Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 58


Submitted :
• Biological process whereby the energy stored in
carbohydrates from PS is released in a step-wise,
controlled manner.
• Energy released is coupled to the synthesis of ATP.
• ATP is essential for plant cell maintenance, growth and
• a process in living organisms involving the
production of energy, typically with the intake of
oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide from the
oxidation of complex organic substances.
• In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of
oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within
tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the
opposite direction.
Carbohydrate Conversion
• Starch glucose

• Sucrose + water glucose +

Three Types of Respiration
• Respiration type is determined by
the final electron acceptors:
1. Aerobic Respiration: final electron
receptor is oxygen (O2)
2. Anaerobic Respiration: final electron
acceptor is an inorganic molecule
other than O2
3. Fermentation: final electron acceptor
is an organic molecule
Aerobic Respiration
• Glucose contains chemical energy that can
be transferred and stored as ATP
• Aerobic Respiration is a metabolic pathway
that oxidizes glucose and transfers the
energy to produce ATP
• Oxygen is the final electron acceptor:
• Recall:
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + Energy
Glucose Oxygen Water Carbon Dioxide

• The Energy is in the form of ATP

Aerobic Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 H2O + 6 CO2 +


C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 38 ADP + 38 P 6 H2O + 6CO2 + 38 ATP
Aerobic Respiration
• Aerobic Respiration is a three stage
Stage 1: Glycolysis

Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle

Stage 3: Oxidative Phosphorylation

• Each of these stages produce ATP

• At the end of all three stages, there is a
net gain of 38 ATP molecules (profit)
– recall: cells are very efficient because of
Equation for Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic respiration is the process of producing

cellular energy involving oxygen. Cells break down
food in the mitochondria in a long, multistep process
that produces roughly 36 ATP. The first step in is
glycolysis, the second is the citric acid cycle and the
third is the electron transport system.
Equation for Aerobic Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O 6CO2 + 12H2O + energy
(glucose) (ATP)
1 mole glucose 36 ATP
Efficiency of Aerobic Respiration
• ADP-P bond releases -7.6 kcal/mol
ATP when bond is broken
• Theoretical energy yield from
burning 1mol glucose in a
calorimeter = -686 kcal/mol
• Practical yield from burning 1mol of
glucose in the cell with oxygen =
– 36 ATP X -7.6 kcal/mol = -274
kcal/mol glucose
– 274/686 kcal/mol X 100 = 40%
Efficiency of Anaerobic Respiration
• ADP-P bond releases -7.6 kcal/mol ATP
when bond is broken
• Theoretical energy yield from burning 1mol
glucose in a calorimeter = -686 kcal/mol
• Practical yield from burning 1mol of glucose
in the cell without oxygen = 2 ATP
– 2 ATP X -7.6 kcal/mol = -15.2 kcal/mol glucose
– 15.2/686 kcal/mol X 100 = 2.2% efficiency
3 Stages of Respiration

• Glycolysis
• TCA Cycle
• Electron Transport Chain
• Occurs in all living organisms
• Only stage which can occur without oxygen
• Oldest stage of respiration
– operated for billions of years in anaerobic
• Converts glucose to 2 pyruvates in cytosol
– with O2 goes on to TCA cycle
– without O2 pyruvate is converted to lactate or
ethanol (fermentation)
• Yields 2ATP/mole glucose in the absence of
Glucose (6C)

2 Pyruvate (3C)

CO2 -O2 -
O2 +O2
Ethanol Lactate
TCA Cycle
Stage 1: Glycolysis
• Glycolysis is a 10 step metabolic pathway
that cleaves glucose

• Glyo-lysis = “splitting glucose”

• Glycolysis occurs in the cell’s cytoplasm

– that’s where the enzymes for glycolysis are
Stage 1: Glycolysis
• During Glycolysis, glucose (a 6 carbon molecule)
is chopped up into 2 Pyruvates (each pyruvate is
a 3 carbon molecule)
• As glucose is cleaved, it is also being
oxidized - loosing electrons (hydrogens)
Stage 1: Glycolysis
Glycolysis converts glucose to pyruvate (pyruvic
- a 10-step biochemical pathway
- occurs in the cytoplasm
- 2 molecules of pyruvate are formed from each
- net production of 2 ATP molecules
-2 NADH produced by reduction of 2 NAD+
–recall NADH just is an electron carrier
–(see ch. 6)
Cellular Respiration
Organic Compounds

Glycolysis 2 ATP

Fermentation Aerobic
(Anaerobic) Respiration

36 ATP
Cellular Respiration
• Cellular respiration is the breakdown of organic
compounds to release energy in the form of ATP.
• It begins with glycolysis. In glycolysis, 6 carbon
organic compounds are broken down into 2, 3
carbon compounds called pyruvic acid.
• Glycolysis occurs outside of the mitochondria in
the cytosol.
• This is a 10 step process that require many
• During the process, 2ATP are burned and 4 ATP are
• NAD+ is converted into NADH.
• This pathway releases a very small amount of
Cellular Respiration
Organic Compounds

Glycolysis 2 ATP

Fermentation Aerobic
(Anaerobic) Respiration

36 ATP
adenosine triphosphate (ATP),
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic
reactions and processes that take place in the
cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy
from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate
(ATP), and then release waste products. ...
Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic
redox reaction which releases heat.
Factors Affecting Resp. Rate
• [Substrate]
• [ATP]
• [Oxygen]
• Temperature
• Plant type
• Plant organ
• Plant age
Factors: Substrate
• Resp. higher right after sundown
compared to right before sunrise due
to [S]
• Shaded leaves respire slower than
lighted leaves
• Starvation of plant tissue results in
utilization of proteins
• High [ATP] in cell and get negative
feedback on resp.
Factors: [Oxygen]
• No effect until [O2] < 1%
– Cyt oxidase not sensitive to O2 until 0.05%
• O2 diffuses in water 10,000 X slower than
in air
• Some plants have intercellular air system,
e.g., aerenchyma in shoots and roots (rice)
• Very low levels of O2 see accelerated
breakdown of sugars to ethanol and CO2
evolved = Pasteur Effect
Factors: Temperature
• Q10 for respiration is 2.0 - 2.5 between 5 and
• Q10 = rate of process at one temperature
divided by the rate at 10C lower temp.
– Decreases with most plant tissues at 30-35C
• O2 being used so fast, it can’t diffuse fast enough into
• Tropical regions - 70-80% PS C lost to resp.
due to high night temperatures and resp. rates
Factors: Plant
• Resp. rate tends to increase with age of plant
– Young trees lose about 1/3 daily PS C to resp. and
doubles with older trees as ratio of PS/Non-PS tissue
• Greater metabolic activity = greater resp. rates
– Root tips, dev. buds and meristematic regions in general
have higher respiration rates
– In veg. tissues, resp. decreases from the tip to the
mature regions
• Seeds - low resp. rates, dormant, desiccation
results in slowdown of respiration
Factors: Plant Type/Organ/Age

• Ripening Fruit
– Resp. high when young cells are dividing and growing
• Climacteric Fruit (apples, tomatoes)
– Sharp increase in rate immediately before fruit ripening =
climacteric rise in respiration
– Coincides with full ripeness and flavor and preceded by huge
increase in ethylene production
– This leads to senescence and decrease in respiration
• Non-climacteric Fruit
– Citrus, cherries, grapes, pineapple, strawberries
– Insensitive to ethylene
Controlled Atmosphere Storage

• Lower O2 (2% - 3%) & raise CO2 (5% - 10%)

– slows down resp.
• No ethylene
– high CO2 also inhibits ethylene synthesis
• Temps. typically about -1 to -0.5C
• Pick apples in Sept./Oct. when green and
immature and store in CA
– expose to normal air with ethylene when ready to sell
fresh apples in March
Cyanide Resistant Respiration

• Aerobic resp. (cyt oxidase) in plants and

animals inhibited by CN- and N3- (azide)
– bind to Fe in enzyme and halts e- transport
• Animals: CN causes resp. to decrease fast,
virtually irreversible and fatal
• Plants: display a 10-25% CN-resistant resp.
and alternate pathway for electron flow
– electron flow branches off to alternate oxidase
– less ATP produced
Cyanide Resistant Respiration

• Metabolic Role?
– No clear role
– Operates when cyt oxidase poisoned
– Energy overflow hypothesis
• overflow for electrons when resp. rate exceeds
demand for ATP; high with high carbo. levels
– Skunk cabbage, Voodoo lily, Stinking lily:
CN-res. pathway causes temp. of spadix to
increase 10-20C.
• volatilization of odiferous cmpds which attract
• Breathing provides
enough oxygen for
your body to carry out
normal activities.
• When you are
conducting a high
level of activity,
breathing doesn’t
supply enough air for
your cell’s activities.
• If oxygen is not present, the products of
glycolysis (pyruvic acid and NADH) will
enter an alternative process called
• Fermentation provides enough ATP and
recycles NADH into NAD+ so that
glycolysis may continue until more oxygen
becomes available.
• Where does fermentation occur?
Cytosol of the cell
Two Types of Fermentation
• Lactic Acid
• Alcoholic
• Lactic Acid Fermentation
• Occurs in muscle cells in the body.
• Lactic acid is a waste product of
fermentation that will build up and
cause your muscles to “burn” during
hard exercise.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
• Lactic acid
fermentation also
occurs in some
bacteria and
• Waste products of
the fermentation
process give
cheese different
• Yogurt is another
product of lactic
acid fermentation.
Alcoholic Fermentation
• Alcoholic fermentation is a process
used by many yeasts and plants.
• Also uses the products of glycolysis
(NADH and pyruvic acid) to provide
enough NAD+ and ATP for glycolysis
to continue.
Alcoholic Fermentation
• Alcoholic
fermentation is
used to make
bread or dough
rise and is also
used for beer and
• Bacteria that rely upon fermentation
play a very important role in
digestive systems of animals.
• They breakdown molecules by taking
undigested material for their needs.
• Without these bacteria we’d be
unable to fully digest food.
Energy Photosynthesis
Organic Compounds
+ Oxygen

Autotrophs Autotrophs and


Carbon Dioxide
+ Water

Cellular Respiration
• Each pair, create two questions
about cellular respiration and
write it down.
• See if your partner can answer
your questions.
Why is it important to breathe?

• If oxygen is not present the products of

glycolysis (pyruvic acid) will enter the
fermentation pathway that yield no
additional ATP.
• Because this pathway operates in absence
of oxygen it is said to be anaerobic. 
• If oxygen is present, the products will
follow an aerobic pathway and release 20
times as much ATP.
• Along with glycolysis,
fermentation is an anaerobic
pathway that does not produce
• However, fermentation does
produce a compound called
NAD+ which can be used to keep
glycolysis going to make more
Two types of Fermentation
• Lactic Acid Fermentation –
pyruvic acid is converted into
lactic acid.
• Used by microorganisms to
manufacture food products such
as yogurt and cheese.
• Also occurs in your muscle cells
during strenuous activities.
Two types of Fermentation
• Alcoholic Fermentation – pyruvic
acid is converted to ethyl
• Used by some plants and
unicellular organisms such as
• Used in the wine and beer
industry and in baking

• On a separate sheet of paper, create

a table that compares alcoholic
fermentation to lactic acid
• Include what pyruvic acid is
converted into.
• Which cells use these pathways and
• What products are manufactured
from the pathways?
How efficient is fermentation at
releasing ATP?

• Not very!!
• With oxygen present, glucose releases
686 calories.
• With oxygen not present, only 24 calories
are produced. 24/686 X 100%
• This gives an efficiency rating of only
Summary Qs

• In your own words, define cellular

• What is the beginning and ending product
of glycolysis? How many ATP are
• How does fermentation help to make more
ATP even though fermentation itself does
not produce ATP?
Aerobic Respiration
• Remember, before aerobic respiration
can take place glucose must be split
into two molecules of pyruvic acid
and oxygen must be present.
• This reaction takes place outside the
mitochondria and then the pyruvic
acid crosses the double membrane.
Aerobic Respiration
• In eukaryotic cells, the reactions of
aerobic respiration occur inside the
• Two Step Process
• The 1. Krebs cycle take place in the
mitochondrial matrix, and the 2.
electron transport chain is located in
the inner membrane.
Formula for Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -----> 6CO2 + 6H20
+ energy (heat and ATP)
• Before the Krebs cycle can begin,
pyruvate is first converted into a
compound called acetyl coenzyme A
or acetyl CoA.
• This process converts NAD+ into
Glucose releases a lot of
• Through the Krebs cycle and ETC,
each molecule of glucose yields 36
more ATP.
• Energy Yield:
Glucose 2 ATP
Aer. Resp 36 ATP

Total 38 ATP
Respiratory System
Respiratory System Function. The function of the
human respiratory system is to transport air into
the lungs and to facilitate the diffusion of Oxygen into
the blood stream. Its also receives waste Carbon
Dioxide from the blood and exhales it.
What is the functions of respiratory
The bloodstream delivers oxygen to cells and
removes waste carbon dioxide through internal
respiration, another key function of the respiratory
system. In this respiratory process, red blood
cells carry oxygen absorbed from the lungs around
the body, through the vasculature.
What is the respiratory system and how
does it work?
The primary organs of the respiratory system are the
lungs, which function to take in oxygen and expel carbon
dioxide as we breathe. The gas exchange process is
performed by the lungs and respiratory system. Air, a mix
of oxygen and other gases, is inhaled. In the throat, the
trachea, or windpipe, filters the air.
Meetu Walia
What is Human Respiration?
• The human respiratory
system allows one to
obtain oxygen,
eliminate carbon
• Breathing consists of
two phases, inspiration
and expiration
– Inspiration- the process of
taking in air
– Expiration- the process of
blowing out air
Organs in the Respiratory System

warms, moistens, & filters air as it is

nose / nasal cavity

pharynx (throat) passageway for air, leads to trachea

the voice box, where vocal chords are


keeps the windpipe "open"

trachea is lined with fine hairs called
trachea (windpipe)
cilia which filter air before it reaches the

two branches at the end of the trachea,

each lead to a lung

a network of smaller branches leading from

bronchioles the bronchi into the lung tissue &
ultimately to air sacs

the functional respiratory units in the lung

where gases are exchanged
Malfunctions & Diseases of the Respiratory System

severe allergic reaction

asthma characterized by the
constriction of bronchioles

inflammation of the lining of

the bronchioles

condition in which the alveoli

emphysema deteriorate, causing the lungs
to lose their elasticity

condition in which the alveoli

become filled with fluid,
preventing the exchange of

irregular & uncontrolled

lung cancer growth of tumors in the lung
Respiratory Cycle
• Respiration rate is the number of
breaths per minute
• Human respiration rate is controlled
by a part of the brain called the
– Sends signals to adjust levels of oxygen
present in your body by changing your
breathing rate