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Site
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Hazards
Table of Contents

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 1 of 22


Introduction

• Safe crane operation depends on a thorough


site analysis.
• The site analysis should be a methodical
process that attempts to:
• identify hazards,
• evaluate the impact of site conditions,
• and devise plans to overcome or eliminate all items
that may interfere with the safe operation of a crane.
• This process involves investigations by
personnel from many different:
• crafts,
• trades,
• and technical backgrounds.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 2 of 22


Site Hazards

• Lift Location:
– Ground Compaction
• Soil (grounds) are a highly complex topic with numerous
items impacting each other.
• The following dictate what loads the ground can withstand:
– Water content,
– water table,
– compaction,
– soil make-up,
– and proximity to underground structures

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 3 of 22


Site Hazards
• Lift Location
(cont)
– Ground Condition
• The following have
a direct effect on
the ability of the
ground to support
loads:
– Trenches,
– cellars,
– embankments,
– flowing water,
– and standing
water
• Special attention
has to be paid to
these situations. Crane Accident
Set the crane a Ground Collapse
safe distance Video
away from banks
and pits.
1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 4 of 22
Site Hazards

• Lift Location:
– Buried Hazards
• The operator must also be made aware of any underground
utilities that can effect support on the job site, such as:
– vaults,
– voids
– buried tanks
• Cranes are heavy pieces of machinery that could easily
damage gas, power, water lines, etc., or cause the ground
to fail.
– This could result in work delays, lost man-hours, damage to
the crane itself, and large costs.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 5 of 22


Site Hazards

• Overhead Hazards
– Electrical Clearance
• Federal regulations and consensus
standards require specific distances both
in stationary lifting operations and when a
crane is in transit.
• Additionally, prior to work near transmitter
towers where an electrical charge can be
induced in the equipment or materials
being handled, the transmitter shall be
de-energized or tests shall be made to
determine if electrical charge is induced
on the crane.
• The following precautions shall be taken
when necessary to dissipate induced
voltages:
– The equipment shall be provided with an
electrical ground directly to the upper
rotating structure supporting the boom.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 6 of 22


Site Hazards

• Overhead Hazards
– Electrical Clearance
• The following precautions
shall be taken when
necessary to dissipate
induced voltages (cont):
• Ground jumper cables shall
be attached to materials
being handled by boom
equipment when electrical
charge is induced while
working near energized
transmitters..
• Crews shall be provided with
nonconductive poles having
large alligator clips or other
similar protection to attach
the ground cable to the load.
• Combustible and flammable
materials shall be removed
from the immediate area
prior to operation.
1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 7 of 22
Site Hazards

• Overhead Hazards:
– Nearby Buildings
• Not all crane operations can take place in isolated areas.
The probability that they will take place in a public area is
high. As a result, there are many concerns that must be
addressed regarding buildings and the public.
• If height and swing clearance are restricted, it may be
necessary to consider many different models of cranes for
the job. For example, this may mean switching from a
rough-terrain telescoping crane to an articulating boom
truck of similar capacity. This change of equipment could
provide more flexibility.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 8 of 22


Site Hazards
• Overhead Hazards:
– Other Crane
Clearances
• There must be enough
working area between
cranes at a work site.
• When several cranes
are operating close
together, either
independently or in a
cooperative effort, there
are some basic rules to
follow which minimize
the hazards. Cranes
working in proximity to
each other can cause
hoist line entanglement
or have their booms
strike one another.
1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 9 of 22
Site Hazards
• Overhead Hazards:
– Other Crane Clearances
• To preclude the possibility
of entanglement, the
cranes should be
positioned so that each
operator has a clear view
of any other crane in the
area. The operators need
to be in eye contact with
each other and with a
signal person so that
personnel involved in the
operation can be alerted
to hazards that may arise.
Coordination between
cranes before the lifts
start is needed to assure
that the cranes can
conduct their lifts safely.
1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 10 of 22
Site Hazards

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 11 of 22


Site Hazards

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 12 of 22


Site Hazards

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 13 of 22


Site Hazards

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 14 of 22


Site Hazards

• Overhead Hazards: :
– Workers on Scaffolding
• Another hazard that we should be
very aware of on a construction site
is scaffolding work. Crane operators
working on the ground level can
have a tendency to concentrate
more on ground level activities
around them than those going on
above them. Keep an eye out for
scaffolding and the workers on them.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 15 of 22


Site Hazards

• Work Site Locations:


– One of the first activities in assuring crane safety is determining
that there is available space at the lift location.
– The operator and any other personnel must know if there is
enough space to:
• Ensure there is enough clearance between buildings, buildings
and fences, production facilities, and other hazardous equipment
to get the crane into and out of the job site safely
• Erect, assemble, and disassemble the crane components, and
necessary ground support.
• Extend the outriggers / stabilizers and counterweights to the
needed dimensions.
• Operate multiple cranes if the job requires.
• Avoid pinch points

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 16 of 22


Site Hazards

• Work Site
Locations:
– Other Equipment
• Ensure there is enough
room for other
equipment such as
trucks lift trucks,
backhoes, skiploaders,
bobcats, etc. will have
enough room to
maneuver with all of the
other equipment and
activities that will be
conducted at the
worksite.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 17 of 22


Site Hazards

• Work Site Locations:


– Public Protection
• A few simple rules must be followed to protect the public.
– A signal person and warning signs must be used during the
operation of the crane.
– The area under the working radius of the crane must be
isolated with barriers, and access must be controlled.
– If working from a public street, highway, or thoroughfare, it
may be necessary to obtain a permit from the proper
authorities.
– If active lanes of traffic are blocked, then traffic control may
be required.
» This may necessitate the use of on- or off-duty law
enforcement officers.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 18 of 22


Site Hazards

• Work Site Locations:


– Worker Protection
• Workers must abide by safety requirements at the job
site regarding personal protective equipment. This may
include, but is not limited to the use of:
– hard hats,
– work gloves,
– glasses/goggles,
– and steel toe shoes/boots.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 19 of 22


Review Questions
1. Prior to transporting equipment to a job site management and
the operator should visit the site to:
A. obtain a general assessment of the site.
B. obtain the location of overhead power lines.
C. obtain the location of structures.
D. obtain a thorough site analysis to identify all hazards.
2. Ground compaction analysis should be conducted prior to a
critical lift by?
A. a designated person.
B. a appointed person.
C. a authorized person.
D. a specially trained person.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 20 of 22


Review Questions (cont)
3. The correct formula for determining the set back distance for a
crane next to a retaining wall is?
A. D+d ≥ 2H.
B. D ≥ 2H.
C. D ≥ 1.5H.
D. D+d ≥ 1.5H.
4. Buried hazards can affect crane support at the job site. Which
of the following would not be considered a hazard towards
ground support?
A. vaults.
B. power lines.
C. voids.
D. drainage ditch.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 21 of 22


Review Questions (cont)
5. The majority of injuries and death to operations and support
personnel are due to accidents from?
A. overturning the crane.
B. shock loading.
C. electricity.
D. equipment failure
6. When working multiple cranes at a work site, cranes should be
positioned?
A. 1,000 feet apart.
B.
n to maintain a clear view of the other cranes.
C. to maintain a clear view of the job supervisor.
D. away from the glare of the sun.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 22 of 22


Review Questions (cont)
7. Which of the following would not be considered an overhead
hazard for crane operations?
A. power lines.
B. scaffolding.
C. skip loaders.
D. tower cranes.
8. One of the first activities in assuring safe crane site clearances
is determining available at the lift location.
A. space.
B. equipment.
C. supervision.
D. manpower.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 23 of 22


CHAPTER 1 Section 4 Review Questions (cont)
9. Provisions for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are
covered under?
A. 29 CFR 1926.1400 .
B. 29 CFR 1926.28.
C. 29 CFR 1926.251.
D. 29 CFR 1910.184.
10.It may be necessary to and deny access to areas
where load movement could endanger the public?
A. identify.
B. post signs.
C. barricade.
D. stop.

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 24 of 22


• SUMMARY

1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 25 of 22


Thank You For Your Attention

• Refer to Manual & Overlays


1-6-10 © NorAm Productions, Inc. 2008 Slide 26 of 22

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