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• Why is it important to wear a hat?

• What is the purpose of a hat?


• Why do people wear a hat?
• ADVERSARIAL THINKING
• PARALLEL THINKING
TRADITIONAL THINKING
• With the traditional argument or adversarial
thinking each side takes a different position
and then seeks to attack the other side.
Each side seeks to prove that the other side
is wrong. This is the type of thinking
established by the Greeks two thousand
four hundred years ago. Plato, Aristotle and
Socrates employed it to arrive at the truth of
any given matter.
TRADITIONAL THINKING

Adversarial thinking completely


lacks a constructive, creative or
design element. It is intended
only to discover the ‘truth’ not to
build anything.
• With ‘parallel thinking’ both sides
(or all parties) are thinking in
parallel in the same direction.
There is cooperative and
coordinated thinking. The
direction itself can be changed in
order to give a full scan of the
situation.
But at every moment each thinker
is thinking in parallel with all the
other thinkers. Statements or
thoughts which are indeed
contradictory are not argued out
but laid down in parallel. In the final
stage the way forward is ‘designed’
from the parallel thoughts that have
been laid out.
SIX THINKING HATS
Edward de Bono
• Edward de Bono has written 65 books with translations in
37 languages. He has been invited to work in 52
countries.He was born in Malta and graduated from the
University of Malta. He proceeded as a Rhodes Scholar to
Oxford and has held appointments at the Universities of
Oxford, Cambridge, London and Harvard.

• Dr de Bono is the originator of the term 'lateral thinking'


which now has an official entry in the Oxford English
Dictionary. He is regarded as the leading international
authority in conceptual and creative thinking, and also the
direct teaching of thinking as a skill.
Parallel Thinking in Action -
Using Six Thinking Hats.
Let's imagine that Charlie's idea has been
presented to the management meeting, but
this time the manager wants to explore it
using Six Thinking Hats. Guided by a trained
facilitator, who captures the thinking on a flip
chart, the meeting might go like this:
White Hat - Looks at facts and
data, known or needed.
• With the White Hat the team examines the
facts and data of Charlie's idea. Questions
of fact are asked and answered, or
recorded for investigation. Anyone trying
to express opinions, either negative or
positive, is gently reminded that only facts
and data are allowed and that opinions
come later.
Yellow Hat - Explores positive aspects,
benefits and opportunities
• Everyone, including Bob, wears the Yellow
Hat and is expected to think of positive
aspects of the idea. What is good about it,
what possibilities and opportunities does it
present, and what are the benefits? The
team stretches to find value in the idea, for
the company, staff, suppliers, customers
and others that might benefit.
Black Hat - Considers the risks, negative
aspects or weaknesses and why it won't
work
• Everyone, including Charlie, now plays
devil's advocate on the idea. Why won't it
work, what are the risks involved, what
might go wrong, what negative impact
might there be? Thinking is done without
emotion and supporting reasons must be
given.
Green Hat - Searches for alternatives, new ideas and
creative possibilities

• The team now looks for creative ways to


make Charlie's idea even stronger. Ideas
to overcome weaknesses, variations on
implementing the idea, or alternative ways
to achieve the same result can all be
suggested. Crazy ideas are encouraged
and can be examined later.
Red Hat - Allows expression of
feelings, emotions and intuition
• Having done a lot of thinking about
Charlie's idea, everyone now expresses
how they feel about it. Is the idea worth
pursuing, should it be adopted, or should
alternatives be considered? Criticism is
not allowed, nor are reasons for feelings
required, while emotion is not just allowed,
it is expected.
Blue Hat - Manages the thinking, summaries,
makes decisions, and sets out action steps

• The team can now determine the next


steps. The facilitator summarises the
thinking done under each hat, then calls
for suggestions on what to do next or
might conduct a vote on whether or not to
adopt the idea. Action items might be
assigned and the next meeting planned.
• Using the above simplified approach to
look at Charlie's idea, the team would
have thoroughly explored it and possibly
decided how to proceed. They would do
so without the usual antagonism, and
everyone would have been involved
throughout the process, meaning the
chance of the idea, if it's a good one,
gaining full support and being effectively
implemented is a lot higher than might
otherwise happen.
The Six Thinking Hats
• In a group we can ask members to ‘put on’
different hats in a sequence to aid the
problem solving process
• This can help overcome the problem of
each group member adopting random
positions at random times
The Six Thinking Hats
• It also permits us to control people who
insist of sticking to one perspective - we
can ask them to assume a different hat
• Many major international organisations
use this technique for problem solving
The Six Thinking Hats

Managing the Thinking


Setting the focus
Making summaries
Overviews & conclusions
Action Plans

FOCUS
The Six Thinking Hats

Managing the Thinking


Setting the focus
Making summaries
Overviews & conclusions
Action Plans

Why it may not work


Cautions * Dangers
Problems * Faults
Logical reasons
must be given

FOCUS
The Six Thinking Hats

Managing the Thinking


Setting the focus
Making summaries
Overviews & conclusions
Action Plans

Why it may not work


Cautions * Dangers
Problems * Faults
Logical reasons
must be given

FOCUS
Feelings and Intuition
Emotions and hunches
No reasons or justifications
“At this point”
Keep it short
The Six Thinking Hats

Managing the Thinking


Setting the focus
Making summaries
Overviews & conclusions
Action Plans

Why it may not work


Cautions * Dangers
Problems * Faults
Logical reasons
must be given

FOCUS
Feelings and Intuition
Emotions and hunches
No reasons or justifications
“At this point”
Keep it short

Creative Thinking
Possibilities * Alternatives
New Ideas * New Thinking
Overcome black hat issues
Reinforce yellow hat issues
The Six Thinking Hats

Managing the Thinking


Setting the focus
Making summaries
Overviews & conclusions
Action Plans

Why it may not work


Cautions * Dangers
Problems * Faults
Logical reasons
must be given

FOCUS
Why it may work Feelings and Intuition
Values * Benefits Emotions and hunches
(both known and potential) No reasons or justifications
Logical reasons “At this point”
must be given Keep it short

Creative Thinking
Possibilities * Alternatives
New Ideas * New Thinking
Overcome black hat issues
Reinforce yellow hat issues
The Six Thinking Hats

Managing the Thinking


Setting the focus
Making summaries
Overviews & conclusions
Action Plans

Information & Data Why it may not work


Neutral and objective Cautions * Dangers
Checked and believed facts Problems * Faults
Missing information & Logical reasons
Where to source it must be given

FOCUS
Why it may work Feelings and Intuition
Values * Benefits Emotions and hunches
(both known and potential) No reasons or justifications
Logical reasons “At this point”
must be given Keep it short

Creative Thinking
Possibilities * Alternatives
New Ideas * New Thinking
Overcome black hat issues
Reinforce yellow hat issues
The Six Thinking Hats

Managing the Thinking


How do we sequence the events
Explain? Summarize.
What is your conclusion?
What next? Action plan?
What is the main idea?

Information & Data Why it may not work


Who, what, when, where? What are the risks of?
What do you know about? Why won’t/didn’t this work?
What are the facts about? What were the difficulties of?
What do you need to know? What are the consequences of?
Where do you locate this? What should you be cautious about?

FOCUS
Why it may work Feelings and Intuition
What are the benefits? What does your intuition tell you?
What is good about? Did your feelings change? How?
What is a positive outcomes? What prejudices are present?
What is the value? What are you feeling now?
Can this be made to work? What is your hunch about?

Creative Thinking
What if?
What is good about?
What else can we do?
What is the value of?
How can we make this work?
What are the alternatives?
The Six Thinking Hats
• We tend to use all of the Six Hats on a
daily basis, but people tend to have default
hats that they use more often.
The Six Thinking Hats
• Which two hats do you feel more
comfortable using?
• Hat 1: __________________
• Hat 2: __________________
The Six Thinking Hats
• Which two hats do you feel dominate in
your team/organization?
• Hat 1: __________________
• Hat 2: __________________
The Six Thinking Hats
• What impact does that have on your
team’s effectiveness?
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The Six Thinking Hats
in Detail
The Blue Hat
The Blue Hat
• FACILITATOR ROLE
• The role of the facilitator
• Focuses and refocuses thinking
• Makes calls for the group to make
decisions
The Blue Hat

• Questions
– How do we sequence the events
– Explain? Summarize.
– What is your conclusion?
– What next? Action plan?
– What is the main idea?
– What was the problem? How was it solved?
The Blue Hat

• Describe a typical meeting


• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The Blue Hat

• Which of your meetings would benefit from the


Six Thinking Hats framework?
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The Blue Hat

TECHNIQUE:
Choose the right hat or tool

FOCUS: TIME:
Decide on what you what to think about Set limits and work within them
The Blue Hat

• CREATIVE HIT LIST


– List three areas where you need new ideas
– Try not to think about problems
– Look for opportunities
– Develop a focus statement for each starting
with “how to …”
– Focus 1: _______________________
– Focus 2: _______________________
– Focus 3: _______________________
The White Hat
The White Hat
• FACTS AND LOGIC
• Separates fact from speculation
• Specifies action needed to fill gaps
• Assesses the relevance and accuracy of
information
The White Hat

• Questions
– Who, what, when, where?
– What do you know about?
– What are the facts about?
– What do you need or want to know about?
– Where might you go to find out about?
The White Hat

• In White Hat mode, think about one of the


following …

– Focus 1: Traffic Congestion


– Focus 2: Noise Pollution
– Focus 3: Human Nutrition

• There are questions on the next four slides to


help you focus on the white hat
The White Hat

• What do we know?
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The White Hat

• What do we need to know?


• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The White Hat

• Where are we going to get the information we


need to know?
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The White Hat

• What OPVs should we consider? Who are


these people and what are their views?
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The Red Hat
The Red Hat
• EMOTIONS AND FEELINGS
• Gives permission to express feelings,
hunches and intuitions
• Can be used to help make a decision
• Does not require justification or
explanation
• Limited to 30 seconds or less
• Best expressed in a word or two
The Red Hat

• Questions
– What are you feeling now?
– Did your feelings change? How?
– What prejudices are present?
– What is your hunch about?
– What does your intuition tell you?
– Which way do you like based on your
feelings?
The Red Hat

• How do you currently manage your


feelings?
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The Red Hat

• How are emotions dealt with on your


team?
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The Red Hat

• How do you feel about?


– Flexitime at work _______
– Legalizing marijuana _______
– Bungee jumping team exercise _______
– Mandatory retirement at 55 _______
– Eliminating titles at work _______
– Banning smoking everywhere _______
– Cloning humans _______
The Red Hat

• Sorting ideas using the red hat

– What ideas are most interesting to me?


– What ideas have most potential?
– What ideas do I thinking are boldest?
The Red Hat

• Group using the ABC Sorting technique

– A: Which ideas could we ACT on right now?


– B: What ideas are BEGINNING ideas?
– C: What ideas are CONCEPTS (broad ideas)?
The Yellow Hat
The Yellow Hat
• LOGICAL POSITIVES
• Explores the benefits of an idea
• Must give reasons why an idea is valuable
or might work
• Reinforces creative ideas and new
directions
The Yellow Hat
• Questions
– What are the benefits?
– What is good about?
– What is a positive outcomes?
– What is the value?
– Can this be made to work? Explain.
– What did you like about?
The Yellow Hat
• What are the benefits of?

– Focus 1: Birthdays only when deserved


– Focus 2: Weekly 24hr broadcasting ban
– Focus 3: Unreliable friend
– Focus 4: Black toothpaste
The Black Hat
The Black Hat
• LOGICAL NEGATIVES
• Explores why an idea may not work
• Must give logical reasons for concerns
• Points out difficulties
The Black Hat
• Questions
– What should you be cautious about?
– What are the consequences of?
– What were the difficulties of?
– Why won’t/didn’t this work?
– What did you dislike about?
– What are the risks of?
The Black Hat
• Is there someone you work with who tends
to overuse black hat thinking? What is the
impact?
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
• _____________________________
The Black Hat
• What are the downsides, both existing and
potential of?

– Focus 1: World-wide smoking ban


– Focus 2: Identity card schemes
– Focus 3: Making poverty history
– Focus 4: Electronic tagging for everyone
The Green Hat
The Green Hat
• CREATIVITY AND IMAGINATION
• Encourages a search for new ideas
• Seeks to modify and removes faults from
existing ideas
• Makes time for creative effort
The Green Hat
• Questions
– What if?
– What is good about?
– What is the value of?
– How can we make this work?
– What are the alternatives?
– What else can we do?
The Green Hat
• What is holding your team back from being
creative? (Creative Barriers)
• ____________________________
• ____________________________
• ____________________________
• ____________________________
• ____________________________
The Green Hat
• Thinking of other uses for:

• Balloon Golf Tee


___________________ ___________________
___________________ ___________________
___________________ ___________________

• Toothbrush Paperclip
___________________ ___________________
___________________ ___________________
___________________ ___________________
The Green Hat
• Thinking of other uses for:

• Balloon Golf Tee


____Shower Cap_____ _____Toothpick_____
_____Traffic Sign_____ _____paper Holder___
_____Scarecrow______ ___________________

• Toothbrush Paperclip
____Silver Cleaner____ ___Popping discs_____
____Paint Cleaner_____ _____Jewellery______
___________________ ___________________
The Green Hat
• The Three Ps

– Positive: Every idea is potentially valuable,


record all
– Prolific: The more ideas the better, build
ideas on each other
– Playful: It is easier to tame a wild idea, than
make a boring idea interesting
The Green Hat
• Generate Ideas on

• Focus 1: Reducing traffic congestion


• Focus 2: Increasing leisure time
The Six Thinking Hats

• Which hat is?


• “Retooling will take a minimum of six months”
• “I am unhappy with the merger”
• “Our product is the most expensive on the market”
• “It will increase our profile in the community”
• “Low staff morale is causing high attrition”
• “The meeting seems to be drifting”
• “Joe told me he was worried about a staff issue”
• “We tried that and the staff are not supportive”
• “It would be easy to implement a new logo”
• “We could offer two for the price of one
• “I am concerned about staff morale
• “Are we ready to commit to a decision?”
The Six Thinking Hats

• Which hat is? – my ideas


• “Retooling will take a minimum of six months”
• “I am unhappy with the merger”
• “Our product is the most expensive on the market”
• “It will increase our profile in the community”
• “Low staff morale is causing high attrition”
• “The meeting seems to be drifting”
• “Joe told me he was worried about a staff issue”
• “We tried that and the staff are not supportive”
• “It would be easy to implement a new logo”
• “We could offer two for the price of one
• “I am concerned about staff morale
• “Are we ready to commit to a decision?”
The Six Thinking Hats

Managing the Thinking


Setting the focus
Making summaries
Overviews & conclusions
Action Plans

Information & Data Why it may not work


Neutral and objective Cautions * Dangers
Checked and believed facts Problems * Faults
Missing information & Logical reasons
Where to source it must be given

FOCUS
Why it may work Feelings and Intuition
Values * Benefits Emotions and hunches
(both known and potential) No reasons or justifications
Logical reasons “At this point”
must be given Keep it short

Creative Thinking
Possibilities * Alternatives
New Ideas * New Thinking
Overcome black hat issues
Reinforce yellow hat issues
Creating Green Hat, Construction Key, SCAMPER,
Ridiculous Key, Combination Key, Invention Key

Brick Wall Key, Decision Making Matrix, PMI,


Evaluating Prioritising.

Analyzing Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Venn Diagram,


Commonality Key, Picture Key, Y Chart,
Combination Key.
Blue Hat, Brainstorming, Different uses Key,
Applying Reverse Listing Key, Flow Chart.

Graphic Organisers, Variations Key, Reverse


Understanding Listing, PMI, Webs (Inspiration).

Remembering White Hat, Alphabet Key, Graphic Organisers,


Acrostic, Listing, Brainstorming, Question Key.