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ACTIVATED SLUDGE

PROCESS AND
WASTEWATER
CHARACTERIZATION
OBJECTIVES:
TO DISCUSS:
1. THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND
DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
2. BASIC AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF
ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES
3. WASTWATER CONSTITUENTS THAT COULD
AFFECT FOR PROCESS DESIGN
4. METHODS FOR WASTEWATER
CHARACTERIZATION
BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER
TREATMENT
 SECONDARY TREATMENT PROCESS WHICH
USES MICROORGANISMS THAT DEGRADE
WASTEWATER WHICH IS LEFT OVER IN THE
PRIMARY TREATMENT.
CLASSIFIED AS AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC
SUSPENDED GROWTH AND ATTACHED
GROWTH TREATMENT.
ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

1880 1910 1913


DR. ANGUS SMITH BLACK AND CLARK AND
PHELPS GAGE
INVESTIGATED THE DISCOVERED HOW TO DISCOVERED HOW TO
AERATION OF REDUCE THE INCREASE THE DEGREE OF
WASTEWATER IN TANKS PUTRESCIBILITY OF PURIFICATION OBTAINED
AND OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MATTER BY WASTEWATER
ORGANIC MATTER

1914
1913
ARDERN AND
Dr. G. FOWLER
LOCKETT
DISCOVERED THE IMPORTANCE DOING SOME MAJOR
OF SLUDGE IN AERATION EXPERIMENTS TO SUPPORT
NAMED IT “ACTIVATED SLUDGE” THE DISCOVERY
DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
Composed of 3 basic components:
1. A REACTOR
2. SEDIMENTATION TANKS
3. RECYCLE SYSTEM
Features of Activated Sludge Process
- formation of flocculants settleable solids and can
be removed by gravity settling
- can be used in primary and preliminary treatment
of wastewater
- can be used as post-treatment (disinfection and
filtration)
BASIC DEVELOPMENTS FOR ACTIVATED SLUDGE
PROCESSES

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIMARY


SEDIMENTATION AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

 PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION – Efficient for removing


settleable solids

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES – Essential for removing


soluble, suspended organic substances in wastewater
- Used in nitrification,
denitrification and phosphorus removal
EVOLUTION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES

FACTORS:
1. Response of need for higher quality effluents in wastewater
2. Advance Technology of Equipment and Process Control
3. Increased in understanding of Microbial Processes
4. Reduce capital and operating cost

TODAYS INNOVATIONS INCLUDES:


1. NITRIFICATION
2. BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN REMOVAL
3. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL
DIFFERENT TYPES OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE
PROCESS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF
REACTORS
1. PLUG-FLOW PROCESS W/ PLUG-FLOW REACTOR
PLUG-FLOW PROCESS W/ PLUG-FLOW
REACTOR

- Used in early 1920’s up until 1970’s


- Has 10:1 large length-width ratios
- The problem arises with the usage of plug-flow
process in 1960’s
- As industrial wastes were introduced to the process,
there are an increased of toxicity in the
discharge/effluent.
2. COMPLETE-MIX
ACTIVATED SLUDGE
REACTOR (CMAS)
COMPLETE-MIX ACTIVATED SLUDGE
REACTOR (CMAS)

- Has larger volume allowed for greater dilution to reduced


the effects of toxicity among the discharge.
- Most common type of activated sludge process in 1970’s and
early 1980’s
- But continuous using of single staged CMAS process, the
ammonia standards of the effluent are increasing severely.
- To resolve the problem, the application of NITRIFICATION is
introduced using two staged system CMAS.
- Includes BOD Removal and nitrification stages
3. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR (SBR)
SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR (SBR)
PROCESS

- Commonly used in late 1970’s


- Fill and draw type of reactor system that
includes single staged complete-mix reactor
- No need to use sedimentation tanks because
the mixed liquor is remains in the reactor in all
cycles
RECENT PROCESS DEVELOPMENTS
MBR (Membrane Biological Reactors)
- Used mainly for water treatment applications
and suspended growth reactors for wastewater
treatments
- Enhance solid separation for water reuse.

COMPUTER MODELLING
- Used to incorporate the large number of
components and reactions needed to evaluate
Activated Sludge performance.
- Usage of simulation models for suspended growth
system is the main process
WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION
REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTIVATED SLUDGE DESIGN
PROCESS

 Aeration Basin Volume


 Amount of Sludge Production
 The amount of Oxygen needed
 The Effluent concentration

Before that, first undergo the most critical step in the


process to design activated sludge process
WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION

Why is it essential?
1. For biological nutrient removal process, it is a major
factor for predicting the performance of the
process
2. It is used to determine the available treatment
capacity needed of wastewater
3. If this step is neglected, facilities will be either
under or over-designed.
KEY WASTEWATER CONSTITUENTS FOR
PROCESS DESIGN
 CARBONACEOUS SUBSTRATE
 NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS
 PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
 TSS & VSS (TOTAL AND VOLATILE SUSPENDED SOLIDS)
 ALKALINITY
b – BIODEGRADABLE
i– inert
n- NON
p – particulate
s – soluble

Units to express
constituent
concentrations are mg/L
OR g/m^3
CARBONACEOUS CONSTITUENTS
 Measured by BOD and COD analyses
 Critical to activated sludge design processes
- Higher concentrations of COD and BOD results to:
a. Larger aeration volume
b. More needs of oxygen transfer
c. Greater sludge production
BOD analysis is common parameter to characterize
carbonaceous constituents in wastewater
COD analysis is the primary common parameter used in
computer simulation design models.
 TO OBTAIN bCOD:
𝑈𝐵𝑂𝐷
𝑏𝐶𝑂𝐷 𝐵𝑂𝐷
=
𝐵𝑂𝐷 1.0 − 1.42 𝑓𝑑 (𝑌𝐻 )

Where 𝑓𝑑 = fraction of cell mass remaining as cell debris,


g/g
𝑌𝐻 = synthesis yield coefficient for heterotrophic
bacteria, g VSS/g COD used

For domestic WW,


𝑈𝐵𝑂𝐷 𝑏𝐶𝑂𝐷
= 1.5 and the ranges from 1.6 -1.7
𝐵𝑂𝐷 𝐵𝑂𝐷
NITROGENOUS CONSTITUENTS
NITROGENOUS CONSTITUENTS
ALKALINITY

- It affects the performance of biological nitrification


processes.
- Needed to achieve complete nitrification
- If wastewater sample is not available, estimation of
alkalinity can be done from information on Table 3.16
- (alkalinity of potable water plus alkalinity contributed
through domestic use)
MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR
WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION

1. READILY BIODEGRABLE COD (rbCOD)


2. NON-BIODEGRADABLE VOLATILE SUSPENDED
SOLIDS (nbVSS)
3. NITROGEN COMPOUNDS
A. SOLUBLE ORGANIC NITROGEN (sON)
B. NON-BIODEGRADABLE ORGANIC NITROGEN
(nbON)
MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR
WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION
1. READILY BIODEGRADABLE COD (rbCOD)
- can be determined by biological response or estimated
by a physical separation technique

BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE METHOD


- The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) is recorded with time after
mixing the wastewater sample with an activated sludge
sample.
- The wastewater sample is preaerated before mixing with the
sludge sample.
- The wastewater sample and sludge is mixed in a batch reactor
with separate aeration and mixing.
Illustration 1

OUR response for a wastewater sample using an Activated


Sludge containing Nitrifying Bacteria
O2 used for rbCOD degradation

Zero- Order Nitrification

Particulate COD degradation

Endogenous Decay
AREA A = OXYGEN USED FOR rbCOD DEGRADATION

TO CALCULATE rbCOD CONCENTRATION (BASED ON Area A)

𝑂𝐴 𝑉𝐴𝑆 + 𝑉𝑊𝑊
[rbCOD] =
1− 𝑌𝐻,𝐶𝑂𝐷 𝑉𝑊𝑊
Where: 𝑂𝐴 = oxygen consumed in area A, mg/L
𝑌𝐻,𝐶𝑂𝐷 = synthesis yield coefficient for
heterotrophic bacteria, g cell COD/ g COD used
𝑉𝐴𝑆 = volume of activated sludge used in test, mL
𝑉𝑊𝑊 = volume of wastewater sample, mL

By Ekama et. al.(1986), a value for 𝑌𝐻 = 0.67


FLOC/ FILTRATION METHOD

- Used to separate the true soluble COD in the


wastewater sample.
- Done by applying the floc/filtration procedure to both
wastewater sample and a secondary effluent sample
after contact and aeration of the wastewater sample
w/ activated sludge.
- Soluble COD is measured in the secondary effluent
sample which is known as non-biodegradable soluble
COD (nbsCOD) as (rbsCOD) is removed by the
activated sludge process.
STEPS FOR FLOC/FILTRATION METHOD:
STEP 1.
1 mL of a 100 g/L 𝒁𝒏𝑺𝑶𝟒 solution is added to 100 mL of
sample with vigorous mixing for 1 minute.
STEP 2.
The pH is raised to about 10.5 using 6M NaOH, with 5-10
minutes of gentle mixing for floc formation.
STEP 3.
Sample is settled for 10 -20 min and the supernatant is
withdrawn and filtered using a 0.45 µm membrane filter
STEP 4.
The filtrate is analyzed for COD concentration.

Note:
[rbCOD] = difference between the COD concentration
of the WW and activated sludge treated sample.
2. NON-BIODEGRADABLE VOLATILE SUSPENDED SOLIDS
(nbVSS)
- can be estimated from analyses for COD, sCOD and VSS
𝐶𝑂𝐷
concentration and by assuming a constant ratio for both
𝑉𝑆𝑆
biodegradable and non-biodegradable VSS.

𝑏𝑝𝐶𝑂𝐷
[nbVSS] = 1 − (VSS)
𝑝𝐶𝑂𝐷
𝑏𝐶𝑂𝐷
𝑏𝑝𝐶𝑂𝐷 𝐵𝑂𝐷 −𝑠𝐵𝑂𝐷
𝐵𝑂𝐷
Where: =
𝑝𝐶𝑂𝐷 𝐶𝑂𝐷 −𝑠𝐶𝑂𝐷

bpCOD = concentration of biodegradable particulate COD, mg/L


pCOD = concentration of particulate COD, mg/L
sCOD = concentration of soluble COD in activated sludge
effluent, mg/L`
3. NITROGEN COMPOUNDS
A. SOLUBLE ORGANIC NITROGEN (sON)
B. NON-BIODEGRADABLE ORGANIC NITROGEN
(nbON)

For soluble organic nitrogen (sON)


- Basis is the effect of soluble organic nitrogen on the effluent
total nitrogen concentration
- To determine the total effluent soluble nitrogen concentration
, the sample to be used is from a filtered sample from a plant
effluent or from a bench scale treatability reactor.
[sON] = TKN - 𝑁𝐻4 𝑁
For non biodegradable soluble organic nitrogen (nbsON)
- It cannot be determined directly, but from a consideration of a
low concentration of effluent soluble organic nitrogen.
For non biodegradable particulate organic nitrogen
(nbpON)
- It can be estimated by an analysis of the effluent VSS for
organic nitrogen and the estimated amount of nbVSS.
- To calculate the fraction of nitrogen in the VSS, use:
𝑇𝐾𝑁 −𝑠𝑂𝑁 −𝑁𝐻4 𝑁
𝑓𝑁 =
𝑉𝑆𝑆

and nbpON = 𝑓𝑁 (nbVSS)


Where:
𝑓𝑁 = fraction of organic nitrogen in VSS, g N/g VSS
𝑇𝐾𝑁 = Total TKN concentration, mg/L
sON = soluble (filtered) organic nitrogen concentration, g/𝑚3
nbpON = non-biodegradable particulate organic nitrogen conc,
g/𝑚3
SUMMARY TABULATION (COD & Nitrogen WW Components)

COD = bCOD + nbCOD


bCOD = ~ 1.6(BOD)
nbCOD = (sCOD)e + nbpCOD
bCOD = sbCOD + rbCOD
TKN = N𝐻4 -N + ON
ON = bON + nbON
nbON = nbsON + nbpON
bTKN = TKN – nbpON – sON
EXAMPLE #1
GIVEN THE FOLLOWING WASTWATER
CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS, DETERMINE
CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE FOLLOWING:

1. bCOD (biodegradable COD)


2. nbpCOD (non-biodegradable particulate COD)
3. sbCOD (slowly biodegradable COD)
4. nbVSS (non-biodegradable VSS)
5. iTSS (inert TSS)
6. nbpON (non biodegradable particulate organic
nitrogen)
7. Total biodegradable TKN
INFLUENT WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS:
CONSTITUENT CONCENTRATION,
mg/L
BOD 195
ACTIVATED-SLUDGE EFFLUENT:
sBOD 94
CONSTITUENT CONCENTRATION
COD 465 mg/L
sCOD 170
sCODe 30
rbCOD 80
TSS 220 sON 1.2
VSS 200
TKN 40
NH4-N 26
ALKALINITY 200 (as CaCo3)
1. To determine bCOD:
bCOD = ~ 1.6(BOD) = 1.6 (195 mg/L)
bCOD = 312 mg/L

2. To determine nbpCOD:
a. COD = bCOD + nbCOD
nbCOD = COD – bCOD = (465 – 312) mg/L = 123 mg/L
b. nbCOD = (sCOD)e + nbpCOD
nbpCOD = nbCOD – (sCOD)e = (153 – 30) mg/L = 123 mg/L

3. To determine sbCOD:
bCOD = sbCOD + rbCOD
sbCOD = bCOD – rbCOD = (312 – 80) mg/L = 232 mg/L
4. To determine nbVSS:
bpCOD
[nbVSS] = 1 − (VSS)
pCOD

bpCOD
a. Determine the ratio
pCOD
bCOD 312
bpCOD BOD
BOD −sBOD 195
195 −94
= = = 0.548
pCOD COD −sCOD 465 −170

bpCOD
b. [nbVSS] = 1 − (VSS) = 1 − (0.548) (200)
pCOD
[nbVSS] = 90 mg/L

5. To determine the inert TSS:


iTSS = TSS –VSS = (220 – 200) mg/L = 20 mg/L
6. To determine nbpON:
a. Determine the organic content of VSS:
𝑇𝐾𝑁 −𝑠𝑂𝑁 −𝑁𝐻4 𝑁
𝑓𝑁 =
𝑉𝑆𝑆
40 −1.2 −26
𝑓𝑁 = 𝑚𝑔 = 0.064
(200 𝐿 )

b. nbpON = 𝑓𝑁 (nbVSS) = (0.064)(90mg/L) = 5.8 mg/L

7. To determine total biodegradable TKN:


bTKN = TKN – nbpON – sON
bTKN = (40 – 5.8 – 1.2) mg/L = 33 mg/L