 40

20
Large roofs and sports stadiums
• Structural loads - effective static load distributions

Stadium Australia (Sydney Olympics, 2000)

ESE wind pressure coefficient for max load in Member 1454 Main arch

0
0.2
0.4

20
20
40
60
40 80
100
120
140
160
180
Large roofs and sports stadiums
• Structural loads - effective static load distributions

Superdome (Sydney Olympics, 2000)

7 8 9

6 10
19 20 21

5 18 27 22 11

26 28

4 25 23 12
17

16 15 24
3 13
2 1 14
Large roofs and sports stadiums
• Structural loads - effective static load distributions

Superdome (Sydney Olympics, 2000)

0.3
SSE
0.2

0.1
Pressure /kPa

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
-0.1 Panel Number
-0.2

-0.3

-0.4
WSW
-0.5
Extreme pressure limits Correlation approach Direct approach
-0.6

Effective static load distributions for axial loads in a particular roof member
Large roofs and sports stadiums
• Structural loads - contribution from resonant modes

Usually not significant for roofs supported all round or on two sides

May be significant for cantilevered roofs :


Vertical
upwards

0
Time

Very large roofs may have several modes below 1 Hertz


- contributions to load effects depend on similarity of mode shapes with
influence lines
End of Lecture 20

John Holmes
225-405-3789 JHolmes@lsu.edu