Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

Geology of

Petroleum Systems
Petroleum Geology
Objectives are to be able to:
• Discuss basic elements of Petroleum Systems
• Describe plate tectonics and sedimentary basins
• Recognize names of major sedimentary rock types
• Describe importance of sedimentary environments to
petroleum industry
• Describe the origin of petroleum
• Identify hydrocarbon trap types
• Define and describe the important geologic controls on
reservoir properties, porosity and permeability
Outline
• Petroleum Systems approach
• Geologic Principles and geologic time
• Rock and minerals, rock cycle, reservoir properties
• Hydrocarbon origin, migration and accumulation
• Sedimentary environments and facies; stratigraphic traps
• Plate tectonics, basin development, structural geology
• Structural traps
Petroleum System - A Definition
•A Petroleum System is a dynamic hydrocarbon
system that functions in a restricted geologic
space and time scale.

•A Petroleum System requires timely


convergence of geologic events essential to
the formation of petroleum deposits.

These Include:
Mature source rock
Hydrocarbon expulsion
Hydrocarbon migration
Hydrocarbon accumulation
Hydrocarbon retention
(modified from Demaison and Huizinga, 1994)
Cross Section Of A Petroleum System
(Foreland Basin Example)
Geographic Extent of Petroleum System
Extent of Play
Extent of Prospect/Field
O
O O

Stratigraphic
Extent of
Petroleum
Overburden Rock
System Essential

Sedimentary
Elements Seal Rock

Basin Fill
of Reservoir Rock
Petroleum
Pod of Active System Source Rock
Source Rock
Underburden Rock
Petroleum Reservoir (O)
Basement Rock
Fold-and-Thrust Belt Top Oil Window
(arrows indicate relative fault motion)
Top Gas Window

(modified from Magoon and Dow, 1994)


Basic Geologic Principles
• Uniformitarianism
• Original Horizontality
• Superposition
• Cross-Cutting Relationships
Cross-Cutting Relationships

K
J
I
H
G
Angular Unconformity
C
E
F
D Igneous
B
l Dike
s Sil
eou
Ig n A
Types of Unconformities
• Disconformity
– An unconformity in which the beds above and below are
parallel

• Angular Unconformity
– An unconformity in which the older bed intersect the
younger beds at an angle

• Nonconformity
– An unconformity in which younger sedimentary rocks
overlie older metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks
Correlation
• Establishes the age equivalence of rock
layers in different areas
• Methods:
– Similar lithology
– Similar stratigraphic section
– Index fossils
– Fossil assemblages
– Radioactive age dating
Geologic Time Chart
Eon Era Period Epoch

Quaternary
period
Quaternary Recent
0 0 0 Pleistocene
Billions of years ago

Millions of years ago


Phanerozoic Tertiary

Millions of years ago


Pliocene
50 10

Cenozoic Era
1
Miocene

Mesozoic
100 Cretaceous 20
(Precambrian)

Tertiary
period
Cryptozoic
2 150 Jurassic 30 Oligocene

200 Triassic 40
Eocene
3
250 Permian 50

4 300 Pennsylvanian
60 Paleocene
Mississippian
4.6 350
Paleozoic

Devonian
400
Silurian

450 Ordovician

500

550 Cambrian

600
Rocks
Classification of Rocks
IGNEOU SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC
S
Rock-forming Source of

Rocks under high


material

Molten materials in Weathering and


temperatures
deep crust and erosion of rocks
and pressures in
upper mantle exposed at surface
deep crust

Recrystallization due to
process

Crystallization Sedimentation, burial


heat, pressure, or
(Solidification of melt) and lithification
chemically active fluids
The Rock Cycle

Magma
Co
g So oling
in (Cr lidi
ys fic a

t
el
tal at

nd
M
iza

io n)
n
t io
Metamorphic Heat and Pressure Igneous
Rock Rock
We
ath
rphism)

eri

And De
Transportaitng,
an ng, T
ure
And

Weat her
d D ran
ep
osi sport
Press
tamo

tion atio
Heat

p o
n,

s ition
ion
e

Weathering,
(M

Transportation
Sedimentary and Deposition
Rock Sediment
Ceme
ntation and
Compaction
(Lithification)
Sedimentary Rock Types
• Relative abundance
Sandstone
and conglomerate
~11%

Limestone and
dolomite
~13%
Siltstone, mud
and shale
~75%
Minerals - Definition
Naturally Occurring
Solid

Generally Formed by
Inorganic Processes

Ordered Internal
Arrangement of Atoms
(Crystal Structure)

Chemical Composition
and Physical Properties
Fixed or Vary Within
Quartz Crystals A Definite Range
Average Detrital Mineral
Composition of Shale and Sandstone
Mineral Composition Shale (%) Sandstone (%)
Clay Minerals 60 5

Quartz 30 65

Feldspar 4 10-15

Rock Fragments <5 15

Carbonate 3 <1

Organic Matter, <3 <1


Hematite, and
Other Minerals (modified from Blatt, 1982)
The Physical and Chemical Characteristics
of Minerals Strongly Influence the
Composition of Sedimentary Rocks
Quartz Mechanically and Chemically Stable
Can Survive Transport and Burial

Feldspar Nearly as Hard as Quartz, but


Cleavage Lessens Mechanical Stability
May be Chemically Unstable in Some
Climates and During Burial

Calcite Mechanically Unstable During Transport


Chemically Unstable in Humid Climates
Because of Low Hardness, Cleavage, and
Reactivity With Weak Acid
Some Common Minerals
Oxides Sulfides Carbonates Sulfates Halides

Hematite Pyrite Aragonite Anhydrite Halite


Magnetite Galena Calcite Gypsum Sylvite
Sphalerite Dolomite
Fe-Dolomite
Ankerite

Silicates
Non-Ferromagnesian Ferromagnesian
(Common in Sedimentary Rocks) (not common in sedimentary rocks)
Quartz Olivine
Muscovite (mica) Pyroxene
Feldspars Augite
Potassium feldspar (K-spar) Amphibole
Orthoclase Hornblende
Microcline, etc . Biotite (mica)
Plagioclase
Albite (Na-rich - common) through Red = Sedimentary Rock-
Anorthite (Ca-rich - not common) Forming Minerals
The Four Major Components
• Framework
– Sand (and Silt) Size Detrital Grains
• Matrix
– Clay Size Detrital Material
• Cement
– Material precipitated post-depositionally, during burial.
Cements fill pores and replace framework grains
• Pores
– Voids between above components
Sandstone Composition
Framework Grains
KF = Potassium
Feldspar

PRF = Plutonic Rock


Fragment
PRF KF P = Pore
CEMENT Potassium Feldspar is
Stained Yellow With a
Chemical Dye
P
Pores are Impregnated
With Blue-Dyed Epoxy
Norphlet Sandstone, Offshore Alabama, USA
Grains are About =< 0.25 mm in Diameter/Length
Porosity in Sandstone

Pore
Throat Pores Provide the
Volume to Contain
Hydrocarbon Fluids

Pore Throats Restrict


Fluid Flow

Scanning Electron Micrograph


Norphlet Formation, Offshore Alabama, USA
Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs
Fibrous Authigenic Illite
Secondary Electron Micrograph
Significant
Permeability
Reduction

Negligible
Porosity
Illite Reduction
High Irreducible
Water Saturation

Migration of
Fines Problem
Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone
Hatters Pond Field, Alabama, USA (Photograph by R.L. Kugler)
Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs
Authigenic Chlorite
Secondary Electron Micrograph
Iron-Rich
Varieties React
With Acid
Occurs in Several
Deeply Buried
Sandstones With
High Reservoir
Quality
Occurs as Thin
Coats on Detrital
Grain Surfaces

Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone


Offshore Alabama, USA ~ 10µ m
(Photograph by R.L. Kugler)
Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs
Authigenic Kaolinite
Secondary Electron Micrograph
Significant Permeability
Reduction

High Irreducible Water


Saturation

Migration of Fines
Problem

Carter Sandstone
North Blowhorn Creek Oil Unit
Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, USA (Photograph by R.L. Kugler)
Effects of Clays on Reservoir Quality

Authigenic Illite Authigenic Chlorite


100 1000
Permeability (md)

100
10

10
1
1

0.1
0.1

0.01 0.01
2 6 10 14 2 6 10 14 18
Porosity (%)
(modified from Kugler and McHugh, 1990)
Influence of Clay-Mineral
Distribution on Effective Porosity
φe Clay
Minerals
Dispersed Clay
Detrital Quartz
Grains

φe
Clay Lamination

Structural Clay φe
(Rock Fragments,
Rip-Up Clasts,
Clay-Replaced Grains)
Diagenesis
Diagenesis is the Post-
Depositional Chemical and
Mechanical Changes that
Carbonate
Occur in Sedimentary Rocks
Cemented
Some Diagenetic Effects Include
Oil Compaction
Stained Precipitation of Cement
Dissolution of Framework
Grains and Cement
The Effects of Diagenesis May
Enhance or Degrade Reservoir
Whole Core
Quality
Misoa Formation, Venezuela
Fluids Affecting Diagenesis
heric Circ Precipitation
Atmosp ula
ti o n

Evaporation Evapotranspiration el
h ann
C w
Flo

Water Table
Infiltration
Meteoric
Water COMPACTIONAL
WATER Meteoric
Water

Petroleum
Fluids Zone of abnormal pressure

Isotherms
CH 4,CO 2,H2 S

(modified from from Galloway and Hobday, 1983)


Subsidence
Dissolution Porosity

Dissolution of
Partially
Framework Grains
Dissolved
(Feldspar, for
Feldspar
Example) and
Cement may
Enhance the
Pore Interconnected
Pore System
Quartz Detrital
Grain This is Called
Secondary Porosity
Thin Section Micrograph - Plane Polarized Light
Avile Sandstone, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

(Photomicrograph by R.L. Kugler)


Hydrocarbon Generation,
Migration, and Accumulation
Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks
Kerogen
Disseminated Organic Matter in
Sedimentary Rocks That is Insoluble
in Oxidizing Acids, Bases, and
Vitrinite Organic Solvents.

Vitrinite
A nonfluorescent type of organic material
in petroleum source rocks derived
primarily from woody material.

The reflectivity of vitrinite is one of the


best indicators of coal rank and thermal
maturity of petroleum source rock.

Reflected-Light Micrograph
of Coal
Interpretation of Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
(based on early oil window maturity)
Hydrocarbon
TOC in Shale TOC in Carbonates
Generation
(wt. %) (wt. %)
Potential
Poor 0.0-0.5 0.0-0.2

Fair 0.5-1.0 0.2-0.5

Good 1.0-2.0 0.5-1.0

Very Good 2.0-5.0 1.0-2.0

Excellent >5.0 >2.0


Schematic Representation of the Mechanism
of Petroleum Generation and Destruction
Progressive Burial and Heating

Organic Debris
Diagenesis

Oil Reservoir

Kerogen Initial Bitumen


Catagenesis Thermal Degradation
Migration
Oil and Gas

Cracking
Methane
Metagenesis
Carbon

(modified from Tissot and Welte, 1984)


Comparison of Several Commonly Used
Maturity Techniques and Their Correlation
to Oil and Gas Generation Limits
0.2 65 1

Weight % Carbon in Kerogen


0.3 70 2
Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro) %

Spore Coloration Index (SCI)


0.4

Pyrolysis Tmax (C)


0.5 75
Incipient Oil Generation 3
0.6 430
0.7 80
0.8 4
0.9 OIL Max. Oil Generated 85 5
1.0 450
1.2 Wet 6
1.3 Gas 7 465
Oil Floor Dry 90 8
Gas Max.
Dry Gas 9
2.0 10
Wet Gas Floor Generated
3.0
4.0
Dry Gas Floor
95

(modified from Foster and Beaumont, 1991, after Dow and O’Conner, 1982)
Generation, Migration, and
Trapping of Hydrocarbons

Fault
Oil/water
(impermeable)
contact (OWC)

Migration route
Seal
Hydrocarbon Reservoir
accumulation rock
in the
reservoir rock
Top of maturity

Source rock
Cross Section Of A Petroleum System
(Foreland Basin Example)
Geographic Extent of Petroleum System
Extent of Play
Extent of Prospect/Field
O
O O

Stratigraphic
Extent of
Petroleum
Overburden Rock
System Essential

Sedimentary
Elements Seal Rock

Basin Fill
of Reservoir Rock
Petroleum
Pod of Active System Source Rock
Source Rock
Underburden Rock
Petroleum Reservoir (O)
Basement Rock
Fold-and-Thrust Belt Top Oil Window
(arrows indicate relative fault motion)
Top Gas Window

(modified from Magoon and Dow, 1994)


Hydrocarbon Traps

• Structural traps

• Stratigraphic traps

• Combination traps
Structural Hydrocarbon Traps
Gas
Shale Oil Oil/Gas Closure
Trap
Contact

Sea Oil/Water
l
Contact
Oil
Fracture Basement Fold Trap

Salt
Salt Diapir
Oil
Dome

(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)


Hydrocarbon Traps - Dome

Gas
Oil

er
at
W

Sandstone
Shale
Fault Trap

Oil / Gas
Sand

Shale
Stratigraphic Hydrocarbon Traps
Unconformity Pinch out

Uncomformity Oil/Gas
Oil/Gas

Channel Pinch Out

Oil/Gas

(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)


Other Traps
Meteoric
Water
Asphalt Trap
Biodegraded
Oil/Asphalt
Partly
Water Biodegraded Oil

Hydrodynamic Trap Hydrostatic


Head
Shale
Water
Oil
(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)
Heterogeneity
Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone
Heterogeneity

Segments Reservoirs

Increases Tortuosity of
Fluid Flow

Heterogeneity May
Result From:
Depositional Features

Diagenetic Features

(Whole Core Photograph, Misoa


Sandstone, Venezuela)
Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone

Heterogeneity Also May


Result From:
Faults

Fractures

Faults and Fractures may


be Open (Conduits) or
Closed (Barriers) to Fluid
Flow

(Whole Core Photograph, Misoa


Sandstone, Venezuela)
Geologic Reservoir Heterogeneity

Bounding
Surface

Bounding
Surface

Eolian Sandstone, Entrada Formation, Utah, USA


Scales of Geological Reservoir Heterogeneity
Interwell
Well Area Well
Determined

Field Wide
From Well Logs,
Seismic Lines, 100's
Statistical m
Modeling,
etc.
1-10 km
Interwell

Reservoir 10's
Sandstone m

100's m

1-10's
10-100's
Well-Bore

m
10-100's mm
µm
Unaided Eye
Hand Lens or
Petrographic or Binocular Microscope
Scanning Electron
Microscope (modified from Weber, 1986)
Scales of Investigation Used in
Reservoir Characterization
300 m Relative Volume
14
Gigascopic 50 m Well Test 10

300 m
Reservoir Model 12
Megascopic Grid Cell 2 x 10
5m 150 m

2m
Wireline Log 7
1m
Interval 3 x 10
Macroscopic cm 2
Core Plug 5 x 10

mm -µ m Geological
Microscopic 1
(modified from Hurst, 1993)
Thin Section
Stages In The Generation of
An Integrated Geological Reservoir Model
Geologic Activities
Regional Geologic
Framework

Depositional
Model (As Needed)

Core Analysis Diagenetic Structural


Model Model

Integrated Fluid
Log Analysis Model
Well Test Analysis Geologic Model
(As Needed)
Applications Studies
Reserves Estimation
Simulation

Model Testing
And Revision