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Open Discussion

On
NovoCom DWDM Network
Prepared by:
MD. SHEFAUL KARIM
Agenda
 Basics of DWDM Technology

 DWDM Network Design

 NovoCom DWDM Network


DWDM Basics
 What is Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Light has a property that keeps it from mixing and allows it to be separated into its colors
like by a prism.
WDM uses this property to send signals of different colors down to a single fiber
simultaneously.
 WDM Classification
• WDM system is divided into 2 types according to different wavelength patterns, coarse (CWDM) and dense
(DWDM).

• CWDM use the wavelengths from 1270 nm to 1610 nm and supports up to 16 wavelengths with channel
spacing of 20 nm over one pair of fiber. Each channel can operate at either 2.5, 4 or 10 gigabits per second.

• DWDM use from 1525–1565 nm (C band), would use 40 channels at 100 GHz (0.8 nm) spacing or 80 channels at
50 GHz (0.4 nm) spacing. It has the capability to transport up to 128 wavelengths using extended channel
spectrum 1570–1610 nm (L band).

• In case of CWDM, existing optical amplifiers are not able to amplify signal of such a wide band of wavelength
spectrums.
Interface Standard
of DWDM
Interface Standard
 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
Optical Transport Network (OTN), as defined by ITU’s recommendation G.709,
provides a network-wide framework that adds SONET/SDH like features to WDM
equipment (also known as Wavelength Switched Optical Network equipment, or
WSON equipment). It creates a transparent, hierarchical network designed for use on
both WDM/WSON devices and TDM devices. Two switching layers are formed (TDM
and WSON) and functions of transport, multiplexing, routing, management,
supervision, and survivability are defined.

OTN wrapper provides


Variety of complete transparency
Protocols for client signal

Transparent
Header

FEC

Ethernet General Management Network


Payload

Transparent
Header

SONET
FEC

SDH Payload Optical Transport EDFA


Network Layer
Transparent Optical
Header

OTN
FEC

SAN OA
Payload Multiplexing Multiplexing

Transparent
Header

FEC

Video
Payload OCh Layer
Wavelength Switching Layer
Transparent
Header

FEC

IP/L3VPN
Payload
G.709 OTN Frame
The G.709 OTUk signal is positioned as a service layer signal for various client signals, e.g.
SDH/SONET, ATM, IP, Ethernet, Fiber Channel and OTN ODUk (where k=0, 1, 2, 2e, 3, 3e2, 4 or
flex).

The frame structure defined in G.709 is constructed of 4 areas:


1. OPUk (Payload Unit) is the area in which payload is mapped.
2. ODUk (Data Unit) contains the OPUk with additional overhead bytes (e.g. TTI, BIP8, GCC1/2,
TCM etc.).
3. OTUk (Transport Unit) is the section and includes framing, TTI, BIP8 and GCC0 bytes.
4. FEC - The standard FEC code is a Reed-Solomon coding calculated across the payload (OPU)
columns. This allows detection and correction of bit errors due to signal impairments during
transmission.

G.709 offers advanced OAM&P capabilities such as Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM), End to End
performance monitoring, connectivity monitoring, signal quality supervision and General Communication Channel
(GCC).
1 14 16 17 3824 3825 4080

1 OTUk
Alignment
OH
OPUk OH

Client Signal
OTUk
Mapped in
ODUk OH
FEC
OPUk Payload
4
G.709 frame structure
OTN Overheads
OTUk OH
Alignment OH SM: section monitoring
FAS: frame alignment signal (TTI, BIP-8, BDI, BEI/BIAE, IAE)
MFAS: multi frame alignment signal GCC0: general communication channel0
RES: reserved for future

ODUk OH
TCMACT: tandem connection monitoring activation/deactivation OPUk OH
control channel PSI : payload structure
TCMi: tandem connection monitoring i
identifier
FTFL: fault type and fault location reporting channel
PM: path monitoring JC : justification control
EXP: experimental NJO: negative justification
GCC1/2: general communication channel 1/2 opportunity
APS/PCC: automatic protection switching/protection communication
channel
Forward Error Correction
 FEC uses Reed-Solomon (RS) code to produce redundant information that gets concatenated with the
signal to be transmitted. The receiving interface identifies and corrects transmission errors. The RS
encoding was chosen because of its low complexity, relatively high error correction capability, and low
error burst sensitivity.

 The G.709 FEC separates the frame data into 16 data streams, where up to 8 errored bytes can be
corrected per stream, where each row is split into sub-rows. The protocol uses one overhead byte and
238 payload bytes to compute 16 parity bytes to form 255 byte blocks—the RS(255,239) algorithm.
A Brief Summary of Reed-Solomon Terminology
RS (n, k) code:
n is the total number of symbols per frame
k is the number of information symbols Code Rate is
equal to k / n
r = (n – k) is the number of check symbols
t = (n – k) / 2 is the maximum number of symbols
with errors that can be corrected.
OTN Hierarchy:
ODU Clients LO ODU HO ODU OTU

1GE ODU0 2x ODU1

8x
CBR2.5G
ODU1 OTU1
STM-16
4x 2.5G signal
16x
ODU2
40x 80x 32x
CBR10G
ODU2
STM-64 OTU2
4x
10G signal
10x
10GBaseR
ODU2e
FC1200 3x ODU3
10x OTU3
CRB40G 40G signal
ODU3
STM-256 2x
ODU4
n n
OTU4
100GBaseR ODU4
n 100G signal
n
CBRx
GFP data ODUflex
DWDM Network Design
Network Design
Required background
The DWDM network designer should be quite familiar with the design elementary information, which
is the key of a successful design. The network designer should properly scale the design according to
the following aspects:

Attenuation and power budget


• Output and Input of Transponders
• Insertion loss of passive components
• Fiber attenuation
• Amplifier (EDFA & Raman) input range/gain/output

OSNR calculation
• Calculation Tool and Transponder’s Receiving Tolerance

Chromatic dispersion
• DCF/DCM (Dispersion compensation fiber/module)

PMD: Polarization Mode Dispersion


• Use of PMD compensator

Nonlinearity
• Choice of transponder type
• Low down input power
• Widen channel spacing
• Using a Regenerator station
Factors That Affect System Design
Loss Budget
The loss budget is the amount of loss that a system should have. It is calculated by adding the average losses of all the
components to get the total estimated end-to-end loss.

Power Budget
The power budget refers to the amount of loss that a can tolerate in order to operate properly. When planning a new network or
expanding an existing one with WDM equipment, one of the first things to consider is the distance between the equipment nodes.

Optical Power Budget = Power Sent – Receiver Sensitivity

Optical Impairments
ƒ ttenuation = Loss of power in dB/km
A
Dispersion = Spread of light pulse in ps/nm/km
ƒ
Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) = birefringence on the optical pulse in ps/√km

OSNR
OSNR is an important parameter to be taken into consideration before
deciding the placement of the amplifier and setting the gain.
A low OSNR value means that the receiver cannot detect or recover
the signal.

Bit Error Rate


Bit error rate (BER) is the ultimate indicator for measuring transmission quality.
Factors such as noise, dispersion (PMD/CD), and nonlinear effects cause waveform
distortion and generate bit errors.
Fiber Impairment
Attenuation
Attenuation occurs when impurities in the core and cladding absorb energy from the optical signal.
- Fiber Loss caused by two things

1. Absorption by the fiber material.

2. Scattering of the light from the fiber.

- Splicing & Connectors Loss

- Insertion Loss

Optical Attenuation Compensation


Amplifier: An optical amplifier can amplify optical signals without involving the conversion between optical and
electrical signals.

Common optical amplifiers include EDFA and Raman amplifiers.

EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) Principle:


Wavelength: C-Band and L-Band
Amplification 20 - 40 dB
Output power: 14 - 23 dBm

RAMAN amplifier Principle:


Wavelength area: 1300 - 1600 nm
Amplification: 10 - 15 dB
Chromatic Dispersion:
Different wavelengths travel at different speeds causes spreading of the light pulse. Dispersion
causes pulse distortion, pulse “smearing” effects.

Compensating Chromatic Dispersion

There are two common dispersion compensation modes:


Module Description Difference
1. DCM - using dispersion compensation fibers. - The insertion loss increases with distance
2. DCU - using the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). DCM Based on DCF - Passive
- Sub-rack
- The insertion loss is irrelevant with distance
DCU Based on FBG - Active
- Board

Note: DCM is used to compensate the dispersion at the receiver. Typical DCM insertion loss is being considered for the design
is 4 dBm. Fiber used in DCM has a dispersion coefficient of 17 ps/nm-Km. The residual dispersion left after compensation
must range from -510 to 1020 ps/nm.
Polarization Mode Dispersion
 A form of dispersion where optical pulses are spread because optical signals in different
phase status are transmitted at different speeds due to the random birefringence of
optical fibers.

The spreading of optical pulses in the time domain caused by CD and PMD will lead to distortion of signals and inter-
code crosstalk, thereby causing bit errors.

Nonlinear Effects
 Nonlinear effects caused by scattering and refractive index changes will broaden frequency
spectrums and distort pulses.
 The nonlinear effects such as self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM)
and Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) will affect signal phases and cause pulse chirping, which
exacerbates the pulse broadening caused by dispersion.

Nonlinear Penalties
The system rate, incident optical power, number of spans, fiber attenuation, and channel spacing are
closely related to nonlinear effects.
Optical Power
Commissioning
General Sequence for
Commissioning Optical Power
 Optical power of NEs and boards are commissioned individually based on the optical signal flow.
During commissioning, ensure that the line attenuation is normal based on the optical power,
gain, and insertion loss requirements for each board.

 Generally, the optical power of the OTU board, optical amplifier (OA), and the supervisory
channel board is commissioned based on the corresponding optical power requirements for the
boards.

 Consider the OTM and OADM stations as the optical power commissioning stations.

 After commissioning, the optical power should be in the range of the minimum and maximum values.

 If the optical power monitoring point is not settled in the OLA stations, optical power does not need to be adjusted.
Gain Flatness of Optical Channels
(Power Equilibrium)
 During DWDM transmission, we need to ensure that all channels should have same optical strength at the receiver or
should have minimum difference.

 The single wavelength input optical power flatness should be within the range of the nominal single wavelength input optical
power ±3dB.

Nominal Optical power of single wavelength = Optical power of multiplexed signal - 10log x N
[where N is the number of wavelengths of the multiplexed signal]

 In a DWDM system, varieties of optical fiber conditions in the system may change the flatness of a channel’s power from
that in the commissioning (gain tilt), and degrade the Optical Signal Noise Ratio (OSNR) of signals at the receive end.

 Ensure that the total optical power remains unchanged when adjusting optical power flatness for each channel.

Gain tilt Gain flatness

Before adjusting After adjusting


optical power optical power

Caution:
It is recommended that the value of the attenuation adjustment step be smaller than 1dB. In addition, it is recommended that you adjust the
attenuation channel by channel. Do not repeatedly adjust the attenuation for a channel, and do not adjust the attenuation for multiple channels
simultaneously.
NovoCom
DWDM
Network
NovoCom DWDM Network
Network Elements
 Operations Support System (OSS)

 Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (OADM)

 Optical Line Amplifier (OLA)

8λ 8λ 8λ

53 km 123 km 124 km 107 km 78 km 48 km

Dhaka Gazipur Sirajganj Pabna Jhinaidah Jessore Benapole

λ λ λ λ
Huawei OptiX OSN 8800 T16
 Product Appearance
DWDM Components of
NovoCom Network

Service Boards Optical Multiplexer and


Maximum
Board Function
Number of Clinet Signal
WDM Signal
De-multiplexer Board
Clients Type
Client Signal The multiplexer and de-multiplexer unit multiplexes or
de-multiplexes optical signals of different
STM-64, wavelengths.
OC-192, The multiplexer and de-multiplexer units include:
Wavelength 10GE LAN, OTU2
TN12LDX 2
conversion 10GE WAN, OTU2e
OTU2, FIU: fiber interface unit
OTU2e ITL: interleaver board

Fixed Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Board


STM-64, In the fixed optical add/drop multiplexer unit, single-
OC-192, wavelength optical signals are added/dropped from
Wavelength 10GE LAN, OTU2 the multiplexed signals and sent to an OTU. At the
TN13LSX 1
conversion 10GE WAN, OTU2e same time, the single-wavelength optical signals
OTU2,
OTU2e transmitted at the OTU are multiplexed into the
multiplexed signals.

MR8V: 8-channel optical add/drop multiplexing unit


with VOA
DWDM Components of NovoCom Network
 Optical Supervisory Channel Board
The OSC unit transmits and extracts the system overhead information and then sends it to the SCC
after simple processing.

The OSC units include:


SC1: unidirectional optical supervisory channel unit
SC2: bidirectional optical supervisory channel unit

Optical Amplifier Board


The optical amplifier board amplifies the power of the multiplexed optical signals to extend the transmission distance.

The optical amplifier boards include:


• OAU1 uses two amplifiers to provide two-level amplification and a DCM module is configured between the two
amplifiers. An OAU1 board provides two pump sources with pump wavelengths of 980 nm and 1480 nm.

• OBU1 or OBU2 adopts one-level amplification and provides only one pump source with a pump wavelength of 980 nm.

The functions of the optical amplifier units are as follows:


TN13OAU1: Adjusts the optical power of the input optical signals, and amplifies the input optical signals in C band. The
total wavelengths range from 1529 nm to 1561 nm. (Max IN= 0dBm; OUT= 23dBm; Gain= 23~34 dB).

TN12OBU1: Adjusts the optical power of the input optical signals, and amplifies the input optical signals in C band. The
total wavelengths range from 1529 nm to 1561 nm. (Max IN= -3dBm; OUT= 20dBm; Gain= 17~23 dB)

System Control and Communication Board


SCC: The SCC board is the system control and communication board for the OptiX OSN 8800 T16.
TN16SCC: It helps the NM system to manage the boards of the equipment and enables the equipment to
communicate with each other.
Node Constructions
Terminal Node
OTU: optical transponder unit
OM: optical multiplexer unit
SC1: unidirectional OSC unit
OD: optical de-multiplexer unit
FIU: fiber interface unit
OA: optical amplifier unit
ODF: optical distribution frame
WMU: wavelength monitor unit
ITL: interleaver board

C-ODD: ODD channels in C


band

C-EVEN: EVEN channels in C


band
Internal Patching of
Dhaka Terminal Node
ODF MR8V / Slot : 3+4
IN To: D4 LDX/IN2
OBU103 / Slot : 18
OBU103/OUT
MON To: A4 LDX/OUT2
FIU / Slot : 16 OUT
OBU104/VI
OUT MR8V / IN
MON MON D5 LDX/IN1
IN DCM-652-A/OUT
MI MR8V/VO A5 LDX/OUT1
OUT To: ODF VO DCM-652-A/IN
D1 LSX/IN D6 LDX/ IN2
VI FIU / TC
IN To: ODF A1 LSX/OUT A6 LDX/OUT2
D2 LSX/IN D7 LDX/IN1
TC To: OBU
(103) DCM A2 LSX/OUT A7 LDX/OUT1
RC To: OBU D3 LDX/IN1 D8 LDX/ IN2
(104)
OBU104 / Slot : 1 A3 LDX/OUT1 A8 LDX/OUT2
TM SC1/RM
VO MR8V/MI
MON
RM SC1/TM VI
OUT FIU/RC

IN DCM-652-A / OUT
Mgmt
Channel VO DCM-652-A / IN
SC / Slot : 2 VI MR8V / OUT
TM FIU/RM
RM FIU/TM
Signal Flow of Dhaka Terminal

Demultiplex

In

Multiplex
LLD of Dhaka Node
TM RM
S
RM TM
C
1
(1-
A02)

MI D1 IN
TX
LSX 192.1(1-A07) 2

VO
A1 OUT
RX
LSX 192.1(1-A07) 2

D2 IN
TX
LSX 192.2(1-A08) 2

1-F1R A2 OUT
RX
LSX 192.2(1-A08) 2
D IN
D3 IN1
C LDX 192.3(1-A06)
TX1
2
M VO
(A)
O A3 OUT1
LDX 192.3(1-A06)
RX1
2
B D4 IN2

TC VI
U OUT IN
LDX 192.4(1-A06)
TX2
2

1 A4 OUT2
LDX 192.4(1-A06)
RX2
2
0
3 D5 IN1
LDX 192.5(1-A11)
TX1
2
From Gazipur (1-
A18) A5 OUT1
RX1
(Fiber_Dhaka_G LDX 192.5(1-A11) 2

D6 IN2
azipur_1) LDX 192.6(1-A11)
TX2
2

A6 OUT2
RX2
LDX 192.6(1-A11) 2
IN
1 D7 IN1
F LDX 192.7(1-A12)
TX1
2

I M A7 OUT1
RX1
U R LDX 192.7(1-A12) 2

OUT
(1-
A16) 8 D8 IN2
LDX 192.8(1-A12)
TX2
2
1 V A8 OUT2
(1- RX2
A03) LDX 192.8(1-A12) 2

To Gazipur 192.1
~
192.8
(Fiber_Dhaka_G
azipur_1)
1-F1L

D IN
C
M VO
(A)
O
B
RC OUT
U VI OUT

0dBm
1
0
4
(1-
A01)

PHASE_1
OLA Node

OM: optical multiplex unit OD: optical de-multiplex unit


SC2: bidirectional OSC unit FIU: fiber interface unit
OA: optical amplifier unit MCA: spectrum analyzer unit
DCM: dispersion compensation module
Internal Patching of Sirajganj Node
OAU103 /Slot:1 OAU105/Slot:2
MON MON
OUT OAU105/VI OUT OAU105 / VI
IN FIU / RC IN
VO VO

VI VI OAU103/OUT

FIU / Slot : 3 TDC DCM-F1R/IN TDC


DCM FIU / Slot : 16
RDC DCM-F1R/OUT RDC
MON MON

OUT To: ODF OUT To: ODF

IN To: ODF IN To: ODF


OAU103 / Slot : 17
OAU105 / Slot : 18
TC OAU103 / MON To: OAU
RC
IN MON (105)
OUT OAU/VI
RC OAU105 / FIU/RC
OUT TC To: OAU
OUT IN FIU/TC (103)
IN
TM SC2/RM VO TM SC1/RM
VO
VI RM SC1/TM
RM SC2/TM
VI OAU103/OUT
TDC DCM-652-B/IN
TDC DCM
RDC DCM-652-B/OUT
RDC
Signal Flow of Sirajganj OLA

Optical Signal Amplification

Optical Signal Amplification


LLD of Sirajganj Node
TM RM1
S TM2 RM

RM TM1
C RM2 TM
2
(1-
B04)

1-F1R
RDC RDC IN
D
C
TDC M TDC VO

O (F)
O
A A
TC IN
U OUT VI
U OUT RC
1 1 7dBm
0 0
3 5
From Gazipur (1-
B01)
(1-
B02) To Pabna
(Fiber_Gazipur_S (Fiber_Sirajganj_
irajganj_1) Pabna_1)
IN
1 1
OUT
F F
I I
U U
(1- (1-
OUT B03) B16)
1 1
IN

To Gazipur From Pabna


(Fiber_Gazipur_S (Fiber_Sirajganj_
irajganj_1) Pabna_1)
1-F1L
IN RDC
D RDC
1-F2L C
VO TDC M TDC
O (F)
O
A A
U D U
RC OUT
1
VI OUT
C OUT
1
IN TC

7dBm
0 M 0
(A)
5 3
(1- (1-
B18) B17)

PHASE_1
OADM Node

OTU: optical transponder unit FIU: fiber interface unit


SC2: bidirectional OSC unit OA: Optical Amplifier unit
OADM: OADM unit ODF: Optical distribution
Signal Flow of Gazipur OADM
LLD of Gazipur Node
TM RM1
S TM2 RM

RM TM1
C RM2 TM
2
(1-
B04)

MI D2 IN OUT A2 MI
TX RX
LSX 192.2(1-B13) 2 2 LSX 192.2(1-B14) 3
VO VO
A2 OUT IN D2
RX TX
LSX 192.2(1-B13) 2 2 LSX 192.2(1-B14) 3

1-F1R 1-F2L
IN
D IN D RDC
C C
M VO M TDC VO
(A)
O (A)
O
B A
TC VI
U OUT IN OUT VI
U OUT RC
1 3 1 7dBm
0 0
3 5
From Dhaka (1-
B18)
(1-
B02) To Sirajganj
(Fiber_Dhaka_G (Fiber_Gazipur_S
azipur_1) irajganj_1)
IN
1 1
OUT
F F
I M M I
U R R U
OUT
(1-
B15) 8 8 (1-
B03)
1 V V IN
1
(1- (000)
B05)
192.1
To Dhaka 192.1
~ ~
192.8
From Sirajganj
192.8
(Fiber_Dhaka_G (Fiber_Gazipur_S
azipur_1) irajganj_1)
1-F1L 1-F2R
RDC IN
D IN IN D
C C
M VO VO M TDC VO
(A)
O O (E)
O
B A8 D8
B A
RC OUT
U VI OUT D8
3
A8 IN OUT
U VI OUT
U VI TC

0dBm
1 A7
3
D7
3 1 1
0 D7
3
A7
0 0
4 A6
3

3
D6
3 3
(1- (1- (1-
B01) D6 A6 B17) B16)
3
A5 D5
3
D5 A5
3
A4 D4
3
D4 A4
3
A3 D3
3
D3 A3
3
A1 D1
3
D1 A1
3

PHASE_1
Service Provisioning
 NovoCom OptiX OSN 8800 T16 Network Supports 8XOTU2 Clients
 Transports Carrier Ethernet, MPLS, SONET/SDH, SAN services.

What we can Transport:


1. OC-192: For SONET connectivity.
2. STM-64: For SDH/POS/ATM service connection.
3. 10G LAN: 10GE LAN is as usual Ethernet connection.
4. 10G WAN (PHY): 10GE WAN uses SONET/SDH framing and can be directly
connected to OC-192/STM-64 interfaces at a carrier network. For diagnostics 10GE
WAN PHY makes use of the SONET/SDH overhead bits to detect alarms.
5. FC-1200: Fiber Channel is a high-speed network technology used to connect computer
data storage. FC was primarily used in supercomputers, but has become a common
connection type for storage area networks (SAN) in enterprise storage.
6. OTU-2: For OTN services with HO and LO ODU2.
7. OTU-2E: OTU2e has a line rate of approximately 11.09 Gbit/s and is designed to
transport 10x1G Ethernet LAN (1024 Mbps) or 10GFC (10.3 Gbit/s) at full line rate .
NovoCom DWDM Lambdas
End to End Provisioned Lambda (λ)
Frequency Wavelength Dhaka Benapole
λ Card Service
(THz) (nm) Gazipur Jessore
7/1 -- 6/1 -- Free
80 192.1 1560.61 LSX
-- 7/1 6/1 Free
8/1 13/1 -- 10GE LAN
78 192.2 1559.79 LSX
-- 14/1 -- 7/1 Free
76 192.3 1558.98 LDX 6/1 11/1 STM-64
74 192.4 1558.17 LDX 6/2 11/2 STM-64
72 192.5 1557.36 LDX 11/1 12/1 STM-64
70 192.6 1556.55 LDX 11/2 12/2 STM-64
68 192.7 1555.75 LDX 12/1 13/1 STM-64
66 192.8 1554.94 LDX 12/2 13/2 STM-64
End of Discussion

Thank you