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TRANSMISSION

PDH & SDH


CONCEPTS
PDH & SDH
Concepts
SECTIONS :
 PDH/SDH TECHNOLOGY
MULTIPLEXING, STANDARDS, ELEMENTS,
TOPOLOGIES, PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, FRAME
STRUCTURE, HIERARCHY, TUG STRUCTURE,OVERHEAD
BYTES
SDH PRODUCTS
TRANSMISSION NETWORKS
CONCEPTS OF FIBER OPTICS
Plesiochronous Digital
Hierarchy
PDH ( Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)

Plesio means = similar

Chronous means= Timing

Plesiochronous - "almost synchronous, because bits are


stuffed into the frames as padding and the
calls (signal) location varies slightly - jitters - from frame to
frame".
Sampling

Audio Signal
T1 T2 T3
time
T4 T5 T6 T7

Sampler Output

Pulse Amplitude T1 T2 T3
time
Modulated T4 T5 T6 T7
(PAM) signal
Plesiochronous Transmission

• Conversion of voice into digital signal:


1. Voice Frequency 4 KHz
2. Sampling 4 KHz * 2 = 8 KHz
3. Quantizing = Amplitude is given a certain value.
4. Encoding 8 KHz * 8 = 64 KHz
5. Line Coding

PCM Signal Data Rate

8000 8
samples per x = 64kbit/s
bits per sample
sec
PDH Bit rates

1. PCM 30 Mux (D1 Level )


FAS (Frame Alignment signal) Signaling
NFAS(Non frame Alignment signal)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

32channels/Tim
e slots
0 Each channel is of 64Kb/s

32 * 64 KHz = 2.048 Mb/s


Capacity = 30 Base Channels
Bit Stuffing

Pleisochronous Multiplexing
Jitter and Wander Definitions

Ideal Signal (NRZ)

Jittered Signal

Jitter
Disadvantages of PDH

Although PDH was a breakthrough in the digital transmission systems, it


had a lot of weaknesses :

• No world standard on digital format (three incompatible regional


standards - European, North American and Japanese).

• No world standard for optical interfaces. Networking was impossible


at the optical level.

• Rigid asynchronous multiplexing structure.

• Limited management capability.

Because of PDH disadvantages, It was obvious that a new multiplexing


method is needed.

The new method is called SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy).


PDH Vs. SDH

Plesiochronous Hierarchy based on 2Mbps primary rates permits


multiplexing up to 140Mbps respectively.

 Changing from one hierarchical level to another requires additional


equipment.
 Transmitting a multiplexed signal (34/140 Mb, etc) requires
specialized equipment.
 Redirection (cross-connection) of channels must be done by hand on
DDFs.
 Administrative connections require separate equipment to support
Supervision, EOW and protection switching.
 Compatibility of transmission and administrative signals between
different vendor may give trouble.
SDH Advantages:

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy based on standard PDH rates but


packaged in to a synchronous signal.
 Changing from one hierarchical level to another does not require add’l
equipment.
 Transmitting a multiplexed signal can be done with standardized
equipment.
 Redirection (cross-connection) of channels is done internally using S/W
commands.
 Administrative maintenance connections are done internally
 Compatibility of transmission and administrative signals between
different vendor is possible.
Comparison of PDH(Plesiochronous Digital
Hierarchy)/SDH
PDH SDH
The reference clock is not The reference clock is
synchronized throughout the synchronized throughout the
Network. Network.

Multiplexing / Demultiplexing The synchronous Multiplexing


Operations have to be performed results in simple access to
From one level to the next level Multiplexed signals by pointer
step by step. evaluation.

The payload is not transparent. The payload is transparent.

It has different frame structures at It has consistent frame structure


different hierarchy levels. throughout the hierarchy.
Why SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) ?

 Need for extensive network management capability within


the hierarchy.
 Standard interfaces between equipment.
 Need for inter-working between north American and
European systems.
 Facilities to add or drop tributaries directly from a high
speed signal.
 Standardization of equipment management process.
PRINCIPLES OF DIGITAL TRANSMISSION
Multiplexing:
Channel multiplexing is essential for telephone transmission. This technique makes it possible
to reduce, very substantially, the number of links required to connect the subscribers.

Frequency Division Multiplex:


This system is based on the position of the different channels to be transmitted in terms of
frequency. Each channel uses a maximum frequency band of 4 KHz. The no. of channels
transmitted is thus calculated by dividing the multiplexed frequency band by 4 KHz.
This multiplexing mode makes it possible to obtain a high number of channels in a restricted
bandwidth but involves a number of disadvantages which tend to cause relatively rapid
degradation of the data transmitted: high sensitivity to external interference and aggregation
and amplification of distortion up to the final destination.

1 3 n-1
2 n-2

0 4KHz 8KHz 12KHz f

Bandwidth used = n x 4 kHz


STM-1 Frame Format

 A frame with a bit rate of 155.52Mbps is


defined in ITU-T recommendation G.707.This
frame is called Synchronous Transport
Module(STM),since it is the first level in
hierarchy it is called STM-1

 It is made up from a byte matrix of 9 rows and


270 columns

 Transmission is row by row, starting with the


byte in the upper left corner and ending with
Regenerator (Reg.)

STM-N STM-N
Regenerator

Regenerator, Amplifies the optical signal after


converting back to electrical and generates a new
optical signal of the same format Reshaping & timing
of data stream
Terminal Multiplexer (TM)

PDH Terminal STM-N


SDH Multiplexer

It combines the Plesionchronous and synchronous input


signals into higher bit rate STM-N Signal.
Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM)

Add / Drop
STM-N
Multiplexer

STM-N
PDH SDH
The Add And Drop Multiplexer (ADM) passes the (high rate) STM-n

through from his one side to the other and has the ability to drop or

add any (low rate) tributary. The ADM used in all topologies
Digital Cross Connect (DXC)

STM-16 STM-16
STM-4 STM-4
STM-1 STM-1

140 Mbit/s 140 Mbit/s


34 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s
2 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s

Cross - Connect
A digital cross connect is an equipment which has the
capability of interconnecting tributaries
Digital Cross Connect (DXC)

Digital Cross Connect:


A digital cross connect is an equipment which has the
capability of interconnecting tributaries

An Agg to Agg connection, a trib to aggregate connection


and a tributary to tributary connection is also possible in
case of a Digital Cross Connect
Ring Network
Tributaries Tributaries

Add Drop Add Drop


Multiplexer Multiplexer
(ADM) (ADM)
Tributaries

Multiplexer

Tributaries
Add Drop

Multiplexer
Add Drop
(ADM)

(ADM)
Add Drop Add Drop
Multiplexer Multiplexer
(ADM) (ADM)

Tributaries Tributaries
Automatic Protection Switching
(APS)

• APS redirects the traffic on to prepared


back-up lines if the path is physically
interrupted.
This should take place automatically and
as quickly as possible - < 50msec)

• Two kinds of APS are used, depending on


the network structure:
– Ring switching (MS SPRING to G.841 and
T1.105.1)
– Linear switching (Linear MSP to G.783 and
T1.105.1).
SDH Management

SDH has enhanced management capabilities :

• Alarm/Event Management

• Configuration Management

• Performance Management

• Access and Security Management


SDH Alarm Structure
 Error performance monitoring
 Pointer adjustment information
 Path status
 Path trace
 Remote error indications (REI)
 Remote failure indications (RFI)

 Remote Defect Indications ( RDI )

 Signal Loss

 New Data flag indication

 Synchronization source information


Defect and Failure

 A defect is a detection of an alarm such as loss of


signals , loss of frames. AIS loss of excessive errors

 A failure is a defect that persists beyond a maximum


time allocated. It is used to access to integrate
Automatic Protection Switching ( APS ).
Loss Of Signals (LOS)

 This alarm is raised when the STM-N level drops below


the threshold at which a BER of 1 in 1000 is detected

 It could be due to cut cable, excessive attenuation of the


signal or an equipment fault

 The LOS state will clear when 2 consecutive framing


patterns are received and no LOS condition is detected
SDH Frame Structure

The STM-n frame structure is best represented as a rectangle of 9 x 270 x n.

The 9 x n first columns are the frame header and the rest of the frame is the
inner structure data i.e. payload (including the data, indication bits, stuff bits,
pointers and management).

The STM-n frame is usually transmitted over an optical fiber. The frame is
transmitted row by row (first is transmitted the first row then the second and so
on). At the beginning of each frame, synchronization bytes A1, A2 are
transmitted .

The multiplexing method of 4 STM-1 streams into a STM-1x4 is an interleaving


of the STM-1 streams to produce the STM-4 stream.
STM-1 Section Overhead

Y Y 1 1
Regenerator Section Overhead

A1 & A2 – Framing Bytes

• These two bytes indicate the beginning of the STM-N frame

J0 – Regenerator Section Trace

• It’s used to transmit a Section Access Point Identifier so


that a section receiver can verify its continued connection to
the intended transmitter

• Identifies by a number in the individual STM – 1s of a higher


order STM - n
B1- Bit Interleaved parity (BIP-8)
• This is a parity code (even parity), used to check for transmission
errors over a regenerator section
• Its value is calculated over all bits of the previous STM-N frame
after scrambling, then placed in the B1 byte of STM-1 before
scrambling

E1 – Engineering Order wire

• This byte is allocated to be used as a local order wire channel for


voice communication between regenerators
• This byte functionality is available at both multiplexers and
Regenerators
F1 – User Channel

• This byte is set aside for the user’s purposes

D1 to D3 – Data Communication Channel

• These three bytes form a 192 kbps DCC for Operation &
management of the SDH System
• Network management system sends / receives provisioning,
security, status / control alarm and performance monitoring
command / response by way of DCC
Multiplex Section Overhead

B2 – Bit Interleaved parity (BIP – 24)


• This is used to determine if a transmission error has occurred
over a multiplex section. It is even parity, and is calculated over all
bits of the MS Overhead and the STM-N frame (except the
regenerator section) of the previous STM-N frame before
scrambling
• The value is placed in the three B2 bytes of the MS Overhead
before scrambling. These bytes are provided for all STM-1 signals
in an STM-N signal
K1 & K2 – Multiplex Section Protection

• These two bytes are used for MSP signaling between


multiplex level entities for bi-directional automatic protection
switching and for communicating Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)
and Remote Defect Indication (RDI) conditions

D4 to D12 – Data Communication Channel

• These nine bytes form a 576 kbps DCC for Operation &
management of the multiplexers on a SDH line
• Network management system sends / receives provisioning,
security, status / control alarm and performance monitoring
command / response by way of DCC
E2 – Engineering Order wire

• This byte is allocated to be used as a local order wire


channel for voice communication between multiplexers
• This byte is not accessible at the regenerators

M1 Remote Error indication

• It is used to indicate the MS layer remote error indication (MS-REI)


S1 Synchronization status message byte
(SSMB)

• Bits 5 to 8 of this S1 byte are used


to carry the synchronization messages
0000 Quality unknown (existing sync. network)
0010 G.811 PRC (Primary Reference Clock)
0100 G.812 transit SSU-A (Synchronisation Supply Unit - A)
1000 G.812 local SSU-B (Synchronisation Supply Unit – B)
1011 G.813 Option 1 SEC (Synchronous Equipment Timing Clock)
1111 Do not use for synchronization. This message may be
emulated by equipment failures and will be emulated by a
Multiplex Section AIS signal.
STM-1 FRAME

1 9 10 270
1
RSOH
3
POINTER
4
POH PAYLOAD CONTAINER

MSOH

PAYLOAD CONTAINER: 9 (Rows) * 260 (Columns) * 64Kbps = 149.76 Mbps

POH: 9 (Rows) * 1 (Column ) * 64 Kbps = 0.576 Mbps

RSOH: 3 (Rows) * 9 (Columns) * 64 Kbps = 1.728 Mbps

MSOH: 5 (Rows) * 9 (Columns) * 64 Kbps = 2.880 Mbps


How Is The Frame Composed ?

PDH Payload = Container (C)

Container + Path Overhead (POH) = Virtual Container (VC)

Virtual Container + TU Pointer = Tributary Unit (TU)

more than 1 Tributary Unit = Tributary Unit Group (TUG)

biggest Tributary Unit Group = Administrative Unit (AU)


Tributary Unit Group + AU Pointer = Administrative Unit (AU)

more than 1 Administrative Unit = Administrative Unit Group

Administrative Unit Group +


Section Overhead (SOH) = SDH Frame
SDH Hierarchy - TUG Structure

C-12 VC-12 TU-12


X3

TUG-2
X7
C-3 VC-3 TU-3 TUG-3
X1

X3

C-4 VC-4
ALIGNMENT

POINTERS AU-4

MULTIFLEXING X1

ADDITION OF OVERHEADS
STM-1
Synchronization Status Byte in STM-1
Frame

9 bytes 261 bytes


A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
RSOH B1 E1 F1
D1 D2 D3
AU Pointer(s)

9 row s
B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 STM-1 PAYLOAD
D4 D5 D6
MSOH D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D12
S1 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 M1 E2

Bit No.
b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8
S1 byte Unassigned SSM Field
Thank You!