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Basic Statistics

Statistical Methods

 Descriptive
-deals with the arrangement of data into useful form together with
some measures of central tendency, variability, and other measures
like percentiles, quartiles, and deciles.
 Inferential
-examines a part of a larger group which we can call a sample
and generalizes to the whole group which we call the population.
Statistical Graphs

 Component Bar Charts


 Circle Graphs/Pie Charts
 Bar Graphs or Bar Charts
 Line Graphs
 Pictographs
 Statistical Maps
Component Bar Charts

 used to represent data in which the total magnitude is divided into


different or components.
Pie Charts
 Pie charts are generally used to show percentage or proportional data and
usually the percentage represented by each category is provided next to the
corresponding slice of pie.
 Pie charts are good for displaying data for around 6 categories or fewer.
Bar Graphs
 Bar graphs are used to compare things between different groups or to track
changes over time.
 Bar graphs are used to display data in a similar way to line graphs. However,
rather than using a point on a plane to define a value, a bar graph uses a
horizontal or vertical rectangular bar that levels off at the appropriate level.
Line Graphs
 Line graphs can also be used to compare changes over the same period of time
for more than one group.
 Line graphs are drawn so that the independent data are on the horizontal a-axis
and the dependent data are on the vertical y-axis.
 Line graphs are used to track changes over short and long periods of time.
Pictographs
 Pictographs or unit charts use pictures or symbols to represent the quantities of
the variables shown.
 Pictographs use relative sizes or repetitions of the same icon, picture, or symbol to
show comparison.
Characteristics of a Good
Pictographs
Statistical Maps
-comparison of quantities and their locations are best presented by statistical
maps
Measures of Central Tendency

 Mean
-average
 Population mean: taken from a population
 Sample mean : taken from a sample
 Median
-middle value
 Mode
-appears most often
Mean
The mean is the average of the numbers: a calculated "central" value of a set of numbers. To
calculate it: add up all the numbers, then divide by how many numbers there are.
Median

 To find the Median, place the numbers you are given in value order
and find the middle number.
 If there are two middle numbers, you average them.
Mode

The mode of a set of data values is the value that appears most often.
It is the value x at which its probability mass function takes its maximum
value. In other words, it is the value that is most likely to be sampled.
Comparing the 3 Measures of Central
Tendency
Measure of Variation

 Range
Measure of Variation

 Variance
Measure of Variation

 Example: Variance
Measure of Variation

 Standard Deviation
Percentiles

A percentile (or a centile) is a measure used in statistics indicating the


value below which a given percentage of observations in a group of
observations fall.
For example, the 20th percentile is the value (or score) below which
20% of the observations may be found.
Percentiles
Quartiles
Example: Quartiles
Deciles

Deciles are similar to quartiles. But while quartiles sort data into four
quarters, deciles sort data into ten equal parts: The 10th, 20th, 30th,
40th, 50th, 60th, 70th, 80th, 90th and 100th percentiles.
Probability
Probability

 The probability of an event is a number between 0 and 1 that


measures how likely an event is to occur.

 Numbers closer to 1 indicate the event is more likely to occur, with a


probability of 1 meaning the event is (almost) certain to occur.

 Numbers closer to 0 indicate the event is less likely to occur, with a


probability of 0 meaning the event is (almost) certain not to occur.
Probability
Theoretical Probability
Calculating Probability
Example
Example:
Assignment:
Assignment:
Solution:
a.) 350,000 × 13% = 45,500
b.) 90,000 ÷ 20% = 450,000
125,000
c.) = 0.25 𝑜𝑟 25%. 𝑇ℎ𝑢𝑠, 𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ
500,000

d.) 𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 25% = 𝑀𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑜𝑢𝑠 12% + 𝐼𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛(13%)


e.) 𝐸𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 20% − 𝑀𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑜𝑢𝑠 12% = 8%
Then,
𝐵𝑢𝑑𝑔𝑒𝑡 = 48,000 ÷ 8% = 600,000
Assignment
Assignment:
Solution:
a.)
80 + 90 + 40 + 80 + 60 + 10 + 40 + 80
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 =
8

480
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 =
8

𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 = 60
Assignment:
Solution:
b.)
10,40,40,60,80,80,80,90

Nth term=8/2=4.
Thus, median is equal to average of fourth and fifth term.

60 + 80
𝑀𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛 = = 70
2
Assignment:
Solution:
c.)
10,40,40,60,80,80,80,90

Mode: 80
Assignment:
Solution:
d.)
10,40,40,60,80,80,80,90

Standard Deviation:
Assignment:
Solution:
e.)
10,40,40,60,80,80,80,90

Standard Deviation
Assignment

Solution:
a.) 26 26 26 10 10 10 10 = 175,760,000 license plates
a.) 26 25 24 10 9 8 7 = 78,624,000 license plates
Assignment

Solution:
Assignment

Solution:
10
a) 𝑃 = 14
100
= 0.1
d) 𝑃= = 0.14
20 100
b) 𝑃 = = 0.2 14
100
e) 𝑃= = 0.14
c) 𝑃 =
20+4+8
= 0.32 100
100
Assignment

Solution:
a.)
Assignment

Solution:
b.) Solve first the probability of getting a sum of 11 and a sum of 12. Then, add them.

The probability of getting a sum of 12 is equal to


1/36: (6,6)

Therefore,
1 1 1
𝑃= + =
18 36 12
Assignment

Solution:
b.) Solve first the probability of getting a sum of exactly 12. Then, subtract them to 1.

The probability of getting a sum of 12 is equal to 1/36:


(6,6)

Therefore,
1 35
𝑃 = 1− =
36 36
Assignment

Solution:
a.) Let x be the width. Then, length is equal to If x=13, then
3+2x. 3 + 2𝑥 = 3 + 2 13
𝑃 = 2𝐿 + 2𝑊 = 3 + 26
𝑃 = 2 3 + 2𝑥 + 2𝑥 = 29
𝑃 = 6 + 4𝑥 + 2𝑥 Therefore, the dimensions are 13cm by 29cm.
𝑃 = 6𝑥 + 6
6𝑥 + 6 = 84
6𝑥 = 78
𝑥 = 13
Assignment

Solution:
b.) Let x be the age of the 6th member and Then,
the 7th member. 235 + 2𝑥 = 301
2𝑥 = 66
Then, 𝑥 = 33
63 + 39 + 44 + 51 + 38 + 𝑥 + 𝑥
= 43
7
Therefore, the age of the 6th and 7th
235 + 2𝑥 members is 33 years old.
= 43
7

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