Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

ELECTRICAL DESIGN

AND PROTECTION
Semester 2 2018
LECTURE 3:
CABLE SIZING
Lecture 3 Content

 Site Reticulation

 Types of Cables

 Cable Support Systems

 Cable Installation

 Cable Sizing
Site Reticulation

Types of Supply:
 Domestic (230V 63A 1ph)

 Commercial (400V 200A 3ph)

 Industrial (400V 2MVA 3ph)

 Heavy Industrial (11kV)


Main Types of Reticulation

 Ring Main

 Radial

 Rising Main
Ring Main

 Used to allow for multiple supplies to critical sites e.g. Hospital


 Not Common
 Advantages:
 Continuity of Supply
 Losses and voltages reduced (Parallel Paths)
 Disadvantages
 Increased cost / complexity
 Discrimination of Protection is reduced.
Radial Distribution

 Most Common

 Advantages
 Simple Load assessment
 Easy Operation
 Discrimination of Protective devices is clear

 Disadvantage
 Only one path of supply
 Losses and Volt Drops can be High.
Rising Mains

 Typically used in multi story buildings


 Cable or Bus Bar
 Does not have to ‘Rise’
 Advantages
 Cost Savings
 Smaller physical size of main switchboard
 Disadvantages
 Lack (limitation) of Individual protection
 Loading of additional equipment is dependent on rising mains capacity
and location
Cable Types

 PVC Conduit Wire


 Control Wiring
 Must be installed ‘In’ something e.g. control panel, DB etc

 TPS (Tough Plastic Sheath) PVC Insulation


 Typical final distribution sizes are
 1.5mm2 (Lighting)
 2.5mm2 (Power outlets)
 4mm2 / 6mm2 (Stoves / Water Heaters)
Cable Types (Cont.)

 Neutral Screened Cable


 Street Lighting
 House Main Supply

 PVC or XLPE Mains Cables


 Sub Mains
 PVC up to 50mm2
 Single Core above 70mm2
Conductor Types

 Copper
 More Expensive
 Smaller cable to carry same current

 Aluminium
 Significantly cheaper
 Lighter (Affects cable supports, difficulty of installation)

 Cost will typically determine which is used where.


Insulation Types

 Two Main Types:


 PVC e.g. TPS Maximum Temperature rating 75°C
 Less mechanical protection
 XLPE Maximum Temperature Rating 105°C
 Higher mechanical protection
 Other types:
 Higher temperature ratings
 Low halogen to make the smoke less damaging when they burn
 Oil Resistant
 Many more for specific applications
Uncommon Cable Types

 Paper Insulated
 Paper is oil impregnated for insulation
 Typically has a lead or steal sheath
 Uncommon outside of older existing installations

 Mineral Insulated Metal Sheathed (MIMS / Pyrotenax)


 High Temperature
 High Current carrying capacity for physical size
 Requires specialist installers and equipment
 Not typically installed in NZ anymore
Steel Wire Armoured

 The wire armour provides excellent mechanical protection


 Higher cost (Cable and accessories e.g. Glands)
 Much Heavier
 Significantly longer time required for terminations and installation
Cable Support Systems

 Conduit (Means of Conveying)


 Industrial Applications
 Plant Rooms
 Exposed Ceilings
 PVC
 Galvanised or Stainless Steel
Cable Support Systems (Cont)

 Trunking
 Offices
 In Desks (Soft Wiring)

 Busbar Trunking
 Rising Mains
 Datacenters
 Retail
 Factories

 Allows for relatively straightforward


reconfigurations
Cable Support Systems (Cont.)

 Cable Rack / Ladder


 Used for large cable runs and industrial
applications

 Cable Tray
 Used for major runs / multiple minor runs

 Catenary
 Used to support low numbers of cables
(=<5)
Cable Installation Types
Cable Sizing

 AS:NZS 3008
 Limited information in AS:NZS 3000
 Main Parameters
 Current Rating
 Voltage Drop (2.5%, 5%, 7%)
 Fault Loop Impedance
 Short Circuit Temperature Rating
Cable Sizing (Cont.)

 De-Rating Factors
 Grouping
 Ambient Temperature (Air 30°C, Ground 15°C)
 Depth of Laying
 Soil Resistivity
Example 1

 A 3 phase, four core PVC insulated SWA multicore cable 50metres


long is to be used for a sub-main. The cable will be installed direct to
the surface in an area where the ambient temperature will not
exceed 35oC. The maximum power is 25kW @ 0.8 pf and the
allowable volt drop is 2.5%. Find the minimum cross sectional area of
the cable.
 S=P/pf
 S=25/0.8=31.25kVA
 I= S/(V*sqrt(3)=45.11A
Example 1 (Cont)

 AS:NZS3008 pp62 Current Carrying Capacity


 45.11A
 Pp88 derating (0.94 for 35°C)
 45.11/0.94=47.99A Therefore 10mm
 Volt drop using Vc (mV/A.m)
 Vd=L*I*Vc/1000
 Vd =Vsupply * Maximum Percentage Volt Drop
 Vc=1000*Vs*%/L*I
 1000*400*0.025/(50*45.11)=4.43 mV/A.m

 Table 40 pp108
 10mm^2 cable
Example 2

• A circuit is protected by an Air Circuit breaker rated at 10 kA with a


clearance time of 1 second. Determine the min cable size based on
the short circuit temperature rise for :-
• A PVC insulated cable with a K of 111
• An XLPE cable with a K of 143.
I2t=K2S2
I= Short Circuit Current, t=time, K=Constant, S = cross sectional area (sq
mm)
S2=I2t/K2
S2=100002*1/1112=90.09mm = 120mm
S2=100002*1/1432=69.93mm = 70mm (JUST!)