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CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE!

CLIMATE
• The weather of a place represents the state of the atmospheric environment over a brief
period of time.
• Integrated weather condition over several years is generally referred to as climate or
more specifically, as the ‘macro-climate’.

A) Solar radiation

(B) Ambient temperature

(C) Air humidity

(D) Precipitation

(E) Wind FACTORS AFFECTING


(F) Sky condition MACRO CLIMATE
SOLAR RADIATION

Amount of Solar Radiation Depends on Orientation of the Building ,Time of


the Day, Season etc
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

The temperature of air in a shaded (but well ventilated) enclosure is known as the
ambient temperature; it is generally expressed in degree Celsius (ºC).
HUMIDITY
Air humidity, which represents the amount of moisture present in the air, is usually
expressed in terms of ‘relative humidity’. Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the
mass of water vapour in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature, to the
mass of water vapour in the same volume of saturated air at the same temperature; it is
normally expressed as a percentage
PRECIPITATION

Precipitation includes water in all its forms rain, snow, hail or dew.
PREVALENT WINDS

Wind is the movement of air due to a difference in atmospheric pressure, caused by


Differential heating of land and water mass on the earth’s surface by solar radiation
and
 Rotation of earth.
SKY CONDITION
WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE
The warm and humid zone covers the coastal parts of the country. Some cities that fall
under this zone are Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
Some features of the climate are
Abundant Vegetation High Humidity
Low Diurnal Variation in Temperature High Precipitation
MICROCLIMATE

Landform
Vegetation
FACTORS AFFECTING
Water bodies
MICRO CLIMATE
Street width and orientation
Open spaces and built form
SUN PATH DIAGRAM
Sun path diagrams are a convenient way of representing the annual changes in
the path of the Sun through the sky on a single 2D/3D diagram.
Sun Path of a Chosen Location depends on
Latitude
Orientation with respect to geographic N-S
Time of the Year
Architects should refer to a summary of solar positions for the particular location
while working on Zoning , designing of sunshades, Positioning Fenestrations etc
WIND FLOW PATTERN
TEMPERATURE ,HUMIDITY AND RAINFALL VALUES
ENERGY
WATER
WASTE
PASSIVE STRATEGIES FOR WARM
HUMID CLIMATIC CONTEXT
VENTILATION – MOST EFFICIENT STRATEGY IN WARM HUMID CLIMATIC CONTEXT

Types of Ventilation
CLIMATE AND BUILT FORM –

MODULE 1
INTRODUCTION TO BUILDING CLIMATOLOGY
TOPICS TO BE COVERED :
 Climate and built form interaction.
 Global climatic factors
 Elements of climate
 Graphic representation of climatic data (Climate Consultant Assignment)
 Mahoney’s Tables (Assignment)
 Macro & Microclimate
 Urban and Rural climate
 Site climate (Class Assignment : Preparation of a Checklist)
CLIMATE – “ Region with certain conditions of temperature,
dryness, wind light etc.”
Oxford dictionary

An integration in time of the physical state of the atmospheric


environment ,characteristics of a certain geographic location

Weather – Momentary state of atmospheric condition at a certain


location
SOLAR RADIATION
Quantity and Quality
Sun is the most dominating influence on climate, as Earth
receives almost all its energy from sun in the form of
radiation
SOLAR RADIATION: Quality
 Spectrum of solar radiation ranges from 290 to 2300 nm
a. UV Rays – 290 to 380 nm – photochemical effects, bleaching, sunburns etc.
b. Visible light – 380 to 700 nm
c. Short infra red radiation – 700 to 2300 nm –photochemical effects

290 380 700 2300

Ultra violet Visible Short Infrared Long infrared


rays rays rays
rays

Radiation spectrum
 Intensity of solar radiation reaching the upper surface of the atmosphere is taken as

the solar constant :1395 W/sq m

 Varies +/- 2 % due to variation in the output of the sun & +/- 3.5% due to change in

earth-sun distance

 Spectral light distribution varies with altitude due to the filtering effect of the

atmosphere(Atmosphere absorbs shorter wavelengths and re radiate as longer

wavelengths)

 Luminous efficiency of radiation depends on its spectral composition there is no

constant relationship between radiation intensity and its lighting effect

 However as a thumb rule we can say that 100 lumens /watt = 100 lux for every Watt

per square meter


TILT OF THE EARTH’S AXIS
 Earth rotates around its own
axis each rotation making a 24
hour day
 The axis of rotation is tilted to
the plane of the elliptical orbit
at an angle of 66.5 degrees
 Direction of the axis is constant
 If the axis was not tilted
equatorial region would have
received maximum intensity of
radiation throughout the year
 Due to tilting ,the area
receiving maximum radiation
moves from 23.5° N to 23.5° S This is the main cause of seasonal change
Elliptical
Plane
EARTH’S REVOLUTION

 Elliptical Orbit completed in 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 46 seconds


 At aphelion solar distance is 152 million kms and at perihelion it is 147 million kms
TILT OF THE EARTH’S AXIS
21st June: Summer Solstice
• Area along latitude 23.5 N are normal to the sun rays and experience a
zenith path of the sun, longest day is experienced.
• Area along latitude 23.5 S experience the shortest day and minimum
radiation.

23.5°N
23.5°N

23.5°S
23.5°S

21st December: Winter solstice


• Area along latitude 23.5 S are normal to the sun rays and experience a zenith
path of the sun, longest day is experienced.
• Area along latitude 23.5 N experience the shortest day and minimum
radiation
EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIP

• The earth-sun relationship effects the amount of


radiation received at a point on earth’s surface in
3 ways:
Cosine law

Atmospheric depletion

Duration of sun-shine
EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIP
1. Cosine law:
 The intensity on a tilted surface equals the normal intensity
times the cosine of the angle of incidence.

 Ic = Ib x Cos β

Area C > Area B

Intensity C < Intensity B

 Radiation is distributed over a larger area, therefore less


radiation falls on unit area.
EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIP
2. Atmospheric depletion:
 The lower the solar altitude angle the longer the path of radiation
through the atmosphere. Hence the radiation gets absorbed by
ozone, vapors and dust particles in the atmosphere.
 Thus a smaller part reaches the earth’s surface.

3. Duration of sunshine
The length of the daylight period.
 The altitude angle (sometimes referred to as the "solar elevation angle")
describes how high the sun appears in the sky. The angle is measured between an
imaginary line between the observer and the sun and the horizontal plane the
observer is standing on
EARTH’S THERMAL BALANCE
 Amount of heat absorbed by the earth each year is balanced by a corresponding heat
loss. which maintains the earths thermal balance.

Distribution of incoming radiation


EARTH’S THERMAL BALANCE
 Amount of heat absorbed by the earth each year is balanced by a
corresponding heat loss. which maintains the earths thermal balance.

Passage of radiation through the atmosphere and its distribution


WINDS

 Winds are basically convention currents in the atmosphere tending to even out the
differential heating of various zones
 The pattern of movement is modified by the earth’s rotation
 At the maximum heating zone (somewhere b/w Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of
Capricorn) air is heated by the hot surface. It expands ,its pressure is decreased ,it
becomes lighter and rises vertically to move towards colder regions
 Part of this air ,having cooled down at the higher level descends to the surface at the
sub tropical level from where cooler heavier air is drawn towards equator from both
North and South

 The area where the air rises, where the northerly and southerly winds meet, where the
tropical front is formed is known as the Inter tropical convergence zone(ITCZ)

 The area experiences calm conditions or light breezes of irregular directions(referred by


sailors as Doldrums)
TRADE WINDS- THE CORIOLIS FORCE

 The Atmosphere rotates with the earth. As it is light in weight and behaves as a fluid
(held against earth’s surface by gravity and Friction) it has a tendency to lag behind the
earth’s rate of rotation where this rotation is the fastest(equator)
 There is a slippage caused at the boundary layer between the earth and its atmosphere
caused by what is known as Coriolis Force.
 The effect is experienced as a wind blowing in a direction opposite to that of earth’s
rotation
 Actual wind is the resultant of thermal forces and
the Coriolis forces
 North easterly winds north of Equator and south Thermal force
easterlies south of equator. These are known as
North East and South East trade winds. A term Coriolis Force
coined by sailors
MID LATITUDE WESTERLIES

 Around 30 degree N & S there are two band s of continually high barometric
pressure(descending air)
 Winds in this zone are light and variable
 Between 30 degree and 60 degree N & S , however, strong westerly winds prevail in
the direction of earth’s rotation
 The origin of this wind was for a long time in dispute , but it is now generally agreed
that mid latitude westerlies can be explained by the law of conservation of angular
momentum
 Total angular momentum of earth-atmosphere system must remain constant – It is
reduced at the equator by easterlies hence should be compensated elsewhere by
westerlies
 when the air is moving from 30 degree to 60 degree ,the air velocity tend to increase
compared to the earth’s movement and hence the atmosphere will overtake the
earth’s surface
POLAR WINDS

 Towards the poles air flow patterns again comes under the influence of thermal
factors similar to that at equator.

 Air at the surface moves from the coldest to the slightly warmer regions i.e. away from
the poles

 Circumferential Velocity of air at poles is almost nil, the air will lag behind the rotating
earth as it moves from the poles.

 The northerly is deflected into north easterly and the southerly into south easterly
polar winds.

 At the meeting point of the cold polar winds and the mid latitude westerlies a band of
low pressure – a sub polar front is formed with highly variable and strong winds
 During the course of the year the global wind pattern shifts from N to S and back again
(remaining broadly symmetrical to ITCZ).Location of ITCZ follows the maximum solar
heating .As this region shift between the Tropics ITCZ also shifts along

 Hence seasonal changes are experienced in wind patterns as well ( rainfall as well)
INFLUENCE OF TOPOGRAPHY ON WIND

 Wind pattern of each region is a resultant of global flow patterns and regional
pressure and temperature patterns created by differential heating effect on land forest
and water
Some Local Patterns and influences include
 Between a lake and its shores
 Between a quarry and the nearby forest
 Between an town and neighbouring countryside
 Between sunny and shaded areas of a site
ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE

 Temperature
 Humidity
 Vapour Pressure
 Precipitation
 Driving rain
 Sky conditions
 Solar radiation
 Wind
 Vegetation
 Special Characteristics
TEMPERATURE

 Measured in degree Celsius most often with a Mercury Thermometer

Mercury Thermometer
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE (TRUE AIR TEMPERATURE)

 DBT is the value taken in a shade.


 The thermometer is mounted in a Stevenson screen( a wooden louvered box) at a height of
1.2 to 1.8 m above the ground.
 Readings are taken at specified times of the day.(or if a max. and min. thermometer is
used ,one daily reading can give the max. and min, temperatures reached in the past 24
hours. A Thermograph ,based on a bimetallic strip, can give a continuous graphic
recording of temperature variation)

Stevenson screen
Thermograph
TEMPERATURE

Monthly mean range of temperatures:

1. Monthly mean temperature (of 12 months):

The average of each day’s maximum and minimum is taken and then the average of 30
days average is found

2. Monthly mean maxima: Average of 30 days maximum temperature

3. Monthly mean minima: Average of 30 days minimum temperature,

Monthly extreme range of temperatures( of 12 months):

4. Monthly extreme maxima :Highest ever recorded temperature of a month.

5. Monthly extreme minima: Lowest ever recorded temperature of a month

These 5 values for each of the 12 months will give a reasonably accurate picture of
temperature conditions on which design considerations can be based
HUMIDITY
 Absolute humidity(AH):
Amount of moisture actually present in unit volume/mass of air
Unit: (g/kg or g/cubic meter)

 Saturation point humidity(SH):


Amount of moisture the air can hold (depends on the temperature).

 Relative humidity:
Ratio of the actual amount of moisture present to the amount of moisture air can hold at a
given temperature expressed as a percentage.

RH= (AH/SH) x 100 (%)


HUMIDITY
 Measured using Wet and dry bulb hygrometer- Consist of 2 mercury
thermometers mounted side by side .First one measures DBT .The bulb of second
one is covered with a moist wick Moisture evaporating will give a cooling effect
,thus reading of Wet bulb thermometer will be less than DBT

 If the air is dry ,evaporation will be faster


 In case of 100 % RH ,DBT and WBT will be identical as there will be no evaporation
VAPOUR PRESSURE

 Vapour pressure i.e. the partial pressure of water vapour is also an indicator of
atmospheric humidity
P= Pa + Pv
 Unit : N/m²
 Relative Humidity can be expressed as the ratio of actual vapour pressure to the
saturation point vapour pressure
RH= (AH/SH)X100
= (Pv/ Pvs )x100
 Vapour pressure concept is rarely used in practical work

HUMIDITY DATA
 Monthly mean humidity values of each of 12 months
 Monthly mean maximum :Average of 30 days maximum
 Monthly mean minimum: Average of 30 days maximum
BIO CLIMATIC CHART

 A preliminary analysis tool used during the early planning stages of a building project

 To create a bioclimatic chart two points are plotted for each month.

 The first plot point is used to indicate the minimum temperature and maximum relative

humidity.

 The second plot point is used to indicate maximum temperature along with the

minimum RH.

 The two points are connected with a line. Each line on the bioclimatic chart represents

an average day's changes in temperature and humidity.

 To be effective, the chart is developed over a one-year period.


PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
PRECIPITATION
 Precipitation is the collective term used for
rain, snow, hail , dew and frost i.e. all forms of
water precipitated from the atmosphere
 It is measured by rain gauges
 Unit: mm/unit of time i.e. mm/month , mm/day
 Values indicating total precipitation of each
month of the year would show the pattern of
dry and wet seasons
 Maxima and Minima for a year would give
deviations from the average i.e. an indication of
the reliability of rains
 Prediction of flooding & design of surface
drainage: from maximum rainfall for any 24 hr.
period. RAIN GUAGE
DRIVING RAIN
 Driving rain : Intense rain associated with strong
winds
 Driving rain index = annual rain fall (In m) X annual
average wind velocity(m/s)
 Unit : m²/s
 Characteristics of a given location and expresses the
degree of exposure.
 Up to 3 m²/s: sheltered location
 3-7 m²/s: moderate exposure
 Over 7 m²/s: severe exposure
 Driving rain on building facades is on of the largest
sources of moisture that impacts durability of
enclosures.
 Magnitude, Duration, and frequency of driving rain
are crucial
 Other factors which influence the
penetration of driving rain are
 Building Shape
 Height
 Terrain
 Type of Buildings, open spaces etc.
in the neighbourhood

Driving Rain Rose for Toronto Canada (inch/year)


SKY CONDITIONS

 Described in terms of presence or absence of clouds.

 Proportion of sky covered by clouds is expressed in %.

 Two observations are made per day.

 Time of the day and frequency of observations should be noted.

 A single value for a given day might conceal differences between morning and

afternoon conditions

 The data can be used in the design of roofs, overhangs ,shading devices etc.

 This data also helps in predicting daylighting


SOLAR RADIATION

 Unit : MJ/ sq m day


 Average value for a month – indicate
climatic condition including seasonal
variations
 Also highest and lowest value for each day
of a month can be collected to set the limit
PYRANOMETER
of variation
 US Weather Bureau collects recording of
solar radiation intensity from all countries.
Meteorological departments do not
normally publish this data.
 Sunshine Recorder : Measures the duration
of sunshine ; Unit : hrs/day

SUN SHINE RECORDER


WIND MEASUREMENT

WIND WANE – Measures direction

CUP ANEMOMETER – Measures Velocity


Anemograph:
Continuous recordings of wind velocity and directional
changes.
MEASUREMENT :
Free wind velocity recording:
Open flat country: height of 10m
Urban area: height between 10 to 20 m(to avoid
obstructions

Directions can be grouped into 8 or 16 categories


Four Cardinal (E,W,N,S)
Four Semi Cardinal(NE,SE,SW,NW)
Eight Tertiary (NNE,ENE etc)
PROPELLOR
ANEMOMETER – Unit: m/s but obsolete units like ft/mi mph etc can still
Measures Velocity
be seen
SUN PATH DIAGRAM FOR SITE STUDY
ANALYSIS

Compiled by Asst Prof. Induja V for S3 Design Studio – Site Study Analysis
SUN PATH DIAGRAM

 SKY DOME –
with altitude
and azimuth
lines
 Concentric Rings
– altitude
 Radial lines-
Azimuth
 Lines for Time of
the year and
Time of the day
AZIMUTH AND ALTITUDE ANGLES

The azimuth angle measured from a north–south line is used


to draw the sunbeam in plan. The altitude angle is used to
draw the sunbeam in section
FEBRUARY 21ST 9 AM

 On a plan of the building,


use the azimuth angle to draw
the left- and rightmost sunrays
through the east and south windows
FEBRUARY 21ST 9 AM

On a section through the


east window, use the altitude
angle to draw the top- and bottommost
sunrays
MARCH 21ST 3 PM
DECEMBER 21ST 09 AM TO 5 PM
STEPS TO PLOT THE SHADOW OF A BUILDING

 Determine the latitude of the site


 Find the corresponding Sun path diagram
Refer : http://solardat.uoregon.edu/SunChartProgram.html
 Choose a date and Time .Find out the Intersection od dateline and time line. Find
Altitude and azimuth angle(explained in class)
 Orient your building plan to the cardinal directions and visualize the angle and
direction of sun(overlay sun path diagram over the plan)
 On the elevation of your project that is most parallel to the sun path draw parallel
lines representing sun’s rays at altitude angle

This is the length


of the shadow
 On the plan draw lines to show the direction of sun
REFERANCE
 Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects ,Norbert
Lechner ,Wiley,1991
 http://www2.fiu.edu/~readg/Courses/ArchTheory/AssignmentsTheory/SolarPack
et2.pdf
CLASSIFICATON OF CLIMATIC ZONES

According to IS:3792 -1978 India may be divided into

 HOT AND ARID

 HOT AND HUMID

 WARM AND HUMID

 COLD

In India many regions alternatively experience 2 or 3 types of climates during the

course of the year with varying intensity and duration. Such regions are said to

have COMPOSITE CLIMATE.


HOT AND ARID ZONE

 Mean daily maximum DBT 38 degree Celsius or more during the hottest month
 Relative Humidity 40% or less during the hottest month
 Altitude not more than 500 m above mean sea level
 Agra,Jaipur,Newdelhi,Varanasi etc

HOT AND HUMID ZONE

 Mean daily maximum DBT above 32 degree Celsius or moreduring the hottest
month
 Relative Humidity 40% or more during the hottest month
 Altitude not more than 500 m above mean sea level
 Ahmedabad,Calcutta,Calicut,Vishakhapattanam
WARM AND HUMID ZONE

 Mean daily maximum DBT 26 to 32 degree Celsius or more during the hottest month
 Relative Humidity 70% or less during the hottest month
 Altitude not more than 100 m above mean sea level
 Cochin,Trivandrum,Guwahatti

COLD ZONE

 Mean daily maximum DBT 6 degree Celsius or less during the coldest month
 Relative Humidity 70% or less during the hottest month
 Altitude more than 1200 m above mean sea level
 Darjeeling,Mussorie,Oottacamund,Srinagar
GLOBAL CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION - KOPPEN

 Various attempts have been made to classify the climates of the earth into climatic
regions.
 However, the 20th century classification developed by German climatologist and
amateur botanist Wladimir Köppen (1846-1940) continues to be the authoritative map
of the world climates in use today.
 Introduced in 1928 as a wall map co-authored with student Rudolph Geiger, the Köppen
system of classification (map) was updated and modified by Köppen until his death.
Since that time, it has been modified by several geographers.
 Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and
precipitation - System had to be global, so input data had to be simple
 Boundaries of climate regions should coincide with boundaries of vegetation
(ecosystem) regions. The Köppen climate classification was developed based on the
empirical relationship between climate and vegetation.
VARIABLES AND SUBSCRIPTS
 The Köppen system recognizes six major climatic types and 24 subcategories
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF CLIMATIC DATA

BAR CHART REPRESENTING RAINFALL


 Other factors which influence the
penetration of driving rain are
 Building Shape
 Height
 Terrain
 Type of Buildings, open spaces etc.
in the neighbourhood

Driving Rain Rose for Toronto Canada (inch/year)