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Components of immunity:

Contains two major components:

1. Innate Immunity (Non-specific)

2. Adaptive Immunity (Specific)

Innate immunity:

• The innate immune system, also known

as non-specific immune system.

• Innate immune systems provide immediate

defense against infection, and are found in all
classes of plant and animal life.
Defensive barriers of Innate Immunity:

Innate Immune system

First line Second line

1) Anatomic barriers A) cells
2) Chemical & biochemical inhibitors 1- Natural killer
3) Normal flora 2- Phagocytes
B) Soluble factors
C) Inflammatory
First line:
1) Anatomic barriers:
 Intact skin
 Mucous coat
 Mucous secretion
 Blinking reflex and tears
 The hair at the nares
 Coughing and sneezing reflex
2) Chemical & biochemical inhibitors

 Sweat and sebaceous secretion

 Hydrolytic enzymes in saliva
 HCl of the stomach
 Proteolytic enzyme in small intestine
 Lysozyme in tears
 Acidic pH in the adult vagina
3) Normal bacterial flora:

 Competition for essential nutrients

 Production of inhibitory substances

Second line:

a) Natural Killer Cells (NK):

 Effectors of innate immunity

 Cytotoxic lymphocyte
 Differentiate and mature in the bone
marrow, lymph node, spleen, tonsils and

• Cytolytic Granule Mediated Cell Apoptosis.

• Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated
Cytotoxicity (ADCC).

• Cytokine induced NK and CTL activation

• Tumor cell surveillance

b) Phagocytes:

 Cells that protect the body by ingesting

harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead
or dying cells.

 The professional phagocytes include cells

called neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages,
dendritic cells, and mast cells.
 Elle Mechnikov was the first to observe
phagocytosis by white blood cells.

I. Chemo taxis & attachment:

a- Attraction by chemo tactic substances

(microbes, damaged tissues)

b- Attachment by receptors( such as TLRs ) on

surfaces of phagocytes.
II. Ingestion:

* Phagocyte pseudopodia surround

organism forming phagosome.

* Opsonin and co-factors enhance


* Fusion with phagocyte granules and release

digestive, toxic contents
III. Killing :

 Digestion and killing by Lysozyme.

2. Soluble factors:

 Acute phase protein (Plasma protein,

CRP=C reactive protein, Fibrin.)
 Complement (proteins in serum, body
 Interferon (Proteins against viral
 Properdin (Complement activation)
 Lactoferrrin, Transferrin (Iron binding
 Lactoperoxidase (Saliva & Milk)
 Lysozyme (Hydrolyze cell wall)
3. Inflammatory barriers:

 Tissue damage caused by a wound or by an

invading pathogenic microorganism induces a
complex sequence of events collectively known as
Inflammatory response.

 Inflammation is stimulated by chemical factors

released by injured cells and serves to establish a
physical barrier against the spread of infection,
and to promote healing of any damaged tissue
following the clearance of pathogens.

 Chemical factors produced during inflammation

are histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, leukotrienes,
and prostaglandins.