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Physical Activity & Health

This lecture has been dedicated to

Olympics games in Beijing, China
Aug 08-24, 2008
By Supercourse Team
Physical Activity & Health
Lecture Developers (Supercourse Team)

Soni Dodani MD, PhD

Others: Ali Ardalan, Eugene Shubnikov, Francios

Sauer,Faina Linkov, Mita Lovelaker, Jesse Huang,
Nicholas Padilla, Rania Saad, Ron LaPorte
Questions: Super1@pitt.edu
How to join the Supercourse: www.pitt.edu/~super1/
Learning Objectives
 To encourage students to be
physically active
 To illustrate Exercise and its
effect on disease prevention
 To provide examples of simple,
moderate intensity physical
 To encourage regular physical
activity in developing countries
with focus on women
 To encourage physical fitness in
people with disabilities
 To build an Olympic Physical
activity and health supercourse
The Olympic Games This Year
Beijing 2008

· Population 14,000,000
· Visitors 2-2.5,000,000
· Athletes 18,000
· Helpers 5,000
· Referees 2,500
· Volunteers 6,000
· Journalists 15,000
What is Physical Activity
 Physical activity
Bodily movement produced by skeletal
muscles that results in an expenditure of
 Physical fitness
A measure of a person's ability to perform
physical activities that require endurance,
strength, or flexibility.
 Regular physical activity
A pattern of physical activity is regular if
activities are performed in some order
“Physical activity is something you do.
Physical fitness is something you
acquire, a characteristic or an attribute
one can achieve by being physically
active. And exercise is structured and
tends to have fitness as its goal"

Spectrum of Physical Activity
and Health
Physically Fit

Physically Active

LaPorte RE: Am J Epidemiol. 1984 Oct;120(4):507-17

Differences between Exercise
and Sport
It’s a form of physical
activity done primarily to
improve one’s health and
Is complex,
competitive and these
very characteristics works
against moderate and
rhythmical exercise.
CDC 1999
Common Reasons Not To
 I don’t have the
 I don’t like to
 I’ll look silly
 It hurts
 I don’t know what
to do
 It’s not important
Why Exercise ???
Do you know?
 13.5 million people have coronary heart
 1.5 million people suffer from a heart
attack in a given year.
 250,000 people suffer from hip
fractures each year.
 Over 60 million people (a third of the
population) are overweight.
 50 million people have high blood
(WHO, 2003)
Do you Know that…….
Adjusted RR for CVD Mortality by Fitness and % Body Fat
Do you Know that…….
Adjusted RR for All-Cause Mortality
by Fitness and % Body Fat

1 Fit
lean Normal Obese
<16% 16-24% >24%
Do you know that ……
 Childhood obesity has reached epidemic
proportions in most part of the world
 Children are eating more and exercising less.
 Time spent watching television or using
 This lack coupled with poor dietary habits has
led to significant increases in the number of
children with Type II diabetes and
predisposition to hypertension, coronary artery
disease and others
All of these can be Prevented by
Regular Physical Activity !!!
How Physical Activity Impacts Health
 Helps control weight.
 Reduces feelings of depression and
 Helps build and maintain healthy bones,
muscles, and joints.
 Reduces the risk of developing colon
 Helps reduce blood pressure in people
who already have high blood pressure.
 Causes the development of new blood
vessels in the heart and other muscles.
 Enlarges the arteries that supply blood to
the heart. WHO 2002
Health Risk of Physical Inactivity
Leading causes of disease and disability
associated with physical inactivity
1. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
2. Stroke
3. Obesity
4. Type II Diabetes
5. Hypertension
6. Colorectal cancer
7. Stress and Anxiety
8. Osteo-arthritis
9. Osteoporosis
10.Low back pain
What Can Exercise do for You?
 Reduce the risk of the three leading causes of
death: Heart Disease, stroke, and cancer
 Control or prevent development of Disease

 Enhance Mental Abilities

 Improve Sleeping Habits and Increase Energy


 Lift Depression and Help Manage Stress

 Control Weight, improving self-image,

appearance and health

Exercise & Cardiovascular Disease
Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for
CVD, according to the American Heart
Exercise reduces Blood Pressure
 High blood pressure (above 140/90)
is the main cause of Heart Attack and
Exercise prevents Atherosclerosis
(clogged arteries)
 Exercise reduces cholesterol plaques
that clog arteries and can lead to
stroke and heart attack WHO 2002
Exercise and Cancer

The Basics
 Exercise helps to prevent obesity, a
major risk factor for several types
of cancer
 Exercise enhances immune
 Exercise activates antioxidant
enzymes that protect cells from
free radical damage
WHO 2002
Exercise and Diabetes
Increase insulin sensitivity

Control blood glucose

Control Weight/Lower body fat

Reduce risk of cardiovascular disease

WHO 2002
Exercise and Depression
Exercise can help prevent depression.
In fact, recent studies have shown that
exercise was found to be just as
effective (despite a slower initial
response) as antidepressant medication
for treatment of depression.
 Exercise reduces health problems , making
you feel better
 Exercise helps you sleep better
 Exercise controls weight, enhancing self-
WHO 2002
Exercise and Your Mind
 Short-term benefits:
 Boost alertness (possibly by triggering the
release of epinephrine and nor
 Improve memory
 Improve intellectual function
 Spark creativity

 Long-term benefits:
 Exercise has been shown to slow and even
reverse age-related decline in mental
function and loss of short-term memory

A report of Surgeon general, Physical Activity

and health, 1996
Opportunities for Physical
 At work
 For transport
 In domestic duties
 In leisure time

The majority of people do very little or

no physical activity in any of these
Getting Started….Setting Goals

 What will motivate you?

 Think about your reasons for
 Are your goals important enough to
keep you motivated long-term?
 Think short-term and long-term
 How will you benefit from your
fitness plan day-to-day?
 In 1 year? In 5 years? In 10 years?
Before You Start...
 If you are over 40 or have health
problems (heart disease, high
blood pressure, diabetes, obesity,
muscle or joint problems) see a
physician before beginning
 Be informed
 Learn as much as you can about
exercise by reading and talking
to other people
 Learn safety precautions before
you do any exercise
Fitness Equipment / Safety

Fitness Equipment / Safety

 Buy Appropriate SHOES
 Wear Comfortable Clothing
 Run and Walk with a Friend
More fun, safer, with a physical and
mental support system
 Night Time: stay to the well lit areas
 Select activities that are fun ………..
Get Moving!

 Components of an exercise
 Aerobic Activity
 Strength Training
 Flexibility Training

Use an exercise log to help

you plan and keep track of
your exercise program
WHO 2002
Aerobic Activity
Continuous movement that uses big
muscle groups and is performed at an
intensity that causes your heart, lungs,
and vascular system to work harder than
at rest
Cardio respiratory Fitness is built through
aerobic exercise
Aerobic exercise conditions and
strengthens our heart, respiratory system,
muscles, and immune system
CDC physical activity report 1999
Types of Aerobic Exercise
Outdoor Activities Indoor Activities
 Walking  Treadmill machine
 Jogging/running  Stair climbing
 Bicycling machine
 Swimming  Stationary bike

 Basketball  Elliptical trainer

 Soccer  Rowing machine

 Jumping Rope  Aerobics, boxing...

Strength Training
Muscle work against resistance that
improves strength and endurance
 Strength allows us to move, and endurance
allows us to perform work over time
Muscles = 40% of our lean body mass

Use it or lose it: unused muscle disappears

Types of Strength Training
Free Weights
 use of dumbbells and/or bars with
weights on the ends
 involves balance and coordination;
useful for enhancing function in daily
activities and recreational sports
 Bonuses: convenient, cheap, and
provides a wide variety of exercises that
work several muscle groups together
Your body, your weight
 The most convenient form of resistance
 Pushups, pull-ups,. Lunges, squats….
Flexibility Training

Flexibility = The ability to move a joint

through its range of motion
 We lose flexibility with disuse and aging
 Decreased chance of muscular injury,
soreness, and pain
 Helps prevent and reduce lower back pain
 Improves joint health (tight muscles stress
our joints)
Activities stretching, yoga, pilates, tai chi
How Much and How Hard?
Frequency: 3-5 days per week
 Aerobic exercise: a minimum if 3 days a
week are necessary to reach most exercise
goals and minimize health benefits
 Strength training: a minimum of 2 days per
 Flexibility training: a minimum of 3-5 days
per week
 Duration
 Aerobic: 20-60 minutes of continuous
aerobic activity
 Strength: 1-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions
 Stretching: Stretch all muscle groups and
hold positions for 10-30 seconds
Timing Questions
 What time of day is best?
 Choose the most convenient time for your
 Choose a regular time--the same time every
 Timing may depend on the activity you
 Can I eat before exercise?
 Itis best not to eat a meal for 2 hours
 Be sure to drink plenty of water before and
during exercise
 Should I exercise when I’m sick?
 No, especially if you have a fever
Exercise for people with special
 People with disabilities are less likely
to engage in regular moderate
physical activity than people without
disabilities, yet they have similar
needs to promote their health and
prevent unnecessary disease
Exercise is for everyone!!!!!!!
Individuals who have physical
disabilities or chronic, disabling
conditions such as arthritis can
improve muscle stamina and strength
with regular physical activity
Exercise for people with special needs
"You don't stop exercising because you grow old.
You grow old because you stop exercising." Anonymous

 People with disabilities should first

consult a physician before beginning
a program of physical activity to
which they are unaccustomed
 Provide community-based programs
to meet the needs of persons with
 Ensure that environments and facilities
conducive to being physically active are
available and accessible to people with
disabilities, such as offering safe,
accessible, and attractive trails for
bicycling, walking, and wheelchair
Exercise for Women in developing
There has been several studies which
have shown that less emphasis is
given to exercise especially in women
 The reasons are several and most
important one is awareness.
 Women sports are not encouraged
in most of developing countries
 There is stigma that women should
not be involved in outdoor sports
Exercise is for everyone

 There is need for awareness for physical

fitness in developing countries
 Exercise is not only for men but for
 With commitment, opportunities can be
 Even shopping malls provide opportunities
for fitness walking

CDC 1997
Health Risks of Physical Activity
 Most musculo-skeletal injuries sustained
during physical activity are likely to be

 Injuries sustained during competitive

sports have been shown to increase the
risk of developing osteoarthritis

 Serious cardiac events can occur with

physical exertion.
The overall benefit of regular physical
activity is lower all-cause mortality
 Prevention  Caring for Injuries
 exercise regularly  Rest: stop immediately
 gradually increase  Ice: apply immediately
intensity and repeat every few
 rest between sessions hours for 15-20
 warm-up and cool minutes
down  Compress: wrap
 stay flexible injured area with
elastic bandage
 don’t exercise when
sick  Elevation: raise injured
area above heart
 don’t exercise when
muscles are fatigued  After 2 days, apply heat
and straining if there is no swelling
 know proper form for  Gradually ease back
any activity you do into activity when pain
is gone
 Physical inactivity is one of the top 10
leading causes of death and disability in
the developed world
 Exercise improves our body and minds
 Even moderate exercise has many
health benefits
 It is important to set fitness goals that
are realistic and meaningful for you
 It takes time to make fitness part of a
lifestyle, and we will all have ups and
downs in following our exercise
Exercise feels good!
“The first wealth is health."
Ralph Waldo Emerson