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Metal Forming Fundamentals

1. Overview of Metal Forming


2. Material Behavior in Metal Forming
3. Temperature in Metal Forming
4. Friction and Lubrication in Metal Forming

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Material Behaviour

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Classification
of metal forming operations

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Metalworking and Bulk Deformation
Processes
1. Rolling
2. Other Deformation Processes Related to
Rolling
3. Forging
4. Other Deformation Processes Related to
Forging
5. Extrusion
6. Wire and Bar Drawing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Metal Forming
Large group of manufacturing processes in which
plastic deformation is used to change the shape of
metal workpieces
 The tool, usually called a die, applies stresses that
exceed the yield strength of the metal
 The metal takes a shape determined by the
geometry of the die

Forming operates on the materials science


principle of plastic deformation, where the
physical shape of a material is permanently
deformed.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Stresses in Metal Forming
 Stresses to plastically deform the metal are
usually compressive
 Examples: rolling, forging, extrusion
 However, some forming processes
 Stretch the metal (tensile stresses)
 Others bend the metal (tensile and
compressive)
 Still others apply shear stresses

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Material Properties in Metal Forming
 Desirable material properties:
 Low yield strength
 High ductility
 These properties are affected by temperature:
 Ductility increases and yield strength
decreases when work temperature is
raised
 Plastic region of stress-strain curve is primary
interest because material is plastically
deformed

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Temperature in Metal Forming
 Any deformation operation can be
accomplished with lower forces and power at
elevated temperature
 Three temperature ranges in metal forming:
 Cold working
 Warm working
 Hot working

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Recrystallization
Recrystallization
Recrystallization
Cold Working
 Cold Working :T<0.3Tm
 Mechanical working of a metal below the recrystallization
temperature (Room Temperature) is known as cold working.
 Reduces the amount of plastic deformation that a material can
undergo in subsequent processing and requires more power for
further working
 Types
 Drawing
 Squeezing
 Bending

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages of Cold Forming

Cold Working
 Advantages
 Better surface finish
 High dimensional accuracy
 Sheets and wires can be produced
 Suitable for Mass production
 Disadvantages
 Stress formation in metal very high
 Close tolerances cannot be achieved
 No Refined grain structure

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Disadvantages of Cold Forming
 Higher forces and power required in the
deformation operation
 Surfaces of starting workpiece must be free of
scale and dirt
 Ductility and strain hardening limit the amount
of forming that can be done
 In some cases, metal must be annealed to
allow further deformation
 In other cases, metal is simply not ductile
enough to be cold worked

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Hot Working

Hot Working: T>0.5Tm


Mechanical working of a metal above the recrystallization
temperature but below the melting point is known as hot working.
The temperature at which the complete recrystallization of a
metal take place with in a specified time
The recrystallization temperature of metal will be about 30 to
40% of its melting temperature.
Types
Forging
Rolling
Extrusion
Drawing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Why Hot Working?
Hot Working
 Advantages
 Force requirement is less
 Refined grain structure
 No stress formation
 Quick and Economical
 Suitable for all metals
 Disadvantages
 Poor surface finish
 Less accuracy
 Very high tooling and handling cost
 Sheets and wires cannot be produced

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Basic Types of Deformation Processes

1. Bulk deformation
 Rolling
 Forging
 Extrusion
 Wire and bar drawing
2. Sheet metalworking
 Bending
 Deep drawing
 Cutting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Bulk Deformation Processes
 Bulk deformation processes are generally
characterized by significant deformations and
massive (heavy or large) shape changes
 Metal forming operations which cause
significant shape change by deforming metal
parts whose initial form is bulk rather than
sheet
 "Bulk" refers to work parts with relatively low
surface area-to-volume ratios
 Starting work shapes include cylindrical
bar/billets and rectangular bars

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Four Basic Bulk Deformation Processes
1. Rolling – slab or plate is squeezed between
opposing rolls
2. Forging – work is squeezed and shaped
between opposing dies
3. Extrusion – work is squeezed through a die
opening, thereby taking the shape of the
opening
4. Wire and bar drawing – diameter of wire or bar
is reduced by pulling it through a die opening

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
ROLLING

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Rolling
Deformation process in which work thickness is
reduced by compressive forces exerted by
two opposing rolls

Figure 19.1 The rolling process (specifically, flat rolling).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
The Rolls
Rotating rolls perform two main functions:
 Pull the work into the gap between them by friction
between workpart and rolls
 Simultaneously squeeze the work to reduce its cross
section

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Types of Rolling

 Based on workpiece geometry :


 Flat rolling - used to reduce thickness of
a rectangular cross section
 Shape rolling - square cross section is
formed into a shape such as an I-beam
 Based on work temperature :
 Hot Rolling – most common due to the
large amount of deformation required
 Cold rolling – produces finished sheet
and plate stock

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Rolled Products Made of Steel

Figure 19.2 Some of the steel products made in a rolling mill.


©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Rolling Process
Spreading of a Strip

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Rolling Process

• Metal strip enters the roll


gap
• The strip is reduced in size
by the metal rolls
• The velocity of the strip is
increased the metal strip is
reduced in size

• Factors affecting Rolling


Process
• Frictional Forces
• Roll Force and Power
Requirement
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Diagram of Flat Rolling

Figure 19.3 Side view of flat rolling, indicating before and after
thicknesses, work velocities, angle of contact with rolls, and other
features.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Rolling Process
Roller Levelling and Defects in Flat Rolling

A method of roller levelling to


flatten rolled sheets

Schematic illustration of
typical defects in flat rolling:
(a) wavy edges; (b) zipper
cracks in the center of the
strip; (c) edge cracks; and (d)
alligatoring.
Shape Rolling
Work is deformed into a contoured cross section
rather than flat (rectangular)
 Accomplished by passing work through rolls
that have the reverse of desired shape
 Products include:
 Construction shapes such as I-beams,
L-beams, and U-channels
 Rails for railroad tracks
 Round and square bars and rods

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shape Rolling

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Rolling Mills
 Equipment is massive and expensive
 Rolling mill configurations:
 Two-high – two opposing rolls
 Three-high – work passes through rolls in
both directions
 Four-high – backing rolls support smaller
work rolls
 Cluster mill – multiple backing rolls on
smaller rolls
 Tandem rolling mill – sequence of two-high
mills

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two-High Rolling Mill

Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (a) 2-high


rolling mill.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Three-High Rolling Mill

Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (b) 3-high


rolling mill.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Four-High Rolling Mill

Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (c) four-high


rolling mill.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cluster Mill
Multiple backing rolls allow even smaller roll diameters

Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (d) cluster mill

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Tandem Rolling Mill

A series of rolling stands in sequence

Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (e)


tandem rolling mill.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Thread Rolling (line/filament)
Bulk deformation process used to form threads
on cylindrical parts by rolling them between
two dies
 Important commercial process for mass
producing bolts and screws
 Performed by cold working in thread rolling
machines
 Advantages over thread cutting (machining):
 Higher production rates
 Better material utilization
 Stronger threads and better fatigue
resistance due to work hardening

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Thread Rolling

Figure 19.6 Thread rolling with flat dies: (1) start of cycle, and
(2) end of cycle.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ring Rolling

Deformation process in which a thick-walled ring of


smaller diameter is rolled into a thin-walled ring of
larger diameter
 As thick-walled ring is compressed, deformed metal
elongates, causing diameter of ring to be enlarged
 Hot working process for large rings and cold working
process for smaller rings
 Applications: ball and roller bearing races, steel tires
for railroad wheels, and rings for pipes, pressure
vessels, and rotating machinery
 Advantages: material savings, ideal grain orientation,
strengthening through cold working

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ring Rolling

Figure 19.7 Ring rolling used to reduce the wall thickness and increase
the diameter of a ring: (1) start, and (2) completion of process.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
FORGING

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Forging

Figure 18.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (b) forging

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Forging
Deformation process in which work is compressed
between two dies
 Oldest of the metal forming operations, dating
from about 5000 B C
 Components: engine crankshafts, connecting
rods, gears, aircraft structural components, jet
engine turbine parts
 Also, basic metals industries use forging to
establish basic form of large parts that are
subsequently machined to final shape and size

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
ENGINE CRANKSHAFT

CONNECTING ROD
Classification of Forging Operations
 Cold vs. hot forging:
 Hot or warm forging – most common, due
to the significant deformation and the need
to reduce strength and increase ductility of
work metal
 Cold forging – advantage: increased
strength that results from strain hardening
 Impact vs. press forging:
 Forge hammer - applies an impact load
 Forge press - applies gradual pressure

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Types of Forging Dies

 Open-die forging - work is compressed


between two flat dies, allowing metal to flow
laterally with minimum constraint
 Impression-die forging - die contains cavity
or impression that is imparted to workpart
 Metal flow is constrained so that flash is
created
 Flashless forging - workpart is completely
constrained in die
 No excess flash is created

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Open-Die Forging

Figure 19.9 Three types of forging: (a) open-die forging.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Open-Die Forging

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Open-Die Forging
Compression of workpart between two flat dies
 Similar to compression test when workpart has
cylindrical cross section and is compressed
along its axis
 Deformation operation reduces height and
increases diameter of work
 Common names include upsetting or upset
forging

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Impression-Die Forging

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Impression-Die Forging

Compression of workpart by dies with inverse of


desired part shape
 Flash is formed by metal that flows beyond die
cavity into small gap between die plates
 Flash must be later trimmed, but it serves an
important function during compression:
 As flash forms, friction resists continued
metal flow into gap, constraining material to
fill die cavity
 In hot forging, metal flow is further restricted
by cooling against die plates

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Flashless Forging

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Flashless Forging
Compression of work in punch and die tooling
whose cavity does not allow for flash
 Starting workpart volume must equal die
cavity volume within very close tolerance
 Process control more demanding than
impression-die forging
 Best suited to part geometries that are
simple and symmetrical
 Often classified as a precision forging
process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages and Limitations
 Advantages of impression-die forging
compared to machining from solid stock:
 Higher production rates
 Less waste of metal
 Greater strength
 Favorable grain orientation in the metal
 Limitations:
 Not capable of close tolerances
 Secondary Machining often required to
achieve accuracies and features needed

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Terminologies in forging

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Upsetting and Heading
Forging process used to form heads on nails,
bolts, and similar hardware products
 Performed cold, warm, or hot on machines
called headers or formers
 Wire or bar stock is fed into machine, end is
headed, then piece is cut to length
 For bolts and screws, thread rolling is then
used to form threads

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Upset Forging

Figure 19.22 An upset forging operation to form a head on a bolt


or similar hardware item The cycle consists of: (1) wire stock
is fed to the stop, (2) gripping dies close on the stock and the
stop is retracted, (3) punch moves forward, (4) bottoms to
form the head.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Heading (Upset Forging)

Figure 19.23 Examples of heading (upset forging) operations: (a)


heading a nail using open dies, (b) round head formed by punch,
(c) and (d) two common head styles for screws formed by die, (e)
carriage bolt head formed by punch and die.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Trimming
Cutting operation to remove flash from workpart
in impression-die forging
 Usually done while work is still hot, so a
separate trimming press is included at the
forging station
 Trimming can also be done by alternative
methods, such as grinding or sawing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Trimming After Impression-Die Forging

Figure 19.29 Trimming operation (shearing process) to remove


the flash after impression-die forging.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Swagging

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Roll Forging

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
EXTRUSION

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion
Compression forming process in which work
metal is forced to flow through a die opening to
produce a desired cross-sectional shape
 Process is similar to squeezing toothpaste out
of a toothpaste tube
 In general, extrusion is used to produce long
parts of uniform cross sections
 Two basic types:
 Direct extrusion
 Indirect extrusion

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion

Figure 18.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (c) extrusion

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Several types of extrusion process
 Direct Extrusion
~ A metal billet is located into a container, and a ram
compresses the material, forcing it to flow through one or
more openings in a die at the opposite end of the container.
Hollow and Semi-Hollow Shapes

Figure 19.31 (a) Direct extrusion to produce a hollow or semi-hollow


cross sections; (b) hollow and (c) semi-hollow cross sections.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Indirect Extrusion

Figure 19.32 Indirect extrusion to produce (a) a solid


cross section and (b) a hollow cross section.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Comments on Indirect Extrusion
 Also called backward extrusion and reverse
extrusion
 One advantage of the indirect extrusion
process is that there is no friction, during the
process, between the billet and the container
liner.
 Limitations of indirect extrusion are imposed by
 Lower rigidity of hollow ram
 Difficulty in supporting extruded product as it
exits die

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages of Extrusion
 Variety of shapes possible, especially in hot
extrusion
 Limitation: part cross section must be
uniform throughout length
 Grain structure and strength enhanced in cold
and warm extrusion
 Close tolerances possible, especially in cold
extrusion
 In some operations, little or no waste of material

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Hot Extrusion
 Hot extrusion - prior Material Temperature [°C (°F)]
heating of billet to above
its recrystallization Magnesium 350-450 (650-850)
temperature
 Reduces strength and Aluminium 350-500 (650-900)
increases ductility of
Copper 600-1100 (1200-2000)
the metal, permitting
more size reductions Steel
1200-1300 (2200–
and more complex 2400)
shapes Titanium 700-1200 (1300-2100)

1000-1200 (1900–
Nickel
2200)

Refractory alloys up to 2000 (4000)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Warm and Cold Extrusion
 Warm extrusion is done above room
temperature, but below the recrystallization
temperature of the material the temperatures

 Cold extrusion is done at room temperature or


near room temperature.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Complex Cross Section

Figure 19.36 A complex extruded cross section for a heat


sink (photo courtesy of Aluminum Company of America)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion

Extruded aluminium with several hollow


cavities; slots allow bars to be joined with
special connectors.

Extrusion of a round blank through a die.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
WIRE AND
BAR
DRAWING
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Wire and Bar Drawing

Figure 18.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (d) drawing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Wire Drawing
 Continuous drawing machines consisting of
multiple draw dies (typically 4 to 12) separated
by accumulating drums
 Each drum (capstan) provides proper force
to draw wire stock through upstream die
 Each die provides a small reduction, so
desired total reduction is achieved by the
series
 Annealing sometimes required between dies
to relieve work hardening

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Continuous Wire Drawing

Figure 19.42 Continuous drawing of wire.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Draw Die Details

Figure 19.43 Draw die for drawing of round rod or wire.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
8
3 BULK DEFORMATION PROCESSES
IN METALWORKING

1. Rolling

2. Forging

3. Extrusion

4. Wire and Bar Drawing


SHEET METALWORKING

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover,


“Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”

84
8
5

SHEET METALWORKING

1. Cutting Operations
2. Bending Operations
3. Drawing
4. Sheet Metal Operations Not
Performed on Presses
8
6

Sheet Metalworking Defined

Cutting and forming operations performed on


relatively thin sheets of metal
 Thickness of sheet metal = 0.4 mm (1/64
in) to 6 mm (1/4 in)
 Thickness of plate stock > 6 mm
 Operations usually performed as cold
working
8
7

Sheet and Plate Metal Products

 Sheet and plate metal parts for


consumer and industrial products such
as
 Automobiles and trucks
 Airplanes
 Railway cars and locomotives
 Farm and construction equipment
 Small and large appliances
 Office furniture
 Computers and office equipment
8
8

Advantages of Sheet Metal Parts

 High strength
 Good dimensional accuracy
 Good surface finish
 Relatively low cost
 For large quantities, economical mass
production operations are available
8
9

Sheet Metalworking Terminology

1. “Punch-and-die”
 Tooling to perform cutting, bending, and
drawing
2. “Stamping press”
 Machine tool that performs most sheet
metal operations
3. “Stampings”
 Sheet metal products
9
0
Three Major Categories of
Sheet Metal Processes

1. Cutting
◦ Shearing to separate large sheets; or
cut part perimeters or make holes in
sheets

2. Bending
◦ Straining sheet around a straight axis

3. Drawing
◦ Forming of sheet into convex or
concave shapes
9
1

I. Cutting

Shearing between two sharp cutting edges


9
2

Shearing, Blanking, and Punching

Three principal operations in pressworking


that cut sheet metal:
 Shearing
 Blanking
 Punching
9
3

Shearing

Sheet metal cutting operation along a


straight line between two cutting edges
 Typically used to cut large sheets into
smaller sections for subsequent
operations
9
4

Blanking and Punching


Blanking - sheet metal cutting to separate piece
from surrounding stock
 Cut piece is the desired part, called a blank

Punching - sheet metal cutting similar to blanking


except cut piece is scrap, called a slug
 Remaining stock is the desired part

(a) Blanking and (b) punching


9
5

Clearance in Sheet Metal Cutting

Distance between the punch and die


 Typical values range between 4% and
8% of stock thickness
 If too small, fracture lines pass each other,
causing double burnishing and larger force
 If too large, metal is pinched between
cutting edges and excessive burr results
9
6

II. Bending
Straining sheetmetal around a straight axis to
take a permanent bend

(a) Bending of sheet metal (b) both compression and tensile


elongation of the metal occur in
bending
9
7

Types of Sheetmetal Bending


 V-bending - performed with a V-shaped die
 Edge bending - performed with a wiping die
9
8

V-Bending
 For low production
 Performed on a press brake
 V-dies are simple and inexpensive
9
9

Edge Bending
 For high production
 Pressure pad required
 Dies are more complicated and costly
1
0
0

Springback in Bending

Springback = increase in included angle of


bent part relative to included angle of
forming tool after tool is removed
 Reason for springback:
 When bending pressure is removed, elastic
energy remains in bent part, causing it to
recover partially toward its original shape
1
0
1

III. Drawing

Sheet metal forming to make cup-shaped,


box-shaped, or other complex-curved,
hollow-shaped parts

Products: beverage cans,


ammunition shells,
automobile body panels
1
0
2

IV. Shapes other than Cylindrical Cups


 Square or rectangular boxes (as in
sinks),
 Stepped cups,
 Cones,
 Cups with spherical rather than flat
bases,
 Irregular curved forms (as in automobile
body panels)

 Each of these shapes presents its own


unique technical problems in drawing
1
0
3

Ironing
 Makes wall thickness of cylindrical cup more uniform
 Examples: beverage cans and artillery shells

Ironing to achieve a more uniform wall thickness in a drawn cup:


(1) start of process; (2) during process
Note thinning and elongation of walls
1
0
4

Embossing
 Used to create indentations in sheet, such as raised
(or indented) lettering or strengthening ribs

Embossing: (a) cross-section of punch and die configuration during


pressing; (b) finished part with embossed ribs