Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 37

Today’s Tunes

  • Fathoms Below / Under the Sea

  • From soundtrack of Disney’s The Little Mermaid

Seafloor Features:

Continental Margins

Abyssal

plain

Submarine canyons (cut into the c. slope)

Continental shelf

Continental rise

Seafloor Features: Continental Margins Abyssal plain Submarine canyons (cut into the c. slope) Continental shelf Continental

Abyssal

plain

Continental

slope

Seafloor Features: Continental Margins Abyssal plain Submarine canyons (cut into the c. slope) Continental shelf Continental

Seafloor spreading center

Deep Ocean

(e.g., East Pacific RISE or
Mid-Atlantic RIDGE)

Seafloor spreading center Deep Ocean (e.g., East Pacific RISE or Mid-Atlantic RIDGE) Seamounts Abyssal Hills (linear

Seamounts

Seafloor spreading center Deep Ocean (e.g., East Pacific RISE or Mid-Atlantic RIDGE) Seamounts Abyssal Hills (linear

Abyssal Hills (linear hills)

Seafloor spreading center Deep Ocean (e.g., East Pacific RISE or Mid-Atlantic RIDGE) Seamounts Abyssal Hills (linear

Seafloor Features: Deep Ocean

  • Plate Tectonic Boundaries

Ridges or Rises

Seafloor Features: Deep Ocean  Plate Tectonic Boundaries Ridges or Rises Transform Faults, Fracture Zones

Trenches

Seafloor Features: Deep Ocean  Plate Tectonic Boundaries Ridges or Rises Transform Faults, Fracture Zones

Transform Faults, Fracture Zones

The Shifting Crust

Continental Drift

  • Alfred Wegener -1912

large “supercontinent” (Pangea) existed and then split into pieces fossil & glacial deposit evidence

  • Wegener not able to provide MECHANISM for his theory

  • Major mechanism later found in the OCEANS

Seafloor Spreading &

Plate Tectonics

  • Harry Hess - 1960s

new ocean basins form from volcanism

ocean floor forms IN BETWEEN pieces that have split

SEAFLOOR SPREADING

Seafloor Spreading &

Plate Tectonics

  • Theoretical breakthrough

PLATE TECTONICS

surface of earth composed of “plates” (LITHOSPHERE) that move on a “conveyor belt” (ASTHENOSPHERE)

Evidence for Continental Drift

  • Fit of the continents

  • Correlation of mountain belts

  • Diversity of species

correlation of dinosaur species (Pangea) isolation of mammal species (after breakup)

  • Glaciers

Important Quote

  • “Relationships known since early in the century yet the validity of continental drift

was not generally recognized until the late

1960’s”

  • It took ocean floor data to solidify ideas and convince scientific community!

  • The oceans rule!

One Mechanism

  • seafloor-spreading

  • lithosphere

  • asthenosphere

Another Mechanism

  • subduction

  • world’s most explosive volcanos are formed over subduction zones

  • Oregon’s Cascades Mtns. over Cascadia Subduction Zone

Juan de Fuca plate under N. American plate

“Munch and Crunch”

  • “MUNCH” - subduction of oceanic plate under continent or ocean

oceanic crust is thin and dense dives

  • “CRUNCH” - collision of continental plates

India into Tibet and China continental crust is thick and light

Sliding By

  • Transform faults plates neither created nor destroyed

  • Transform faults are active

  • Fracture zones are inactive extensions of transforms

“fossil transforms”

Young & Old

  • Oldest seafloor - 200 million years

  • Oldest land - billions of years

  • With seafloor spreading, is the earth expanding?

  • Why is seafloor so young relative to continents?

  • SUBDUCTION

  • “law of conservation of ocean floor”

Convergent

  • Convergent - subduction

trenches Tonga Trench, Cascadia Subduction Zone

Convergent  Convergent - subduction – trenches – Tonga Trench, Cascadia Subduction Zone

Divergent Plate Boundaries

  • Divergent - seafloor spreading

mid-ocean ridges or rises Mid-Atlantic RIDGE, East Pacific RISE

Divergent Plate Boundaries  Divergent - seafloor spreading – mid-ocean ridges or rises – Mid-Atlantic RIDGE,

Translational

  • Translational - strike-slip faulting

transform faults (active) - San Andreas Fault fracture zones (inactive) - Mendocino FZ

Translational  Translational - strike-slip faulting – transform faults (active) - San Andreas Fault – fracture

Plate Boundaries

  • How do we know where these boundaries are?

  • bathymetry

  • earthquakes

  • deepest earthquakes at CONVERGENT boundaries (subduction zones/trenches)

  • downgoing plate breakage causes earthquake

  • like potato chip breaking off in bean dip

Extra Slides not covered in lecture, but cover valuable

info that can help in lab too

Proof for Seafloor Spreading

  • What made people believe in seafloor spreading? (poor Wegener!)

  • changes in inclinations of magnetic field

  • Earth’s magnetic field a mystery

  • currents in liquid core one hypothesis

SF Spreading Proof - 2

  • Earth’s magnetic field flips back & forth

  • magma freezes magnetic minerals

  • minerals lines themselves up w/ prevailing field of earth

  • anomaly in field is the key - normal (positive) or reversed (negative)

  • Vine and Matthews noted this in the ‘60s and flagged this as PROOF for seafloor spreading

Grocery

bar code

Calibrated by age-

dating of

rocks

Grocery bar code Calibrated by age- dating of rocks Last reversal 200 Ka

Last

reversal 200 Ka

Driving Forces

  • “Slab pull” versus “ridge push”

  • Slab Pull - gravity pulls cooled, dense plates back down into mantle at subduction zone

  • Ridge Push - rising, hot rock pushes plates apart at spreading center

Driving Forces  “Slab pull” versus “ridge push”  Slab Pull - gravity pulls cooled, dense
Driving Forces  “Slab pull” versus “ridge push”  Slab Pull - gravity pulls cooled, dense