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Four Fundamental Patterns of Cultural
Difference

What is different?

1. Communication Styles
2. Attitudes toward conflicts
3. Decision making style
4. Approaches to knowing

What is hidden below the surface?

1. Beliefs
2. Values
3. Expectations
4. Attitudes
COMMUNICATON

           


     
 

  


  


    


   
 
     
    
Cross Culture Communication

CROSS CULTURE COUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF


SENDING AND RECEIVING ESSAGES BETWEEN
PEOPLE WHOSE CULTURAL BACKGROUND COULD LEAD
THE TO INTERPRET VERBAL AND NON-
NON-VERBAL SIGNS
DIFFERENTLY..
DIFFERENTLY
CODES USED IN COMMUNICATION

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uMost people in Arab culture share a great deal of eye contact and may
regard too little as disrespectful.
In English culture, a certain amount of eye contact is required, but too much
makes many people uncomfortable.
In South Asian and many other cultures direct eye contact is generally
regarded as aggressive and rude.
hSA=OK JAPAN=MONEY

RhSSIA=ZERO BRAZIL=INShLT
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V Two way process
V Carries a message
V Commonness of understanding
V Response
V Internal
V External
V Formal
V Informal
V Downward
V Upward
V Horizontal
V Digonal
V External
1.Symantic
2.Psycological or emotional
V Organizational
   



  
1. Power Distance ² This dimension addresses how less
powerful organizational members both accept and/or expect
the distribution of power to not be equal.

2. Individualism ² This dimension shows the level of group


integration within organization. Highly individualistic cultures
value personal responsibility as in being able to work by one·s
self and take care of one·s own needs without extensively relying
on other people. On the other hand, cultures ranking low in
individualism are more prone to be bonded through group
activity (collectivism).
3. Masculinity ² This gender-based dimension addresses
the degree to which female and male values are
differentiated and expressed.
=. Uncertainty Avoidance ² This
dimensions address the degree to which
cultures accept uncertainty and
ambiguity.
5. Long-Term Orientation ² This dimension
addresses the degree to which cultures
have a long-term orientation.
V Universalism vs Particularism (what is more
important - rules or relationships?)
V Individualism vs Communitarianism (do we
function in a group or as an individual?)
V Neutral vs Emotional (do we display our
emotions or keep them in check?)
V Specific vs Diffuse (how far do we get involved?)
V Achievement vs Ascription (do we have to
prove ourselves to gain status or is it given
to us just because we are a part of a
structure?)
V Attitude to Time
- Past- / present- / future-orientatedness
- Sequential time vs Synchronic time (do we
do things one at a time or several
things at once?)
V Internal vs External Orientation (do we aim
to control our environment or cooperate
with it?)