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POLICE PATROL

ORGANIZATION WITH
POLICE COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM

By:

AUDIE HARRISON B. ROJAS


D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 ADMINISTRATION – Denotes functions that determine the
basic policies, programs and objectives of an organization and
the means and method to the employed to achieve them.
 AERIAL/SKYPATROL – I t was activated on April 20, 1996
and formally launched on May 2, 1996 for air patrol operation
in NCR with three helicopter as its initial air assist
capability.
 AFTERNON SHIFT – It is usually the busiest and offers the
greatest variety of activities wherein officers deployed on the
afternoon shift encounter a broad range of activities ad
people that make their job challenging. The afternoon shift
combines the service orientation of the day shift with the
criminal apprehension function of the midnight shift.
 AUTOMOBILE PATROL – It is the most extensively used
and the most effective means of transportation for police
patrol.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 BACK BERAND – Refers to a thief found with stolen goods
borne on his back.
 BAY AND RIVER PATROL – It is specialized being highly
operating in water maintains the common form of patrol.
 BEAT- It is an area assigned for patrol purposes, whether
foot or motorized.
 BILLY- a policeman’s nightstick or baton.
 BICYLCLE PATROL- Is a type of patrol which utilizes
bicycles and ace a combine advantage if mobility, speed and
stealth. They are easily maneuvered in crowded areas and
cheaper operate.
 BLISTERFOOT- use to denote a policeman in uniform in
patrol assignment.
 BLOODLESS EMERGENCY- an urgent situation
confronting a police officer where the subject is not involved in
violence such as accidents, shooting incidents, or street fights.
This refers particularly to mental cases victims of drugs,
alcohol or suicidal patients.
 BUREAU – largest organic unit within a large department.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 CANINE UNITS - dogs often used in lieu of a second officer in a
motorized patrol unit. They serve as supplement to the regular
patrol force and allow officers to patrol the same or greater area and
maybe utilized in the detection of explosives, drugs and other
contrabands.
 CHAIN OF COMMAND - it is a system which has for its purpose
to ensure that order, directive and other information are issued
downward and upward through the organizational structure and
timely and uniformed manner, it is intended to help the supervision
to established and maintains necessary control over the activities of
his subordinates.
 CHECK POINTS - a strategic point or area manned for uniformed
policemen to establish to check/intercept the passage of
suspect/criminal and contrabands. Also referred to as choke points.
 COLUMN FORMATION - used generally for approach to the riot
area.
 COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT - this involves knowing the
geographical location, topography, streets and people as well as the
political organization in the area of responsibility. Its objective is to
create a climate of trust and understanding within the community.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 COMPREHENSIVE PATROL -kind of alternative patrol
system where in the regular police patrol duties are
augmented with prescribed objectives and verifiable tasks.
 COPS – Community Oriented Policy System.
 CRIME STATISTICS - it is a science dealing with the
collection, analysis, interpretation , and presentation, of
masses of numerical data on crime.
 DAY SHIFT - this shift is devoted to service activities. The
people that a police officer meets during the day shift are
usually law abiding and create new problems. The often
concentrate patrol effort around parks and congested
recreational areas. Officers assign to the day shift do not do a
lot of hand core crime fighting; they tend to be more service
oriented.
 DECOY PATROL – This patrol methods rely heavily upon
disguise, deception, and lying in wait rather than upon high-
visibility patrol techniques.
 DESIRE AND OPPURTUNITY – Consistent factors in the
commission o crime.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 DIRECTED DETERRENT PATROL – In this patrol
method the patrol officers perform specific predetermined
preventive functions on a planned and systematic basis.
These
 preventive activities are designed on the basis of detailed
analysis of crime incidents offender’s characteristics, methods
of operating, and location. It attempts to identify certain
crime trends and then develop specific patrol methods to
interrupt these patterns. Ideally suited for cities which are
large enough to experience crimes problems in which patterns
and characteristics can be identified.
 DISCRETION - Refers to the wise use of ones judgment, by
utilizing personal experience and common sense to decide on
the course of action to be taken for a particular situation.
 DISTRICT – A geographical subdivision of the city for patrol
purposes usually with its own situation.
 DISTRICT ORIENTATION TOUR- Utilized to familiarize
and orients a policeman about the patterns and
characteristics of his patrol area before he goes out on actual
patrol.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 EMERGENCY CALL- A kind of call which requires the use of the
flashing light and siren and may violate traffic laws provided that
extreme care is exercised.
 EVENT ORIENTED PATROL- Refers to the identification of
events which may require the application of intensified patrol efforts
or different kinds of patrol efforts strategies due to the nature of the
problems they may create.
 FIXED WING AIRCRAFT PATROL- This type of patrol would
afford police officers to cover vast area particularly inaccessible
remote areas at the least possible time without the hassle of
refueling in cases of long distance which has to be covered.
 FOOT PATROL - Traditional type of patrolling which greatly
advantageous in terms of fostering police community relations. It is
an integral element of many modern community oriented policing
programs. The foot patrol officer is usually able to develop a much
closer relationship with the people who reside, shop or work in his
beat. He can readily identify people on the beat since they experience
impersonal and direct contact with them. The various roles of an
officer information provider, assistance giver, law enforcer, councilor
and friend are facilitated by this patrol method.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION - This organization, the
performance of certain duties at all levels is controlled and
directed by separate organizational authority.
 HAZARD - Is any person, thing situation or condition or
place which if allowed to exist may induce an accident or
cause the commission of crime.
 HIGH VISIBILITY PATROL – The theory underlying high
visibility patrol is that there are certain kinds of crimes.
 HORSE PATROL - Used for certain patrol problems in
jurisdiction that contain large park areas of similar places
where automobiles either cannot go or may be forbidden.
 HOUSE VISITATION - This function is performed by patrol
units where policeman routinely visit residential houses and
work places to offer crime prevention advice or to organize
community crime groups.
 INSPECTIONAL SERVICES - Are effectively performed by
foot patrolmen in uniform, as they go about their routine
tasks o walking their assigned beats, they pay particular
attention to persons and thing.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 LAW ENFORCEMENT - This embraces crime prevention and
crime control role, including the customary police functions.
 LEAP FROG - Method where two patrol officers alternately take
the lead in the search and cover each others as they progressively
move on.
 LOCATION ORIENTED PATROL- The process of conducting
intensified surveillance over selected areas that have been identified
through crime analysis or though intelligence data as being high
risk areas for the commission of selected types of crimes.
 LOW VISIBILITY PATROL - Low visibility patrol is design to
increase the rate of apprehension of persons engaged in selected
types of crimes. Its secondary effect is that other types of crimes will
be deterred as the result of greater probability of persons being
arrested in the commission of the crime.
 MALFEASANCE – It is the performance of some act which ought
not to e done.
 MARINE PATROL - Water patrol units are highly specialized form
of police patrol and are utilized in those communities that have
access to navigable waterways such as lakes oceans, and rivers.
They represent and extremely valuable addition the regular patrol
force.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 MEETING UNUSUAL NEEDS - This refers to the result of
intermittent and usually unexpected variations in activities,
civil disturbances, special community events, disaster plans,
and civil defense.
 MIDNIGHT SHIFT - Called “graveyard shift” to denote lack
of activities or “dog watch “which suggest that it is the
penalty box of the police work. It is for the reason that due to
the seniority the youngest and least experienced officers often
end on this shift.
 MISFEASANCE - It is the improper performance of some
act which ought not to be done.
 MOB - Refers to e crowd which may become boisterous
disorderly and may cause violence and lawlessness.
 MOBILE PATROL - It is the dominant form of police patrol
method.
 MOTORCYCLE - Primarily used for traffic control and
enforcement their speed and maneuverability makes them an
indispensable police vehicle.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 NON-FEASANCE - It is the omission of some act which ought to
be performed.
 OFFENDER ORIENTED PATROL - Refers to the process of
conducting surveillance of an individual. In this case intelligence
data as well criminal history information on non offenders will form
the basis for the identification of targets against which patrol
efforts are directed.
 PARTICIPATIVE LAW ENFORCEMENT - Locally referred to as
the community oriented policing systems or cops, it now has wide
applications by the PNP particularly in the Metro Manila area.
Teamwork concept between the police and the citizenry is not
something new although it seems to be something new to those who
are not aware of or have forgotten the basic.
 PATROL - Refers t e repeated circuit of in guarding covering in a
particular area. It is the only form of police service which directly
attempts to eliminate the desire and opportunity of an individual to
commit misconduct.
 PATROLLING - It is a system of sending out of uniform police
men to conduct police visibility patrols within area of responsibility
and prevent the commission of crimes.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 PATROL FORCE - it is the largest elements in a police
organization whose members patrol the streets on foots, dressed in
the familiar khaki uniform, or riding a conspicuously marked,
radio-equipped patrols car, the nature of their service bring them in
direct and constant contact with the public every hour of the night,
an every day an and height of the year.
 PATROL HAZARD - A term used frequently to describe a specific
condition or place that requires a patrols officer’s special attention.
 PATROL OBSERVATION - Refers to constant an alert patrolling
with keen sense of observation on persons and thing and is use as
gauge of efficient patrol offices.
 PATROILER - A French word which roughly means, “to travel on
foot.” Origin of the word Patrol
 PCP - Refers to the present day local Police Community Precinct
which evolved from the NCOB program (New Cops on the black)
and from the cops (Community Oriented Policing System) they are
smaller units which were established to operate below the police
station level. To develop trust, confidence, support and cooperation
between the member of the police force and the community, Police
Community Precinct (PCP) has been organized in Metro Manila. In
other area of responsibility, the COPS KABABAYAN centers have
been established. The goal of this mini police department to bring
the police closer to the people they serve.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 POLICE OMNIPRESENT - This is crime repression activity of the
police which is accomplished by making their presence known and
deploying patrol units in the plain cloths to create in the mind of
the citizens that the policemen are everywhere.
 POLITEIA - Etymology of the word police, meaning government
of a city.
 POST - A fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for
duty, such as designated desk or office/ crosswalk or an intersection
for traffic duty/ or spot or location for general duty.
 PRECAUTIONARY ACTIVITY - These would refer to the system
of vigilant duty whereby the policemen assigned thereat cope
instantly with outbreak of incident or accident. This is achieved by
consultation and dialogue between the police and residents on how
to prevent similar incident of disorder.
 PROACTIVE PATROL - Refer to an alternative patrol systems
which means the fielding on the field units in their respective
area of responsibility with prescribed objectives and
 verifiable tasks scheduled for the day to augment the calls and other
on sight activities that makes up the officer’s day.
 QUADRANT - Using the scene of the crime as the center of the
quadrant grid, the areas to be searched is divided into four equal “
pie shaped” quarters generating from the center.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 REACTIVE PATROL- This is a traditional patrol activity which
consists driving around the district waiting for something to happen.
 REPRESSION OF CRIMINAL AN DELIQUENT
BEHAVIOR- Repression f crime is
 generally accomplished whether by having police officers present at
specific location maintaining a highly visible profile or by publicizing a
highly active cover operation.
 REPRESSIVE POLICE- A style of policing which generally tends to
alienate the police from the community use by rules and government
lacking popular support and rely on this technique to maintain them in
power.
 ROUTE- It is a light of streets, designated for patrol purposes also
referred to as line beat.
 SATURATE PATROL- A technique which calls for the deployment
of as many police officers as possible in a specific geographic area with
known crime trend.
 SECTION- function units within a particular division, necessary for
specialization.
 SECTOR - An area containing two or more boats, routes or pots.
 SELECTIVE EMFORCEMENT - It is refer to targeting of specific
criminal activity which can be used with favorable result to respond
high levels of criminal conduct. It allows a department to maximize
personnel deployment with respect to emergent crime trends with
minimum impact on normal patrol operations.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 SHIFT SCHEDULING - It is one of the most important task face
by patrol dispatchers and police administrators. It is undertaken by
dividing the numbers of variable patrol hours into the number of
hours actually devoted to call for service or other work load
indicators.
 SKIRMISHER TERRAIN PATROL - Usually four wheel drive
vehicles designed to easily maneuver an traverse with ease sandy
area such as desserts and beach fronts as well as prone to floods.
This would enable patrol officers to respond quickly to calls to
emergency scenes, which may not be accessible to more conventional
forms of transportation.
 SPECIFIC DETERRENCE- It is of crime prevention technique
which has an effect to an activity of a specific individual or group.
 SPLIT FORCE PATROL- A means of satisfying the needs of both
prevention patrol an the demands made by calls for service.
 SPOT COVER - Usually a fixed post, generally at an intersection or
some other vantage point, overlooking one or more possible avenue
of escape.
 STREET QUISTIONING METHODS - This is a method whereby
policemen on patrol may interview, within the bounds of law,
suspicious personalities at random in order to serve as deterrent to
those who intend to commit a crime.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 STRONG POINTS - A critical points or intersection manned by
minimum of five(5) uniformed police personnel pre deployed to
intercept fleeing bank robbers or criminals.
 SUBERSIVES – Are persons or organization, organized to over
throw legitimate government.
 SWAT – Special Weapons and Tactics. A specialized mobile police
assault force designed to quell threats and contain crisis.
 TACTICAL OPERATION AND STRATEGIES – It is the proper
utilization and deployment of the patrol force includes the design
and implementation of patrol strategies and tactical plans which
are designed t meet the daily operational requirements as well as
unique conditions that may arise from time to time.
 TARGET ORIENTED PATROL – Strategies which are directed
toward specific persons, places or events. Combining the elements
of high visibility and low visibility patrol, and directed deterrent
patrol to identify persons, places or events which attract to create
crime problems. Various means are then used either to deny the
opportunity for the crime to occur or to intercept the criminal in the
commissions of the offense.
D E F I N I T I O N OF T E R M S
 TEAM POLICING – Refers to a grassroots approach
undertaken to bring the people and the police together in a
cooperative situation. Its distinguishing feature is the
establishment of neighborhood. Crime watch groups for the
purpose of encouraging the people to report crimes and to
assume greater interest and responsibilities in crime and
prevention and suppression.
 UNIT – Functional groups within a section where further
specialization is needed.
 UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY – The continually conditions of
civil unrests and lawlessness making it apparent that it is
possible for a major disturbances to occur at any time or place
where politically active or militant people congregate, labor,
students, urban poor and other minority groups have become
prominent and dramatic in their effort to effect changes in
government and society.
 WEDGE FORMATION – Used in crowd control to clear the
street and splitting the mob.
POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS
 WHAT IS PATROL?
According to Hale, Patrol is the essence of police
function while Payton said, the Patrol Division is the
backbone of a police department. However, making it
simpler, patrol may refer to the regular tour made by a
guard in a place in order to protect it or to maintain
order. It could also mean a person or a group (such as a
police or military unit) sent to carry out a tour of duty in
a certain place with a particular mission either for
reconnaissance purposes or simply to provide protection.
POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS
 Etymology of the Term Police and Patrol
The term police originated from the Greek word
POLITEIA, which means civil organization and the
state; the Romans changed the word to POLITIA. The
French changed the word to POLICE to call those
people authorized to implement the law. The English
and the Americans borrowed the word from the French
and used it to describe a law enforcer. Cop and
Constable are other common descriptions of a police
officer. Cop is a Europian term meaning to Catch or
Seize.
It must be noted that terms constable and patrol
came from the French. Patrol originated directly or via
German Patrolla from the French Patrouller
(PATROULLIER), which originally means “ to walk
through mud in a military camp”.
POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS

Police Patrol: Attributes


a. Police patrol is a primary line function, that patrol
activities are considered basic and of first priority.
b. Patrol function is accurately called the backbone of the
police organization.
c. Patrol division has the initial responsibility for crime
prevention and detection, and the apprehension of
offender. It also assists in the presentation in the court
of law.
POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS
What is the Importance of Police patrol?
Obviously, the patrol force is indispensable unit in every police
organization. The following are the specific points that justify the
importance of Police Patrol;
1. Patrol is the essence of police operations.
2. The patrol group is the single largest unit in the police
organization.
3. Actions taken by the patrol officer have the most direct impact
on the citizen’s satisfaction and on the accomplishment of police
goals and objectives.
4. Patrol operation is the most visible form of activity that
enhances the welfare and security of the community.
5. Individual patrol officers represent the police department in its
contact with the community.
6. Individual patrol officers play a major role in determining the
quality of justice in a given community. Errors made by
patrolmen have significant negative effect in the public’s
perception and on the other components of the CJS.
7. The patrol officer is the most important human element of the
police organization since all police field operations are
supported by the patrol activity.
POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS
 What are the Patrol Functions?
 Based on the Section 1 of Rule II of the original Police
Manual, the patrol force has the primary responsibility
of safeguarding the community. This can be done
through the:
1. Protection of persons and property

2. Preservation of peace and order

3. Prevention of crime

4. Suppression of criminal activities

5. Apprehension of criminals

6. Enforcement of laws and ordinances

7. Regulation of criminal conduct

8. Performing necessary services and inspections


POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS
 Category of Police Functions:
a. Line functions which are those tasks that directly
facilitate the accomplishment of organizational goals.
b. None-line functions are those tasks that supplement
the line in its task performance

 Line functions or activities are further broken onto


subcategories, both of which are Field Services:
a. Primary Line Function – ex. Patrol
b. Secondary Line Function – ex. Traffic management,
criminal investigation, etc.

 Roles of the Police in the Society:


a. Crime Prevention
b. Crime Suppression
POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS
 Crime Prevention – is classically defined as the
anticipation, recognition and appraisal of crime risk and
the initiation of positive action to remove or reduce risk.
 Crime Suppression – is the modern approach in crime
control which deals with the apprehension,
investigation, trial, correction and punishment of the
criminal.
 Police Discretion – wise use one’s judgment, common
sense, and personal experience in making decision on a
particular situation.
 Immersion – is the process by which policeman merged
with the community in order to know them. This can
easily be done through patrol.
POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS
What is the Concept of Crime Prevention and Crime
Suppression?
 Theoretically, Crime Prevention involves the
suppression of the desire of potential criminals to
commit crimes. On the other hand, crime suppression
involves the elimination of the opportunity of criminals
to perform acts against the law.
 In reality, crime prevention and crime suppression are
activities that patrol officers do not bother to
distinguish. When they are deployed at the streets,
patrol officers have no time to ponder if what they do is
under crime prevention or crime suppression.
PATROL FORCE ORGANIZATION
Concept of Patrol Force Organization
Patrol force organization maybe defined as the
hierarchy of police officers working together towards a
common goal. The general goal of the patrol force is to
safeguard the community. To achieve this goal, patrol
officers must have coordinated activities whether these
are in the form of:
1. Protection of life and property
2. Preservation of peace and order
3. Prevention of crime
4. Suppression of criminal activities
5. Apprehension of criminals
6. Enforcement of laws and ordinances
7. Regulation of criminal conduct
8. Performing necessary services and inspections
PATROL THEORIES AND METHODS
A. Fundamental Theories of Patrol
1. Theory of Police Omnipresence – High Police Visibility
discourages criminals. Normally, criminals think twice
before executing their plans if there is obvious presence of
police officers. Thus, patrol activity should be carried in a
manner that attracts maximum attention to the police
officer or police vehicles. This theory applies the principle of
OVERT Operation or high visibility.
2. Low Profile Theory – Low Police Visibility increases the
opportunity to apprehend criminals. Deceptive absence of
the police officers will let criminals believe that they will not
be detected or caught if they execute crimes that they
planned. In this theory, the objective is to attract as little
attention as possible while on the process of patrolling. The
officers should operate in a manner that it would be difficult
for either criminals or the public to determine that police
are around. The principle of Covert Operation is integrated
in this theory.
PATROL THEORIES AND METHODS
The Meaning of the Word Patrol
 P – Policeman

 A – Assigned

 T – To

 R – Restore

 O – Order in the

 L – Locality
PATROL THEORIES AND METHODS
B. Patrol Methods
Patrol methods are various means of getting from one
place to another within a specified patrol jurisdiction. Various
methods of patrol are not intended to isolate the patrol officer
from the people he vowed to serve and protect.
Patrol effort made by the police may be in the form of
any or combination of the following:
1. Beat Patrol
a. Foot Patrol
b. Sector Patrol
2. Sector Patrol ( Motorized Patrol )
a. Automobile Patrol
b. Motorcycle Patrol
c. Aircraft Patrol ( Helicopter and Fixed Wing )
3. Specialized Patrol Methods
a. Horse (Mounted) Patrol
b. Marine (Water) Patrol
c. Canine (K-9) Assisted Patrol
d. Special Terrain Patrol
FOOT PATROL
Foot Patrol is restricted to small areas and is used to
deal with special situations while maintaining contact
with officers in patrol cars. Foot patrol is used to secure
Two Types of police geographical units;
1. Post – a fixed position or location where an officer is
assigned for guard duty.
2. Beat – the smallest area specifically assigned for
patrol purposes.
FOOT PATROL
 Types of Foot Patrol
1. Fixed Foot Patrol – is usually used for traffic,
surveillance, parades and special events.
2. Mobile Foot Patrol – is used where there is
considerable foot movement such as patrolling
business and shopping centers, high crime areas, and
in places where there are many or multiple family
dwellings.
a. Line Beat Patrol is used in securing a certain
portion of a road or beat.
b. Random Foot Patrol is used in checking residential
buildings, business establishments, dark alleys,
and parking lots.
FOOT PATROL
What are the factors to be considered in
determining the size of the beat?
1. Area to be patrolled;

2. Man – made and natural barriers

3. Number of men to patrol the area;

4. Type of patrol to be sued

What are the factors to be considered in


determining the number of men to be deployed?
1. Size or area to be patrolled

2. Topography ( Physical Characteristics or terrain of


the area )
3. Crime Rate

4. Possible problems to be encountered on the beat


FOOT PATROL
Advantages of Foot Patrol
1. Greater personal contact with the public leading to
increased community support for the police. Police becomes
closer to the community residents.
2. Greater opportunity to develop sources of information.
3. High police visibility. Regular police presence discourages
criminals and provides greater sense of security to
storekeepers, females, and elderly persons.
4. Places not accessible by motor vehicles are reached and
patrolled. Patrol officers can enter small alleys and side
streets.
5. Easier detection of criminal activities. Foot patrol provides
closer observation of the environment and the
circumstances that may require immediate police
attention.
6. Easy discovery and familiarization on the layout of the
beat. In- depth knowledge of the characters and problems
of the patrol area.
FOOT PATROL
Disadvantages of Foot Patrol
1. Low mobility resulting to limited coverage of the patrol
area.
2. Low response time to telephone complaints.
3. Foot patrol method involves a large number of personnel,
since officers are assigned on small areas of jurisdiction
called posts and beats.

AUTOMOBILE PATROL
The patrol car is the most extensively used and the most
effective means of transportation for police on patrol.
Equipped with state – of – the – art police gear, patrol cars
today provide a rapid, safe, and efficient means of
transportation under average operating conditions.
Automobile patrol has the greatest mobility and flexibility.
Most experts on patrol operation agree that it is the most cost
– effective method of patrol.
FOOT PATROL
Advantages of Automobile Patrol
1. High mobility allowing coverage of greater area.
2. Quicker response time to complaints. Greater efficiency
in responding to emergency calls and other called – for
services.
3. More economical as compared to foot patrol.
4. Enable more effective street pursuit of offenders.
5. Enable more effective traffic enforcement.
6. Provide an element of surprise, especially when crime
is in progress.
7. Provide the officers with necessary protection during
inclement weather.
8. Enable officers to carry supplementary equipment
essential in patrolling.
FOOT PATROL
Disadvantages of Automobile Patrol
1. Diminished personal contact with the public.

2. Little opportunity to develop sources of information.

3. Marked police vehicle hampers apprehension and


surveillance operations.
BICYCLE PATROL
Bicycle Patrol is growing in popularity because of
easy operation and its acceptance by the public,
particularly children who view them as a non-
threatening form of patrol. Bicycles are now used in
many countries as a simple and inexpensive means of
silent transportation to carry police officers throughout
their patrol district. Often, bicycles are used in parks
and on beaches and have many of the same advantages
and disadvantages as motorcycles.
BICYCLE PATROL
Advantages of Bicycle Patrol
1. Lower – cost (inexpensive) to operate as compared to
motorcycle and automobiles.
2. Areas not accessible by patrol cars or are too wide for
foot patrol can be covered by bicycle.
3. Increased mobility and stealth since bicycle can be
operated quietly and without attracting too much
attention.
4. Found to be highly effective in combating theft,
vandalism in residential areas, parks, shopping malls,
etc.
5. Effectively used by plainclothesmen for surveillance in
high crime areas wherein officers wearing nondescript
clothes could blend with the apparels worn by the
criminals.
MOTORCYCLE PATROL
Most police departments have their motorcycles
marked with the same insignia as their patrol cars.
Motorcycles are beginning to be a favorite of patrol
officers because of the ease and speed of moving around.
Motorcycle Patrol has many of the same advantages as
automobile patrol, especially in speed and
maneuverability. Motorcycles have greater access than
automobiles to some areas and are better suited to
heavy traffic, narrow alleys and rugged terrain.
MOTORCYCLE PATROL

Disadvantages of Motorcycle Patrol


1. Relatively high cost to operate.

2. Limited use in bad weather.

3. Inability to carry additional equipment or officers.

4. The danger involved in riding them.


HORSE PATROL (MOUNTED PATROL)
Mounted Patrol is decreasing in the US but still used in some
large cities for crowd and traffic control. Mounted officers are
usually more acceptable than K-9s as crowd control instruments.
Expense is one of the main advantages of mounted patrol. The
greatest advantage is that an officer on horseback is much more
effective at controlling a disorderly crowd than one on foot or in any
kind of vehicle (other than a tank). Mounted officers can see up to
three blocks away and cover more territory than officers on patrol.
Horses are useful in patrolling jurisdiction that covers large
park areas or similar places where automobiles cannot go or maybe
forbidden. Mobile patrol cars cannot be expected to race on grassy
fields or wooded areas but horses can.
Mounted patrol is also valuable in search-and-rescue efforts in
rural and wilderness areas.
Officers on horses have been called upon to:
1. Assist in evidence searches at crime scenes.
2. Round up straying cattle after a truck has tipped over.
3. Search for lost children in tall corn or grass where men on foot
would be ineffective.
AIRCRAFT PATROL
 Among the more recent trends in patrolling is the use of
aircraft, either helicopter or fixed-wing. Today, it has
become necessary for the police use aircraft in
performing both routine and specialized patrol
activities. The use of aircraft is not totally new. In 1925,
the Los Angeles County Sheriff Department has already
formed a volunteer Reserve Aero Squadron. Full-time
Aero detail is still an official unit in this police
department today.
WATER PATROL
(MARINE/BAY/RIVER PATROL)
 Water patrol units are extremely specialized and are not
in great use except in areas with extensive coasts or a
great deal of lake or river traffic. The objective was to
use the vehicles in

 anti-smuggling operations as well as against robberies


committed in warehouses along riverbanks or water
ports.
CANINE (K-9) ASSISTED PATROL
(DOG PATROL)
As earlier mentioned, the Egyptians were the first
to use dogs in patrolling. In the US, dogs have been used
in police patrol since 1900. In April 1957, Baltimore was
the only American police force that used trained dog
handler teams on patrol. As of April 1968, about 200
police agencies used a total of 500 man dog teams in
police patrol work.
Police dogs are especially useful in high crime
areas, in dangerous search situations, in dealing with
street gangs, in dispersing a crowd, in taking fleeing
suspects into custody, in guarding suspects, in searching
alleys, parks, schools, and other large building. A most
recent use of police dogs is in the search and detection
of drugs in packages or on suspects.
CANINE (K-9) ASSISTED PATROL
(DOG PATROL)
Uses of Dogs or K-9s in Police Operations
1. Provide great assistance in search and rescue as well as in
smelling out drugs and bombs.
2. Provide protection for 1 – officer patrol. Officer/s assigned to a high
crime area has little fear with a well-trained canine at their side.
3. Great value in crowd control since:
a. Properly trained dogs are virtually fearless;
b. Totally loyal to their handlers have a significant psychological
effect on would-be trouble makers.
4. Extensively used in international airports to detect narcotics and
bombs because of their keen sense of smell. A dog is capable of
recognizing an odor 10 million times better than a human can.
5. Specially trained dogs are extremely effective in finding bodies –
dead or alive, just buried or buried for years.
6. Locating trapped people during emergencies.
7. Can be an asset to public relations efforts.
8. Well-trained police dogs can be used for demonstrations in public
affairs, schools, or parades.
CANINE (K-9) ASSISTED PATROL
(DOG PATROL)
Disadvantages of Using K – 9
1. Most police dogs work with only one handler.

2. K – 9, like most dogs, is territorial, and its handler and


its K – 9 cruisers are part of its territory.
3. Dog training is expensive. Dog training usually takes
10 to 12 weeks.
4. Police department that initiates a K – 9 sections is
vulnerable to law suits.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
The following are simple but vital questions in the
management of a patrol unit in your own department or in any
police department.

WHAT IS A REACTIVE PATROL?


It is the old system of police patrol activity which consists of
continuously driving around the area of patrol waiting for
something to happen and to react accordingly in case something
does happen.
WHAT IS PROACTIVE PATROL?
It is the more economical alternative patrol system, which has an
objective approach against criminality as much as practicable. It
addresses crime at its very root before it is able to develop into
felonious act.
WHAT IS PARTICIPATIVELAW ENFORCEMENT?
It is a system where the citizenry and the police work together to
reduce crime, prevent juvenile delinquency and criminal behavior,
maintain peace and reduce local problems which are the mutual
responsibility of the police and the people.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
PREVENTION AND REPRESSION OF CRIMINAL
AND DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR?

PREVENTION is the objective aimed towards ways


and means to reduce the desire of the human being to
commit crime. REPRESSION, on the other hand is the
act of preventing the actual commission of crimes.
Repression is leveled on the prevention of the very act
itself which constitutes crimes.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS POLICE OMNIPRESENCE?
It is a crime repression activity of the police which is
accomplished by making their presence known in such a
way that even if they are no longer present in a certain
location, would be criminals would still have the
impression that they are still around and would
therefore refrain from committing an offense.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THE ACRONYM
COPS?
The acronym COPS refers to Community Oriented
Policing System. It is the deploying of policemen in
police blocks to provide police and public safety
services. It also involves the breaking down of large
and impersonal police departments into small units to
create a series of mini-police precincts, which are
responsive to the smaller communities.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PNPN’s
NEW COPS?
1. To enhance police visibility in order to reach out to the
community to serve the resident a policing out.
2. To improve police community relation to gain public
acceptance, build mutual respect and trust and
promote cooperation.
3. To attend sustained and integrated police – community
participation, in crime prevention and suppression.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS POLICE BLOCK?
This is the NCOB (New Cops on the Block) Center of
Command and Control of its activities and the police base
from which the citizen may seek assistance whether in
person, by radio or telephone.

WHAT IS THE SO-CALLED “HOUSE VISITATION”?


It is a function of NCOB’s where police officers on patrol visit
every house and work place to offer crime prevention advice
and to organize the neighborhood crime watch groups.

WHAT IS THE SO-CALLED “STREET QUESTIONING”


METHOD?
It is a method whereby policemen on patrol may interview
within the bounds of law suspicious personalities at random
in order to serve as a deterrent to those intended to commit a
crime.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS THE POLICE SOCIAL SERVICES OF THE
PNP?
It is a project that concerns a wide variety of activities
such as physical fitness and sports development and
formation and education and livelihood projects. The
following are some of the benevolent services performed
by the police patrol:
1. Midwife duties during childbirth.
2. Render first aid to accident victims.
3. Get relief assistance to disaster victims.
4. Mediate in family quarrels.
5. Delivery of death messages.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND ABOUT THE
CONCEPT OF “TEAM POLICING”?
It is the grassroots approach undertaken to bring the
people and the police together in a cooperative situation.
Its distinguishing feature is the establishments of
neighborhood crime watch groups to encourage the
people to report crimes and to assume greater interest
and responsibility in crime prevention and suppression.

WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF POLICE UNIFORM?


As with any other occupation, the police uniform is
intended to separate policemen from everyone who are
not in the same line of work to avoid confusion and to
assure others of his authority and his presence.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
GIVE THE FOUR KINDS OF INSPECTIONS
CONDUCTED BY POLICEMEN ON PATROL?
Policemen may conduct Building Inspection, Crime
Prevention Follow-up, House Inspection and Miscellaneous
Inspection.

WHAT IS PATROL HAZARD?


This is a term used frequently to describe a specific condition
or place that requires a patrol officer’s special attention.

WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF VEHICLE


INSPECTION FOR PATROL?
The emergency nature of police work demands that the
vehicle they use be in the best condition as possible not only
for routine patrol driving but also for pursuit operation.
Hence, there is a need for regular vehicle inspection.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF DISTRICT
ORIENTATION TOUR IN PREPARING FOR
PATROL?
Its purpose is to familiarize and orient a policeman
about the patterns and characteristics of his patrol area
before he conducts actual patrol?

WHAT IS POLICE SURVEILLANCE?


It is the process of keeping under observation a person;
a place or an object to obtain information material to the
solution of a case. It is also use to detect some forms of
criminal behaviors.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CALLS
RESPONSE BY THE POLICE PATROL?
1. ROUTINE CALL – Under this category, the mobile
car is required to observe all traffic laws and rules and
does not normally use its flashing lights and siren
while on its way to the scene. This includes when the
police responds to;
a. Provide police car transportation.
b. Obtain reports about offenses discovered after the
criminal has left and which does not involve injury.
c. Obtain information the nature of which is not given.
d. Investigate apparently abandoned vehicles.
e. Obtain damage reports.
f. Provide additional traffic control and direction.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
2. URGENT CALL – This is similar to the routine call, which
also requires the responding police car to observe all traffic
rules and does not use its flashing lights or siren. However,
it proceeds directly to its destination and does not stop
unless an incident of far more serious nature occurs. This
includes when the police responds to investigate:
a. Trouble of unknown nature.
b. Shoplifter complaint.
c. Vehicular accidents in which there are no physical
injuries.
d. Prowler complaints.
e. Lost children complaints.
f. Report of mob activities.
g. Reports of domestic or tenant-landlord or neighborhood
conflicts.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
3. EMERGENCY CALL – In most cases, this category
requires the use of the flashing light and fluctuating
siren although there are exceptions which include the
attempt to surprise criminals in the act. It is
permissible in this case for the responding police car to
violate traffic laws provided that extreme care is
exercised while driving at high speed. This includes
when police responds to:
a. Investigate a crime in progress.
b. Investigate a traffic accident in which people are
injured.
c. Rescue or assist another patroller in trouble.
d. Aids an injured person.
e. Pursue or apprehend suspected criminal/s.
f. Assist in firefighting.
g. Stop an ongoing fight in progress.
PATROL MANAGEMENT
WHAT ARE THE TWO SCHOOL PF THOUGHTS
REGARDING THE BEST MEANS OF APPROACHING
ANY SCENE WHERE A CRIME IS BELIEVED TO BE
IN PROGRESS?
FIRST is to approach the scene with lights and siren
flashing and to pull on directly at the scene of the reported
crime. The idea here is to frighten the criminal in order to
prevent him from completing his criminal act.
SECOND is to approach the crime scene as
inconspicuously as possible in order to use the advantage of
surprise in apprehending the criminal or preventing his
escape.

WHAT ARE THE FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED BY


THE PATROLLER IN CHOOSING THE MANNER BY
WHICH AN APPROACH TO A CRIME IN PROGRESS
IS TO BE MADE?
These are the factors of: Time and Day; Condition of
Traffic; Possibility of ongoing physical assault; and The
Neighborhood characteristics.
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
The Integrated Patrol System (IPS) of the PNP is a
concerted effort to the whole PNP organization with
other government agencies. The purpose is for the
effective performance of the general role of the PNP
which is to deliver the basic public safety services to the
community.
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
What are the Three (3) Public Safety Bureaus?
In the Philippines, there are three separate line
bureaus created under the Department of the Interior
and Local Government. They are responsible in the
protection of the community against criminality,
destructive fires and calamities and protection by
confinement and correction of convicted perpetrators.
The three bureaus are;
1. PNP – Philippine National Police

2. BJMP – Bureau of Fire Protection

3. BJMP – Bureau of Jail Management and Penology


THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
What are the Basic PNP Functions?
As stated earlier, the basic functions of the PNP are
: Crime Prevention – including crime suppression;
Crime Solution – covers investigation of crimes; and
Traffic Management– covers direction and control,
and traffic accident investigation.
Crime Prevention – the basic police function; the
technique of eliminating the desire of the people to
commit crime. It can be done through Police Visibility.
Crime Deterrence is actually the essence (real
meaning) of Police Visibility because:
1. Making their presence felt;
2. Giving a feeling of security to law abiding citizens;
and
3. Providing a feeling of fear to would be offenders.
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
What is the General Objective of Patrol Activity?
The general objective of patrol activity is to prevent the
commission of crime by destroying the opportunity of potential
offenders thru constant and alert patrolling.
With these, patrol officers should have a detailed
understanding of the anatomy of crime or what makes up a
criminal act. The anatomy of crime states that: crime takes
place with the three elements or ingredients are present at
the same time and place which are: Instrumentalities, Motive
and Opportunity. To explain further:
1. Instrumentality – the means or instrument used in the
commission of crime.
2. Motive – the reason or cause why a person or group of
persons will perpetrate a crime or the purpose of doing
something.
3. Opportunity – it refers to the chance or twist of fate;
consist of the acts (whether by omission or commission) by
a person (the victim) that enables another person or group
of persons (the offenders) to perpetrate the crime.
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
What is a Freak Crime Accident?
There are situations when all the three elements of
the crime are present and merged at the same time and
the same place; however the victim is not the intended
one due to error in persona (mistaken identity). This is
called a Freak Crime Accident. Similarly, the public still
need to be protected against these kinds of crimes.
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
How Police Visibility is Attained?
Police visibility can be done in Three (3) ways: Physical
Presence by being visible as police and easy to locate police
units; Patrolling Scheme through mobile, integrated, and
widespread, supportive, and redundant coverage; and
Response which should be proper, adequate and timely
(ideal is 5 minutes response time).
Further, the police Visibility Program of the PNP can be
accomplished thru the use of the Integrated Patrol System
(PNP-IPS). The PNP-IPS has the following:
 Pre-emptive
 Widespread and Forward Deployment
 Force Mixture (complementary and supportive)
 Cross Checking of Deployment
 Force Multiplier
 Supports the COPS
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
What are the Components of the IPS?
A. FIXED COMPONENTS – These include the following; Police
Station HQ; Police Community Precincts (PCP); Traffic Post; and
Visibility Posts – police outpost.
1. Station Desk (SD) – plays the most important role in the
implementation of the police mission – to serve and protect the
community. Further it serves as the Three (3) Cs of the police
force: Communication; Coordinating; and Center/ Command
Post.
Situation / Locator Map (with magnetic equipment) – also
called spot map; the key- point in the Police Station Desk;
capable of providing visual IPS situation because it shows the:
area of responsibility (AOR); Real Time Current Situation; and
Real Time Status of the IPS.
2. Police Community Precincts (PCP) – Led by a police
commissioned officer with the rank of Chief Inspector or
Superintendent with a minimum of 30 personnel including the
PCP Commander divided in 3 shifts of 8-hours duty.
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
What are the Components of the IPS?
B. PATROL COMPONENTS – The patrol components of the
IPS are: Air Patrol; Line Beat Patrol; Mobile Patrols;
Motorcycle Patrol; Bicycle Patrol; Reaction Unit Patrol
(SWAT); and Detective Repressive Patrol.
1. Police Beats (PBs) – these are consist of any contiguous or
adjacent area defined by identifiable boundaries within the
AOR of a PCP where an officer can effectively patrol
during his tour of duty; it is an area that can be effectively
patrolled on foot and police officers can respond to calls for
police assistance within a matter of minutes.
2. Mobile Patrol (MP) – The SOPs are similar to the earlier
discussions under the automobile type of patrol. In cases
where a vehicle is stopped, the following 10 Rules in
Stopping Vehicles should be applied:
a. During daytime, select the widest portion of the road where to stop a
motorist.
b. Signal the motorist to pull closer to the right side of the curb with the
patrol car parked behind the violator’s vehicle.
c. Observe flow of traffic coming from behind before opening the door
and alighting from the patrol car.
d. In issuing a citation, occupy the right side of the vehicle using the
hood to accomplish the citation.
e. At nighttime, select a well-lighted place to stop a motorist.
f. Never stand to do anything in front of a stopped vehicle with its
engine running and its driver still at the vehicle.
g. Never stand to do anything between the stopped vehicle and the
patrol car if the driver of the stopped vehicle is at the wheel.
h. Never stand on the way of the door of the stooped vehicle
especially if he is ordering a suspicious driver to get out of the
vehicle.
i. Never allow a person being interrogated to stand on the firearm
side.
j. Never allow an apprehended suspect to sit inside the patrol car on
the side where the policeman’s f/a is tucked.
3. Detective Beat (DB) or Detective Beat System (DBS) –
DB is a contiguous area where a team of police
investigators is assigned with a specific task of
conducting follow-up investigation to all complaints,
reports, referrals, and other requests with the end-in-
view of full compliance and/or the filling of a case.
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR THE CONDUCT OF
PATROL
The following are the guidelines normally observed by the
PNP in the conduct of patrolling not necessary under the IPS:
1. Pre – Patrol (Pre-Deployment Phase)
a. Fall-in- information in ranks
b. Roll-call-accounting of patrol elements by the patrol
commander (PC)
c. Inspection of uniform, appearance and equipment by the
PC
d. TI & E (Troop Information and Education) and
dissemination of instructions/orders by PC
e. Reading of assignment of PBs by Sarhento de Mesa or
Field Duty Officer (FDO)
f. Issuance of equipment to Pos (Patrol Officers) and PTs
(Patrol Teams)
g. Report to higher headquarters (HQ) by FDO
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR THE CONDUCT OF
PATROL
2. Deployment Phase
a. Report to SD by the Pos (Patrollers)
b. Pos make patrol plan and follow patrol procedures
c. Adopt the buddy-buddy system
d. Make situation report on an hourly basis or upon
reaching the end of their line beat
e. Report and/or record in the PSR (Patrol Sheet Report) all
unusual incidents
3. Post – Patrol (Post-deployment Phase)
a. Regrouping and formation
b. Accounting
c. Inspection
d. Debriefing/submission of DPR (Daily Patrol Report)
e. Recall of equipment issued
f. Dismissal by the PC
THE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM
(IPS) OF THE PNP
What are the Components of the IPS?
C. AUXILIARY COMPONENTS – in the Philippines, the police
are the members of the PNP with two (2) statutory
characteristics:
1. National in Scope
2. Civilian in Character

Who are the members of the Auxiliary Police (or Auxiliary


Components of the IPS)?
1. Private Security Guards
2. Traffic Enforcers and Aides
3. Junior Police
4. Law Enforcement Services Cadets
5. Barangay Chairman and Tanods (Barangay Public Safety
Officers (BPSO))
6. Civilian Volunteer Organizations (CVOs) such as civilian
volunteer radio communications, and volunteer public utility
vehicles (PUV) drivers and Non- Government Organizations
(NGOs) like Bantay Bayan, Bayan Muna, etc.
POLICE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
What is the Nature of Communication?
Communication is a vital part of personal life and
is also important in business, education, and any other
situation where people encounter each other.
Businesses, privately-owned or government-owned,
are concerned with communication in several special
ways. Some businesses build and install communication
equipment such as fax (facsimile) machines, video
cameras, CD players, printing presses, personal
computers, and telephones. Other companies create
books, and software. These companies are part of the
media or telecommunications industries.
POLICE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
What is the significance of Communication in the
Police Management and Administration?
Effective communications is essential in all
organizations in which people deal with one another. It
is very difficult to imagine any kind of activity that does
not depend on communication in one form or another.
Today’s police managers are aware that the efficiency of
their personnel depends to a great extent on how well
the efforts of individual members can be coordinated.
Because coordination does not simply happen, managers
must realize that communication is necessary if their
subordinates are to obtain the understanding and
cooperation required to achieve organizational and
individual goals.
EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATIONS
Communication between two people is an outgrowth of methods
developed over centuries of expression. Gestures, the development
language, and the necessity to engage in joint action all played a
part.

PAPER AND PRINTING


The first lightweight medium was Papyrus, an early form of
paper used by the Egyptians that was made from grasses called
reeds. Later, in the 2nd Century AD, the Chinese wrote on silk fabric
instead of wood, and developed paper made from silk fibers. (Today
paper made from cotton or linen fibers is still called rag paper).

POSTAL SERVICES
Different societies have devised systems for transporting messages
from place to place and from person to person. The earliest were
courier-type services whereby messengers carried memorized or
written messages from one person to another, and returned with the
reply. The Persian and Roman empires and some Asian societies sent
couriers regularly along planned routes to retrieve reliable and
timely information about trade and military affairs from distant
areas.
EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATIONS
THE TELEGRAPHY
The first truly electronic medium was the telegraph, which
sent and received electrical signals over long-distance wires.

THE TELEPHONE
In 1876, Scottish-born American inventor Alexander Graham
Bell was the first to patent and produce a telephone. His patent was
titled improvement in Telegraphy, and contained the design of a
device that would transmit the human voice over wires instead of
electrical clicks or other signals, like the telegraph. Originally, Bell
thought that the telephone would be used to transmit musical
concerts, lectures, or sermons. The American inventor Elisha Gray
filed an intention to patent at the same time, but after many court
battles, Bell was given the rights to the invention.

THE RADIO
The telegraph and telephone were systems for distance
communication that sent electrical signals through wires. The
earliest system for sending electrical signals through the air via
electromagnetic waves was called wireless, and later radio. Radio
technology was based on the discoveries of James Clark Maxwell.
EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATIONS
THE TELEVISION (TV)
Two pioneers independently created the first workable
television systems – American inventor Philo T. Farnsworth and
Russian – born American engineer Vladimir K. Zworykin.
Farnsworth used an electronic camera he called an image dissector
to transmit a picture of a dollar sign in 1927. He patented aspects
of his system, and developed his television, further in the 1930s,
but lost his financial backing when World War II (1939-1945)
began.

THE COMPUTERS
The earliest computers were machines built to make
repetitive numerical calculations that had previously been done by
hand. By the 1890s, calculating machines were used to tabulate
the US Census with a punched-card system invented by Herman
Hollerith. Electromechanical calculators were being built by the
1930s, especially by a new company called the International
Business Machines Company (IBM). The first truly electronic
memory and processors were built by John Vincent Atansoft in
1939 at the Iowa State College, and the first fully functioning
electronic computers, a series of ten called Colossus, were built by
the British Secret Service during World War II to help them crack
the Germans’ secret military codes.
EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATIONS
MOBILE PHONE
This is a very recent mode of communication which
is already utilized by private and commercial entities.
The Police and the Military are also using this as one of
the major alternatives of communication.

Text Messaging also known as Short Message


System (SMS). It is a method of communication
allowing cellular, or mobile, phone users to exchange
brief notes, typically up to 160 characters in length.
Now, you can send as much as 450 characters.
POLICE COMMUNICATIONS
As pointed out earlier, communications is
inseparable in police management and administration.
In fact, Payton stated in his book, Patrol Procedure, that
“Police communications are the Backbone of
Police Tactics. Without proper communications,
the modern police department would be lost.”

The Police Radio Dispatcher - the radio dispatcher


is the personnel in a police communication center
or coordinating center tasked to receive and transmit
radio messages. Before a policeman or civilian can
become a radio dispatcher, he must be trained formally
or through an OJT. The dispatcher is also called radio
coordinator and radio operator.
POLICE COMMUNICATIONS
Benefits of employing a trained radio dispatcher:
1. Easy of understanding radio messages

2. Elimination of errors

3. Minimum communication time

4. Development of professional attitude in sending and


receiving messages
5. Inter-service cooperation

6. Conservation of equipment
POLICE COMMUNICATIONS
Basic qualifications of a radio dispatcher or operator
1. ability to speak clearly and distinctly at all times
2. ability to reduce rambling and disconnected material into
concise and accurate messages
3. ability to think and act promptly in emergencies
4. ability to analyze the situation accurately and to take an
effective course of action
5. thorough understanding of the capacities of the
communication system
6. adequate understanding of the technical operation of his
system to allow intelligent reporting of equipment failures
7. Physical and mental ability to work effectively under all
conditions encountered
8. Knowledge of the rules and regulations applying to
dispatcher’s responsibilities
POLICE COMMUNICATIONS
Voice Qualities of effective Radio dispatcher- the
three characteristics of a person’s voice are:
1. Loudness or Volume- depends on the size of the
human voice box
2. Pitch or Voice Frequency- the level of the voice
which depends on the number of cycles per second
emitted by the speaker (high pitched is not pleasant
and clear in talking through a mike)
3. Timbre- the quality of a speech sound that comes
from its tone rather than its pitch or volume
POLICE COMMUNICATIONS
Voice requirements of effective radio dispatcher
1. Alert- give impression of alertness, being enthusiastic
and interested in the person calling
2. Pleasant – create a pleasant office image with voice
with a smile since pleasantness is contagious
3. Natural-use simple straightforward language; avoid
repetition of mechanical words or phrases; avoid
technical terms and slang
4. Distinct – speak clearly and distinctly; move the lips,
tongue and jaw freely; talk directly to the telephone
5. Expressive – a well modulated voice carries best over
the mike; use normal tone of voice; not too loud not too
soft; vary the tones to bring out the meaning of
sentences and add color and vitality to what to say.
ORAL AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
In security work, oral and written communication refers
to the means used in communication. This can be a
telephone, teletype, radio, TV, facsimile and internet. Choice
of channel depends on the type of messages or information to
be sent but, by and large, the operator are fixed or pre-set for
use by technical personnel.

WALKIE – TALKIES
The slang term for the two-way radio systems developed
by Motorola in the 1930s designed for home and police radios.
Today, it is known as two-way hand held radio (HHR) or
radio transceiver.
Features and Advantages of Walkie-talkies:
1. Portable and easy to operate;
2. The foot patrolman can both send and receive messages
quite easily; and
3. Enables patrol officers to call for immediate assistance.
ORAL AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
TYPICAL RADIO TRANSCIEVER
1. To communicate between two points, there should be a
station transmitter and receiver must be of the same
frequency to communicate.
2. If the two transmitter and the two transceivers of the
two stations are operating on the same frequency, it is
referred to as “simplex operation”.
3. If the transmitters are using different frequencies this
is referred to as “duplex operation”. As can be seen, in
duplex operation, the two stations can talk at the same
time without interruption, unlike that of simplex.
POLICE RADIO (AND TELEPHONE)
LANGUAGE
The following are keys terms that help you understand and observe proper radio
and telephone procedures:
 TRANSMISSION : A communication (formal message) sent by one police unit
and intended for reception by another police unit.
 ANSWER OR FEEDBACK : A transmission made by a station called in
response to the call received.
 CALL SIGN : A call sign is a word, or a combination of words, intended for
transmission by voice means and it identifies the command, unit, or authority
of the radio station.
 NET CALL SIGN : The collective call sign that represents all the radio stations
operating together on a particular radio net.
 NET CONTROL STATION : A radio station appointed by higher authority to
direct and control the operation and flow of all traffic handled on the radio net.
 PROWORD : A pronounceable word or phrase that has been assigned a
meaning to speed up message handling on radio nets that use radio and
telephone.
 ABBREVIATED PLAINDRESS MESSAGE : A message that has certain
elements of the message heading omitted for speed of handling. Anyone or all of
the following may be omitted: precedence, date, date-time group, and group
account.
 RECEIPT : A communication sent by the receiving operator indicating that the
message or other transmission has been satisfactorily received.
 ACKNOWLEDGMENT : A separate message originated by the addressee to
inform the originator that his message has been received and is understood.
RADIO VOICE PROCEDURE
1. The station calling should give its name first, then the
name of the station being called.
2. The base operator should keep proper logging of all
activities of the mobile units.
3. Operator must know all the stations in the net.
4. Courtesy should mention in order to have pleasant
atmosphere in the net. Never broadcast words that
indicate irritation, disgust or sarcasm. Relation with
other operations must remain cordial at all times.
5. Formal message for transmission should be recorded
and transmission should be recorded and transmitted
exactly as received.
6. If after calling a station or car twice no reply is
received, sign off the air. Then call again in about a
minute. Never fill the air incessant calls.
SOME TERMINOLOGIES IN RADIO
CONVERSATION
1. ROGER – Confirmed, Okay.
2. OVER – Statement is finished and expecting for an answer.
3. OVER & OUT – Message is finished, end of conversation.
4. LOUD & CLEAR – Good Reception.
5. COMING BY OR 5 BY 5 – Coming in clear or good
reception.
6. ALPHA COME BACK – Requesting for another
conversation.
7. ALPHA, BRAVO – Bravo is calling alpha for radio
communication.
8. DO YOU READ ME OR DID YOU COPY? – Do you
understand me?
9. BRAVO COME IN – The party who is calling is given
permission to relay his message.
10. CHARLIE – Asking whether message is correct
11. WHAT IS THE READABILITY OF MY SIGNAL? Asking
for clearness of the signal.
THE ABC’S OF RADIO TRANSMISSION
A. ACCURACY – It is the correctness and truthfulness of
what is being communicated. Inaccuracy oftentimes
causes miscommunication. The major cause of
inaccuracy is haste and impatience.

B. BREVITY – This means using few words. Due to the


expanding volume of radio traffic, it is essential that
there be no unnecessary or repetitious words in the
transmission.Half the words in the English language
are not needed in order to understand the message.
There is certainly no need to add to the communication
problem. The important point is understanding and
clarity. Sometimes we can make a simple message
confusing just by saying too much.
THE ABC’S OF RADIO TRANSMISSION
C. COURTESY – Courtesy refers to politeness of the words
being used in communication. As the old adage points out,
“Courtesy begets courtesy”. “Anger begets anger”. The
practice of courtesy is actually a practice of a good human
relation. In radio communication, courtesy can be shown:
1. by saying thank you (but this may take very valuable air
time)
2. in the tone of voice
3. by avoiding humorous comments over the air when
somebody “goofs up” or commits error in transmitting or
understanding the message; and
4. by avoiding “jamming up” when police officers are on the
air.
CLARITY, the Second “C”
“C” in radio communications also stands for “Clarity”
which is often mentioned in report writing and note taking
but it is also an essential in radio communications.
OTHER AIDS TO BETTER
COMMUNICATIONS
In addition, Payton recommends the following for the
better radio (two- way transceiver) communication:
1. Don’t assume anything. Matters are not all of a serious
nature. Make sure that it is plainly stated, and all the
important facts are included.
2. Don’t make extra long transmissions. Taking breathing
spells may allow someone cut in (break in) in case of
emergency. It will be easier on the person who is copying
(receiving) the message.
3. Don’t hang your hat on the mike. Sometimes the weight
of the hat will depress the mike button, and two things can
result: interference with other message transmissions; and
everything the officers says to his partner will be broadcast.
4. Don’t shout into the mike. If the voice transmissions are
weak, turn up the volume.
5. Pronounce the words slowly and distinctly. The
normal speaking rate is 40 and 60 words per minute.
OTHER AIDS TO BETTER
COMMUNICATIONS
6. Proper use of the microphone. Keep the microphone
about 2-3 inches away from the mouth in order to maintain
a proper modulation level, and speak across the face of the
microphone.
7. Keep your voice as emotionless as possible. This is
because a monotone voice has the greatest intelligibility.
8. Be impersonal. A police radio station is not licensed for
person-to-person communication, so personal names should
not be used. Refer to the person being called by his radio
call number or car number.
9. Use the Standard Phonetic Alphabet. Since numbers
are often confused when spoken over the radio, use the
Standard Phonetic Alphabet for Numerals developed by the
Bell Telephone Company. Always use “zero” instead of “oh”
for the Number “0”.
1. Wun 4- Fo- wer 7- Sev-ven 0- Zero (never oh)
2. Too 5- Fie-yiv 8- Ate
3. Thuh-ree6- Siks 9- Nie-yen
RADIO PHONETICS ALPHABET
When necessary to identify a letter of the alphabet, the
standard phonetic alphabet should be used. This helps to prevent
the receiving operator from copying your words incorrectly. Bs, PS,
Ts, and other letters that sound alike can be confusing when heard
on radio telephone nets.
PHONETIC PHONETIC
LETTER EQUIVALENT LETTER EQUIVALENT
A ALPHA L LIMA
B BRAVO M MIKE
C CHARLIE N NOVEMBER
D DELTA O OSCAR
F FOXTROT P PAPA
G GOLF Q QUEBEC
H HOTEL R ROMEO
I INDIA S SIERRA
J JULIET U UNIFORM
K KILO
RADIO PHONETICS ALPHABET

PHONETIC
LETTER EQUIVALENT
V VICTOR
W WHISKEY
X XRAY
Y YANKEE
Z ZULU
V VICTOR
W WHISKEY
X XRAY
Y YANKEE
Z ZULU
APCO TEN CODES
Ten-codes, properly known as ten signals, are
code words used to represent common phrases in voice
communication, particularly by law enforcement and in
Citizens' Band (CB) radio transmissions. The codes,
developed in 1937 and expanded in 1974 by the
Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials-
International (APCO), allow for brevity and
standardization of message traffic. They have
historically been widely used by law enforcement
officers in North America, although some departments
have controversially attempted to prohibit their use.
APCO TEN CODES
Official Ten-Code List
Association of Public Communications Officers (APCO)
 10-0 Caution
 10-1 Unable to copy -- change location
 10-2 Signal good
 10-3 Stop transmitting
 10-4 Acknowledgement (OK)
 10-5 Relay
 10-6 Busy -- stand by unless urgent
 10-7 Out of service
 10-8 In service
 10-9 Repeat
 10-10 Fight in progress
 10-11 Dog case
 10-12 Stand by (stop)
 10-13 Weather -- road report
APCO TEN CODES
 10-14 Prowler report
 10-15 Civil disturbance
 10-16 Domestic disturbance
 10-17 Meet complainant
 10-18 Quickly
 10-19 Return to ...
 10-20 Location
 10-21 Call ... by telephone
 10-22 Disregard
 10-23 Arrived at scene
 10-24 Assignment completed
 10-25 Report in person (meet)..
 10-26 Detaining subject, expedite
 10-27 Drivers license information
 10-28 Vehicle registration information
 10-29 Check for wanted
 10-30 Unnecessary use of radio
 10-31 Crime in progress
 10-32 Man with gun
 10-33 Emergency
APCO TEN CODES
 10-34 Riot
 10-35 Major crime alert
 10-36 Correct time
 10-37 (Investigate) suspicious vehicle
 10-38 Stopping suspicious vehicle
 10-39 Urgent -- use light, siren
 10-40 Silent run -- no light, siren
 10-41 Beginning tour of duty
 10-42 Ending tour of duty
 10-43 Information
 10-44 Permission to leave for ...
 10-45 Animal carcass at ...
 10-46 Assist motorist
 10-47 Emergency road repairs at
 10-48 Traffic standard repair at
 10-49 Traffic light out at ...
 10-50 Accident (fatal, personal injury, property damage)
 10-51 Wrecker needed
APCO TEN CODES
 10-52 Ambulance needed
 10-53 Road blocked at ...
 10-54 Livestock on highway
 10-55 Suspected DUI
 10-56 Intoxicated pedestrian
 10-57 Hit and run (fatal, personal injury, property damage)
 10-58 Direct traffic
 10-59 Convoy or escort
 10-60 Squad in vicinity
 10-61 Isolate self for message
 10-62 Reply to message
 10-63 Prepare to make written copy
 10-64 Message for local delivery
 10-65 Net message assignment
 10-66 Message cancellation
 10-67 Clear for net message
 10-68 Dispatch information
 10-69 Message received
APCO TEN CODES
 · 10-70 Fire
 10-71 Advise nature of fire
 10-72 Report progress on fire
 10-73 Smoke report
 10-74 Negative
 10-75 In contact with ...
 10-76 En route ...
 10-77 ETA (estimated time of arrival)
 10-78 Need assistance
 10-79 Notify coroner
 10-80 Chase in progress
 10-81 Breathalyzer
 10-82 Reserve lodging
 10-83 Work school xing at ...
 10-84 If meeting ... advise ETA
APCO TEN CODES
 10-85 Delayed due to ...
 10-86 Officer/operator on duty
 10-87 Pick up/distribute checks
 10-88 Present telephone number of ...
 10-89 Bomb threat
 10-90 Bank alarm at ...
 10-91 Pick up prisoner/subject
 10-92 Improperly parked vehicle
 10-93 Blockade
 10-94 Drag racing
 10-95 Prisoner/subject in custody
 10-96 Mental subject
 10-97 Check (test) signal
 10-98 Prison/jail break
 10-99 Wanted/stolen indicated