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KONSEP ALIRAN

AIR
(HIDRODINAMIKA)
Persamaan Aliran

Ada tiga persamaan dasar dalam Hidrolika


yang berkaitan dengan pengaliran air
(aliran tertutup maupun terbuka), yaitu:
• Persamaan Kontinyuitas
• Persamaan Momentum
• Persamaan EnergiBernoulli
The Continuity Equation
Why does a hose with a nozzle shoot water further?
Conservation of Mass:
In a confined system, all of the mass that enters the system, must also exit
the system at the same time.
Flow rate = Q = Area x Velocity
r1A1V1(mass inflow rate) = r2A2V2( mass outflow rate)

If the fluid at both points is the


same, then the density drops
out, and you get the continuity
V1  equation:
A1 A2 V2 
A1V1 =A2V2
Therefore
Q2 = A 2 V 2 If A2 < A1 then V2 > V1
Q1 = A1V1 Thus, water exiting a nozzle has
A1V1 = A2V2 a higher velocity
Persamaan Kontinyuitas

Q  A1.V1  A2 .V2  konstan

 Q : debit aliran
 A : luas penampang aliran
 V : kecepatan rerata aliran pada
penampang tersebut.
 Indeks 1 dan 2 menunjukan titik
penampang aliran yang ditinjau
Persamaan Momentum

F  r.Q(V2  V1 )

 F : gaya yang ditimbulkan oleh aliran


zat cair
 r : rapat massa aliran
Persamaan Bernoulli

P1V12 P2 V22
z1    z2  
g 2g g 2g
2 2
P1 V P2 V
gz1    gz2 
1
 2
r 2 r 2
 P/g=pressure head, V2/2g=velocity head,
z=elevation
 P/r as flow energy, V2/2 as kinetic energy,
and gz as potential energy
The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line
Lets first understand this drawing:
Measures the Measures the 1: Static Pressure Tap
Static Pressure Total Head
Measures the sum of the
elevation head and the
12 12 pressure Head.
EL
V2/2g 2: Pilot Tube
HGL
Measures the Total Head
EL : Energy Line
P/γ Q
Total Head along a system
HGL : Hydraulic Grade line
Sum of the elevation and
the pressure heads along a
Z system
The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line
Understanding the graphical approach of
Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade line is Point 1:
key to understanding what forces are Majority of energy
supplying the energy that water holds. stored in the water is in
the Pressure Head
EL
V2/2g Point 2:
HGL V2/2g
Majority of energy
P/γ stored in the water is in
2 the elevation head
P/γ Q
If the tube was
symmetrical, then the
Z
velocity would be
constant, and the HGL
1 would be level
Z
Contoh Soal

Dengan Q konstan = 1,5 L/det, diameter pipa 1 =


50 mm, diameter pipa 2 = 40 mm, dan P1= 0,5
bar,
 hitunglah tekanan di titik 2 (P2)
 hitunglah gaya akibat aliran dari titik 1 ke titik 2
THE COMPLETE EXAMPLE
Solve for the Pressure Head, Velocity Head, and Elevation Head
at each point, and then plot the Energy Line and the Hydraulic
Grade Line
Assumptions and Hints:
P1 and P4 = 0 --- V3 = V4 same diameter tube
We must work backwards to solve this problem

γH2O= 62.4 lbs/ft3


1

4’ R = .5’ R = .25’

2 3 1’
4
DATUM
POINT 1:
Pressure Head : Only atmospheric  P1/γ = 0
Velocity Head : In a large tank, V1 = 0  V12/2g = 0
Elevation Head : Z1 = 4’

γH2O= 62.4 lbs/ft3


1
R = .5’

4’ R = .25’

2 3 4 1’
DATUM
POINT 4:
Apply the Bernoulli equation between 1 and 4
0 + 0 + 4 = 0 + V42/2(32.2) + 1
V4 = 13.9 ft/s
Pressure Head : Only atmospheric  P4/γ = 0
Velocity Head : V42/2g = 3’
Elevation Head : Z4 = 1’

γH2O= 62.4 lbs/ft3


1

4’ R = .5’ R = .25’

2 3 4 1’
DATUM
POINT 3:
Apply the Bernoulli equation between 3 and 4 (V3=V4)
P3/62.4 + 3 + 1 = 0 + 3 + 1
P3 = 0
Pressure Head : P3/γ = 0
Velocity Head : V32/2g = 3’
Elevation Head : Z3 = 1’

γH2O= 62.4 lbs/ft3


1
4’ R = .5’
R = .25’

2 4
3 1’
DATUM
POINT 2:
Apply the Bernoulli equation between 2 and 3
P2/62.4 + V22/2(32.2) + 1 = 0 + 3 + 1
Apply the Continuity Equation
(Π.52)V2 = (Π.252)x13.9  V2 = 3.475 ft/s
P2/62.4 + 3.4752/2(32.2) + 1 = 4  P2 = 175.5 lbs/ft2

Pressure Head :
γH2O= 62.4 lbs/ft3
1 P2/γ = 2.81’

R = .5’ Velocity Head :


4’ R = .25’ V22/2g = .19’
2
Elevation Head :
3 4 Z2 = 1’
1’
DATUM
Plotting the EL and HGL
Energy Line = Sum of the Pressure, Velocity and Elevation heads
Hydraulic Grade Line = Sum of the Pressure and Elevation heads

V2/2g=.19’
EL

V2/2g=3’
P/γ =2.81’

V2/2g=3’
Z=4’

HGL

Z=1’ Z=1’ Z=1’


DATUM
POLA ALIRAN

Ada dua pola aliran dari fluida, yaitu:


 aliran laminer
 aliran turbulen
ALIRAN LAMINER

Dalam aliran laminer partikel-partikel


fluidanya bergerak di sepanjang
lintasan-lintasan lurus, sejajar dalam
lapisan-lapisan atau laminae.
ALIRAN TURBULEN

Dalam aliran turbulen partikel-partikel


fluidanya bergerak secara acak ke
semua arah.
BILANGAN REYNOLDS
 Bilangan Reynold digunakan untuk menyatakan pola
aliran (laminer atau turbulen).
 Laminer  Re < 2000
 Turbulen  Re > 2000
 Bilangan Reynold dapat dihitung dengan formula:
V *d *r
Bilangan Reynolds Re  
V *d
atau
 
V : kecepatan rata-rata, m/det
d : diameter pipa, m
 : viskositas kinematik fluida, m2/dtk
r : rapat massa fluida, kg/m3
 : viskositas mutlak, Pa dtk