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Daily Work Management Training Module

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Expectation from Participants

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4
5
TQM Frame Work

6
Basic Concept
(what & why)

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What is Daily Management?

All activities which must be performed daily (or regularly)

based on standard
to efficiently achieve the aims of each division's duties.

In principle, these activities aim to maintain the current


status, although activities to improve the situation are also
included.

8
Basic concepts

1. Daily Management relates to management of activities


pertaining to area of responsibility and which are repeated
on daily/ routine basis. Word used is daily but even if an
activity is repeated once a week, it is still routine and hence
covered under daily management.

2. Daily management focuses on maintaining current level of


performance and includes actions leading to small gradual
improvements too. Most of us are busy in day to day fire-
fighting/ managing crisis. If routine activities are controlled
and can be taken care of by people down the line, senior
people can focus their time on improvement/ future planning.

Contd...

9
Basic concepts

3. Leads to stable & predictable operations leading to


Consistent quality
Lower cost of operations
Higher confidence in meeting timely deliveries.
Better safety

No improvement can sustain over time if daily management is


not effective in an organization.

Contd...
10
Basic concepts

4. Daily Management is applicable to all the processes and at


all levels. All of us, irrespective of our area of operation, are
engaged in routine jobs. Daily management is a mechanism
to control these routine activities.

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Two types of processes

Management Business
Processes Processes

Generic; required to
support business
processes; Specific to a sector/
applicable to all function
sectors/ functions

Examples:
Examples:
Processes
Daily Mgmt
Sales, NPD,
Purchase,
policy Mgmt
Manufacturing,
Improvement Mgmt
Supply Chain

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Two key Management Processes
Carrying out one’s Job (duty) surely

President
Managing
Policy Management
Director (challenge)

Department
(Strategic)
Manager

Section C B A
Manager

Foreman Daily Management (maintain)


Operator
(ROUTINE)

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Current State of your company/ function

• What are your major concerns?


–For your business
–For your customers
• How much time does top team spend in
fire-fighting?
• How much time your top team spends in
improvement?
• How much of improvement is sustained
over time?

15
Typical Situation in an Organization

• Roles & Objectives of departments/units & Performance Indicators


not clearly established.
• Focus primarily on Output parameters & not on process
characteristics. Process not stable or takes too long to stabilize.
• Indicators being monitored mostly for average values. Dispersion/
Spread/variability not being monitored.
• Involvement of front-line employees in monitoring of KPIs are
lacking.
• System to ensure capturing of all the abnormalities and in-depth
root cause analysis (rotation of PDCA) is lacking.
• Knowledge of SPC tools (Control Charts etc.) amongst employees
is poor.
• Too much fire-fighting and no time for improvement.
16
Basics about
PDCA/ SDCA Cycles

17
TQM Processes: PM & DM

Relation between policy management daily management :

Standardization

Policy High Priority Act Plan


Management Improvement
Check Do
items from BSC
Chronic/ critical problems

Job clarity and Act Standardize


Daily standardization Check Do
Management for effective work
in the department

Policy management is concerned with the abolition of the present


condition, daily management with keeping it.
- B. Kurahara
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SDCA & PDCA Cycles

(3) Analysis to find


out the root cause of
the problem

2) Measure/ 6) Revise standards for


Observe to grasp recurrence prevention
symptoms

(1) Define the


Problem
(A) (S)
Act Standard

Check Do 4) Take
Actions to
5) Confirm Improve
the Effect (C) (D)

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SDCA

• Standardize:
–Standard of performance (What)
–Standard of Work methods (How)
• Do
–Follow the standard
• Check
–Check the results against standard of performance
• Act
–In case of abnormality take corrective action to prevent
recurrence of abnormality observed.
–Modify work method, as needed

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Key Elements of the DWM Process

1. Establishing Roles and Responsibilities


 Purpose of the function / dept
 Organization Structure
 Roles & Responsibilities of each positions

2. Defining Performance measures (MP/ CP)


– KPI
SDCA
3. Standardization - Work Instruction Sheet (WIS)

4. Daily Monitoring and control –


1. Visual Management ,
2. Control Charts

5. Daily Work improvement -Plan Do Check Act (PDCA)

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Dr Kano’s questions on DWM

S1: What is the mission, roles or the objective of the Job of your
group? (Group means department/section you are responsible)
S2: Have you prepared standards for the job?
S3: By what indicators do you evaluate the status of “S1”?
S4: Do you have a system to check the status?
D1: Are you doing the job as per the specified standards in “S2”?
D2: Are you monitoring the job in appropriate frequency using the
control points?
C1: Have you evaluated current status of the job by the data
compared to specifications?
C2: Could you find abnormalities in appropriate frequencies?
A1: Have you taken immediate actions on non-conformities?
A2: Have you taken timely corrective and preventive actions? Have
you revised standards, control points and control levels as appropriate?

2222
Mapping with DWM Steps
Dr Kano’s Questions DWM Steps
S1: What is the mission, roles or the objective of the Job of your 1
group? (Group means department/section you are responsible)
S2: Have you prepared standards for the job? 3
S3: By what indicators do you evaluate the status of “S1”? 2
S4: Do you have a system to check the status? 4

D1: Are you doing the job as per the specified standards in “S2”? 3
D2: Are you monitoring the job in appropriate frequency using the 4
control points?
C1: Have you evaluated current status of the job by the data
4
compared to specifications?
C2: Could you find abnormalities in appropriate frequencies? 4

A1: Have you taken immediate actions on non-conformities? 5


A2: Have you taken timely corrective and preventive actions? Have
5
you revised standards, control points and control levels as appropriate?
2323
Key Elements of the DWM Process

1. Establishing Roles and Responsibilities


 Purpose of the function / dept
 Organization Structure
 Roles & Responsibilities of each positions

2. Defining Performance measures (MP/ CP)


– KPI
SDCA
3. Standardization - Work Instruction Sheet (WIS)

4. Daily Monitoring and control –


1. Visual Management ,
2. Control Charts

5. Daily Work improvement -Plan Do Check Act (PDCA)

24
Establishing Roles and Responsibilities and
determining the managing and checking points

Define Role Clarity

Identify the key


Managing Points
(MPs)

Determine the
Checking points for
each MP
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Defining Role Clarity

 Define the purpose of the department (why department/ function exists)

 Each person/ level should have clear job description

 Ensure:
No job is left unattended (no one is responsible for a job)
No overlap in responsibilities
No conflict of role in Job description with other documents in the
company
Ensure alignment of jobs to the company’s business objective
Capture voice of internal/ external customers and ensure job
addresses the customer needs.

 Job Description should not be confused with ‘activities’ a persons does


For example, one role/ job of QA Engineer is to “Check the product as per
standards/ specs.” However, it may require a lot of activities such as
scheduling of checks for today, ensuring availability of test cases/
standards, allocating test to inspectors in the team, etc.

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Process of identifying Role

2.Everyone writes his/ her own role as


per own perception

3.Boss to write role of his /


1.Standardize the format My her sub-ordinate as per his
Role perception

4. Boss and subordinates meet to discuss


•Clarify role
•Avoid gaps and overlaps in view of the department objectives
•This may require more than 1 round of discussions and is sometimes
referred to as ‘Catch-ball’.
•Review and finalize

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Care to take while identifying role

1. Outline specific duties that employee in the position will perform.

2. Have a clear title to job/ level and identify supervisor.

3. Ensure role serves the purpose of the function/ organization.

4. Use simple and straight-forward (not flowery) language.

5. Review with employees in a transparent and comfortable

environment.

6. Treat it as live document and be open to change them as and when

needed.

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Example

Purpose-An example from Production

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Managing Points/ Check Points (MP/CP)

• Convert Job description into measurable parameters

a) Result/ output parameters for a job are called Managing

Points

b) Process parameters for the same job are called check

points

c) Check Points (CPs) of one level may become MPs at next

lower hierarchical level

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Checking point : Causal factors which affect
the achievement of the managing points

Man Material
P
Q
C
Effect D
S
M
E
Environment Machine Method

CPs MPs

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Examples of managing points for a cup of tea

Managing Point : Managing point at the outcome of process


taste (Q), Speed of service (D) and temperature (Q)

Check Point : Check point at the root cause of process

- Man : Skill of person making tea


- Machine : Type of heating equipment used
- Method : time of boiling, ratio of ingredients like tea leaves/ sugar/ milk,
sequence of addition
- Material : Type of milk used, brand of tea leaves used

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Example of Manufacturing

Managing Point : Managing point at the outcome of process

-Production volume, as applied to production.

Check Point : Managing point at the root cause of process

- Production capacity, machine breakdowns, attendance of


operators, etc., as applied to production

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Identify MP/ CP-An example

What is Managing Point of Production Manager ???


Role: Produce auto parts as per customer needs of quality, cost and delivery schedule.

• Production as per customer schedule (D)


• Rejection at OE receipt area (Q)
Managing point • Line rejection at customer line (Q)
(KRA /
= • Internal rework level (Q)
• Value added Cost per unit (C)
Objectives) • No. of unsafe incidents (S)
• Productivity per person (P)

• Absenteeism (Man)
• Breakdown of machine (Machine)
• Quality of BOP (Material)
Check point = •

Compliance to control plan (Method)
Delivery compliance of key parts
(Material)

36
Identify MP/ CP-An example

Identify the Key Check Points


What is Managing Point of Front office executive?
 Role: Provide customers with efficient arrival experience

Time to check-in (D)


Managing point Error-free check-in (Q)
(KRA / = Customer satisfaction (Q)
Cost of front-office management (C)
Objectives)

Number of check-in counter (Man)


System availability (Machine)
Check point = House-keeping in front-office area (Env)
Knowledge of the room choice (Material)
No. of data info in check-in format
(Material)
Validation of member details (Env)

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Managing Points – Some Rules

1. Managing Points must measure fulfillment of purpose of business

2. Managing Points should focus on vital few i.e. 5 to 7

3. Managing Points are selected from the results of our work e.g.
PQCDSM

4. Managing Points should always be measurable

5. Managing Point should be ones which are measurable frequently &


based on reality to give appropriate and timely feedback for
corrections

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Checking Points – Some Rules

1. Checking points are selected from the business process flow of one’s
responsibility area
2. Are identified with current process knowledge
3. Checking Points can be shared at different levels within a department
4. Checking Points should be measured more frequently than Managing Points to
give an early indication for course correction
5. Needs analytical capability to identify vital few check-points
6. CPs can be of two types:
Related to target deployment
o National sales can be deployed as regional sales, which in turn can be
deployed as branch –wise sales etc.
Process checks like:
o National sales can depend upon number of sales channel, availability of
right product at right time

7. Check Points are the ones for which a subordinate is responsible. But this
being critical for boss, boss too will monitor. Some CP’s may not be MP’s of
the subordinates but that of the colleague from another function. But being
critical one needs to monitor and hence it becomes a CP.

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MP/CP examples for JDs defined earlier

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MP/CP examples for JDs defined earlier

EES: Employee engagement Score; ESS: Employee Satisfaction Score

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Example from Production
Purpose Objectives of Cate Example of Indicators Example of Check point
of your deptt. gory (Managing Points)
deptt.

Production Productivity P No. of vehicles per man day • Line balancing %


as per • Cycle time
customer • Skill of person
plan at • Extent of multi-skilling
• Breakdowns
lowest cost
• Material availability

Quality Q % Rework • Compliance to SOP


No. of customer complaints/ month • Condition of tools/ equipments
• Skill level
• Material quality

Low Cost C Production Cost per unit (Rs.) • Spare cost


WIP level (DOS) • Manpower cost
Consumable costs • No. of changes in production plan

On time D Compliance to Production plan • No. of changes in production plan


delivery • Availability of equipment
• Availability of materials
• Absenteeism

Safe S No. of accidents, no. of unsafe incidents,


operations no. of near misses

High employee M Absenteeism, no. of improvements made


morale per month,

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Example from Maintenance
Purpose of your Objectives of Category Example of Indicators Example of check points
department department (Managing Points)

Maximize High P % availability per week • Compliance to PM plan


Uptime of the Availability
plant at lowest
cost Reliable Q MTBF (hours) • Skill of diagnosis
• Compliance to AM plan

Low Cost C Cost of maintenance per • Spare quality


month (Rs.) • Skill of repair

Faster D MTTR (mean time to • Skill of repair


response repair) • Spare availability

Safe S No. of accidents, no. of • Compliance to SOP


operations unsafe incidents, no. of • Audit plan compliance
near misses

High M Absenteeism, no. of • timely recognition


employee improvements made per • Clarity of roles
morale month,

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Example from Purchase
Purpose of Objectives Cat Example of Indicators Examples of check point
your of ego (Managing Points)
department department ry

Timely Productivity P No. of requisitions served on time • Timely placement of orders


availability of No of pending requisitions against requisitions
materials as No of stock out items • F/U of suppliers for timely
per delivery as per order date
requirement • Selection of reliable and
of all internal competent suppliers
customers
Quality Q % age of lots accepted first time • Placement of orders on approved
% age lots accepted after rework suppliers
• Clarity of requirements specified
in purchase orders
• Prompt countermeasures from
suppliers for prevention of
reoccurrence of problems

To reduce C Cost per PO • Follow defined process


Cost of • capturing complete requirements
raising PO in first go to avoid reprocessing

High M Absenteeism, no. of improvements • timely recognition


employee made per month, • Clarity of roles
morale • Planned competence
development

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Example from HR-Recruitment section

Purpose Objectives of Cat Example of Indicators Examples of check point


of your department ego (Managing Points)
departm ry
ent

Timely Productivity P No. of people recruited as per plan • No. of candidates identified
Recruitm • No. of sources used to identify
ent of candidates
quality
manpow Quality Q % people retained after six months • No. of members on interview
er Average rating scores of new panel
joinees after 6 months • Clarity of job description
• % candidates recruited within 100
km radius

Low Cost C Cost of recruitment per person • No. of positions filled directly (no
agent)
• no. of positions filled internally

On time D % Cases pending > 1 month • No. of sources used to identify


delivery candidates
• Clarity of job description

High M Absenteeism, no. of improvements


employee made per month,
morale

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Group Work Shop

Complete first two elements of DWM in homogenous


groups

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Exercise: Identify MP/ CP for your work area in teams

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Process of identifying MPs/ CPs

 Remember there are two roles at each level:


 Routine roles (Routine)
 Roles emerging out of BSC of the year (Strategic)

 Routine roles will get modified once BSC points come to


play. This may include
 Revision of MP’s/ targets
 Removal of few MP’s/ CP’s
 Addition of new MP’s/ CP’s
 Addition or updation of new activities

33 48
Process of identifying MPs/ CPs

Strategy • MP5
BSC Obj 1 • MP6
Deployed From
Divisional Head • MP7
My BSC Obj2 • MP8
Routine role

DM Obj • MP1 MP1 to MP8 are


1 • MP2
MPs for my work
DM Obj • MP3 for the current
2 • MP4 year

All these MPs may get deployed to my sub-ordinate, as required

49
Process of identifying MPs/ CPs

Strategy

Deployed From
Divisional
Head

Routine

My role

35 50
Process of identifying MPs/ CPs

MANAGING POINTS REFLECT CAUSE-AND-


EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS IN THE COMPANY

CEO : Managing Point A Check Points A1, A2, . . . .

Department : Managing Point A1 Check Points A11, A12, . . .


.
Manager

Line Manager : Managing Point A11 Check Points A111, A112, .


..

Objectives Means

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Process of identifying MPs/ CPs

MANAGING POINTS REFLECT CAUSE-AND-


EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS IN THE COMPANY

Managing Points Check Points

CEO : Overall Defect Rate Defect Rate at Assembly

Assembly : Defect Rate at Defect Rate at Station - 1


Manager Assembly

Head Station 1 : Defect Rate at M/c conditions e.g. Temp.,


Station - 1 Pressure, etc.

Objectives Means
52
Process of identifying and deploying MPs/ CPs –An example
Sourcing Manager
Purpose of Objectives Categories Managing Points Checking points
Sourcing Dept
PPM of top 10
Quality of
Ensuring Q Line rejection Contributing vendor-
component
sourcing Part combination
of material as Avg. Inventory Days of stock for A
Total material Cost C
per business (Rs. Cores) class items
needs Meeting business D Stock out (Nos.) OTD (%) of
needs in terms of
suppliers
volume availability

Objectives Categories Managing Checking


Purpose of Buying section
Points points
Days of stock Stock of A items
Buy as per cost and delivery Inventory Cost C for A class in or outside
requirements of the plant items max-min range
OTD (%) of Daily plan vs
Delivery D actual supply
suppliers

53
Process of identifying and deploy in g MPs/ CPs –An example
Production Manager

Purpose of Dept Objectives Categories Managing Points Checking points

Plan and execute Quality of First pass yield Line wise


Production as per production rejection
customer needs Q
of quality and
volume at Cost of key
lowest Reduce Cost of Cost of operations
C consumables
manufacturing
and power

Meet customer OTD% as per Production


D
schedule PPC plan losses

Purpose of Objectives Categories Managing Points Checking points


Production Line

Line Reduce rejection/ Line wise rejection


Production rework Q
as per customer Control consumption Cost of key Specific consumption
of power, oils and
needs of QCD of consumables and power C Consumables & power cutting tools
Production as per daily Production Loss time due to
changeover, breakdown
plan D losses
and material availability

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Set Targets

2011-12

One cannot expect to jump from ~3100 to 3500 units in just one month.
Also target may not straight line for all 12 months of next year.

55
Set Targets
A

2011-12
Step target as shown in ‘A’ or a B
glide-path (with seasonal
fluctuation, if needed) in ‘B’ are
better way to reflect target

56
Key Elements of the DWM Process

1. Establishing Roles and Responsibilities


 Purpose of the function / dept
 Organization Structure
 Roles & Responsibilities of each positions

2. Defining Performance measures (MP/ CP)


– KPI
SDCA
3. Standardization - Work Instruction Sheet (WIS)

4. Daily Monitoring and control –


1. Visual Management ,
2. Control Charts

5. Daily Work improvement -Plan Do Check Act (PDCA)

57
Process of Standardization

Establishing Work
Instruction Sheet

Implementing Work
Instruction Sheet

Reviewing Work
Instruction Sheet

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Why Standardization?

Standard acts as a wedge to hold on any improvements

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What is Standardization?

 Repeatable and predictable output is possible only when


work is carried out in exactly the same way by everyone.
This means standardization

 A standard procedure is the ‘current’ best known way

 Standards include systems (Manuals), process flows


(procedures), work instructions, records and formats – and
also rules and regulations

 How to standardise must also be standardised

60
Why Standardization?

 Simplify instructions, guidance & supervision

 Better understanding of the methods used & job


simplification

 Help new employees to learn correct methods, faster


induction

 Describe the contents of jobs to employees

 Compile the methods used in written form for future


reference

61
Types of standards
Equipment Standards : Equipment manual, drawings, spare parts list, inspection method, installation instructions,
preventive / predictive maintenance standards, P& I diagrams

Material Standards : Specification sheet, QCPC, sampling plan, test methods, vendor documentation, manufacturing
process of materials, input material control for materials bought by us, disposal standards
including concession/deviation, traceability

Product or packing : Specifications sheet, drawings, QCPC, sampling plan, test methods, documentation for
standards customers, correlation standards

Process Standards : Process manuals, drawings, basic engineering documents, QCPC, process regulation
standards, process control standards, procedures, work instructions

Procedural Standards : Manual, procedures, work instructions, records, formats, checklists, rules and regulations,
policies

Other technical : Design standards, Design review procedures, Inspection and testing standards
standards

Manpower allocation, standard operations routine, one point lessons, training standards and
Manpower standards : materials

62
Examples of Standards in Shop Floor

• Yellow lines on the floor


• Color coding
• Last piece of production left on top of die
• Production control board
• Line stop procedure
• Level of minimum and maximum inventory
• Andon light with displayed explanation
• Checklist, e.g., machine maintenance, safety, shift change, etc.
• SOP (standard operating procedure)
• Quality Control Process table/ Control Plan
• Cross-training matrix
• Sample board
• Training procedure
• Improvement board/ Display board
• Drawings/ specification
• BOP standard/ inspection checklists……

63
Job Flow Chart & Mgmt System Chart

 We can not do our jobs by ourselves

 We are always in vertical (Senior or subordinates) and


horizontal (related departments or organizations) relations

Such relations are described in the Job Flow Chart (often called
as flowchart) and Management System Chart.

Senior Staff
Relation
Next Vertical
Process Horizontal
MY JOB Related
or Relation
Department
Customer

Subordinates

64
Job Flow Chart & Mgmt System Chart

 To clarify whether the job is well organized and


conducted as a whole
To utilize for improvement of the management level as
Management system
Standard and Managing points are included to Job
Flowchart to arrange

jobs as whole:

1. Job coordination is described.

2. The role of one department is clear in the process of the job,

3. The fundamental information for the job is described,

4. The information of the completion of the job is described, and

5. The regulations and rules for the job are described.

65
Management System Chart (MSC): Example of Customer complaint handling

66
Why MSC?

• MSC is useful as it fulfills the following objectives in one single


document:

–Having a view of end to end process

–Identification of weak areas in the process (both within a function


and more importantly cross-functional issues)

–Confirmation that we have not missed out a critical check point

–Helps in listing of standards required in a functions

67
MSC- Step 1: Make flow chart

68
MSC- Step 1: Make flow chart
A

69
MSC- Step 2: Identify Check Points

• Identify weak links with respect to MP. These may be potential


check points

• Typical Check points may be related to:


• Hand-offs
• Decision boxes
(both these are prone to delays and errors)

• Prioritize to keep focus based on data and process knowledge

70
MSC- Step 2: Identify Check Points

71
MSC- Step 2: Identify Check Points

72
MSC- Step 3: List standards needed at each step

73
MSC- Step 3: List standards needed at each step

74
Group Work Shop

Preparation of MSC on same homogenous group

75
QC Process Chart/ Control Plan (An Example)

76
Control Plan for tea preparation (An Example)

77
How to prepare a SOP?
• Go to GEMBA
• Observe operators how they perform
• Observe and record variation
• Discuss and find best method
• Document in simple and local language. Use pictures for ease
of communication (visual standards) –A Picture paints
• thousand words
• Train all on the standards
• Implement and establish what performance level is achieved
(e.g. defect rate, cycle time).
• Use that for monitoring

78
How to prepare a work standard?
An example:
A company uses bore measuring gauges for measurement of bore
diameter. Operators have been using the
gage for more than a decade. Gage R&R studies show high
measurement variation. Observed the operators doing
measurement and found variation in:

i. Cleaning of parts (some operators clean bore with cloth before


measurement while others don’t do).
ii. Some operators are keeping part on table and measure while others
measure while holding parts in hand.
iii. Some operators put some washer (sort of stopper) inside the bore
to ensure they take gage to same level in each
parts while most do it by guess work.
iv. Points discussed with all operators and found best way and
everyone trained on agreed and documented SOP for
measurement.
v. Gage error reduced to acceptable level.

79
How to assess adequacy of Work Standard?

Work standards can be evaluated on three counts:


i. Ease of understanding
O Language is simple
O Message is communicated more by pictures
O Even a layman can understand.

ii. Ease of implementation


O SOP focuses on vital few parameters.

iii. It leads to sustenance of particular level of performance. By regularly


following SOP, process becomes STABLE and surprises are minimized.
O This will require study of OUTPUT data over time. Use of control
chart or at least a trend chart is highly recommended here.

80
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)

81
Example of Work Instruction Sheet

Specs.

Do’s Dont’s

82
Implementing SOPs

Train all concerned employees on the SOPs

At the work place, display the training status of each employee on


different jobs or work area

Training new employees / operators on a SOP must be carried out


by the immediate bosses / supervisors

The SOPs should be displayed or accessible at each employees


work area / station

83
Reviewing SOPs

System to check if work being performed in accordance with the


SOPs

Review should focus on:


Are the SOPs adequate
Are the SOPs easy to understand
Are employees following the SOP
SOPs are effective to meet the standards of performance

Based on the above, the SOPs should be continuously revised and


upgraded

84
When to change SOP?

• Whenever there is any change in 4M (Man, Machine, Material


and Method)

• This may be result of business need (e.g. change of supplier) or


efforts to achieve higher level of standard
through Kaizen efforts of the company (A higher level of
performance will need wedge to move too or there will
be need to change the standard once a new performance level
is achieved).

• Standard should not be revised without validating new


hypothesis (by rotating PDCA cycle).

85
What to change in SOP?

SOP change can be in any 4Ms (called process parameters).


• Typically it translates into changing one or combination of the
following:
i. Additional process parameters
Ii. Frequency of checking and review of process parameters
iii. Changing level of parameter to a different level
• Any change in work standard will also lead to corresponding change
in performance (output) standard.
• Focus should always be on identifying VITAL FEW process
characteristics and how to optimize to get the best
level.
• More number of characteristics usually leads to loss of focus and
also poses implementation difficulties.

86
How to change SOP?

• Change SOP after studying the OUTPUT condition.


• If problem is once in a while (e.g. abnormality/ assignable cause), it
is typically due to non-compliance to SOP.
• Check for clarity of SOP and its uniform understanding with all using
the SOP.
• If a problem is regular (e.g. high defect rate, high cycle time), rotate
a PDCA, get new knowledge and modify SOP based on new
validated knowledge.
• Rotation can be by a full QC Story/ Six Sigma project or by simple
One factor experiments. Toyota has modified its SOPs (and
performance standard) by several shop-floor one factor
experiments.

87
Key Elements of the DWM Process

1. Establishing Roles and Responsibilities


 Purpose of the function / dept
 Organization Structure
 Roles & Responsibilities of each positions

2. Defining Performance measures (MP/ CP)


– KPI
SDCA
3. Standardization - Work Instruction Sheet (WIS)

4. Daily Monitoring and control –


1. Visual Management ,
2. Control Charts

5. Daily Work improvement -Plan Do Check Act (PDCA)

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Daily Monitoring and Control

 Each function to monitor key MPs and CPs against targets

 Use visual displays whereby abnormalities can be identified


easily

 Control charts/ trend charts are often helpful for monitoring and
control

 If MP target is not achieved, look for trends of CPs.

 If CPs are in control, then


 we may be missing an important CP. Discuss and
update list of CPs
 There may be a need to be review target for MP in some
situations

 If CPs are out of control, act on CPs. Monitor effectiveness


of action by looking at trends of MPs and CPs more
frequently for period of initial implementation of action

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DWM Review Structure

• Define roles for updation and review of charts/ graphs clearly.

• Define exact time/ day by which it must be done.

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Review System

Primarily by meetings on Daily, weekly and monthly basis

–Decide structure (who will attend review meetings?)

–Decide agenda. Typically it may include:


•Plan vs. actual for the period
•Major deviations and causes
•Immediate action
•Long-term action to prevent recurrence

–Decide date and/ or time of the meeting

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Review System-An example

Review by Agenda Frequency Typical time


of the meeting

Shop floor manager •Daily Production against plan 0930-1000


and supervisors, planner,
Daily
•Rejections hrs.
buyer, QA engineer,
•On-time delivery
dispatch officer
•Major breakdowns
•Major failures in material
delivery

Heads of Production, •Weekly failures on dispatch/


Weekly Monday
QA, Purchase, production 1100-1130
Sales •Major material issues
hrs.
•Major customer complaint for the
week
•Any safety incident

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Review System-An example

Review by Agenda Frequency Typical time of


the meeting
GM, All functional •Monthly Production Monthly 3rd WD of every
heads against plan month 1430-1730
•Major Rejections hrs.
with Pareto
•On-time delivery
•Major breakdowns
•Major safety lapses
•Compliance to
training plan
•New suggestions
•Status of new
products and
projects against plan

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Exercise

• Develop a system of review meeting for your functional areas:

–Attendees
–Frequency
–Agenda
–What data you need
–Time duration of the meeting

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Key Elements of the DWM Process

1. Establishing Roles and Responsibilities


 Purpose of the function / dept
 Organization Structure
 Roles & Responsibilities of each positions

2. Defining Performance measures (MP/ CP)


– KPI
SDCA
3. Standardization - Work Instruction Sheet (WIS)

4. Daily Monitoring and control –


1. Visual Management ,
2. Control Charts

5. Daily Work improvement -Plan Do Check Act (PDCA)

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Review Cycle CAP-Do

• The cycle of review actually starts with C (check) and it is good to use
CAP-Do (Check-act-plan-do) cycle for reviews. That means:

• Check
 Check results against plan
• Act
 If results OK, keep following the plan /standardize
 If results not OK, act  rotate a PDCA, find root cause, decide on
action plan
(standardize if results effective after implementation)
• Plan
 Plan for implementing the action such as pilot area
• Do
 Train the people on the plan
 Communicate the changes
 Implement the plan
 Go to check again
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Daily Work Improvement

2 Types of action

Immediate Long term action


action

Rework, Re- Root cause analysis,


adjust, revision of WIS
compensate.

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PDCA - one example

• Jain Rubber Parts (P) Ltd. Reviews data on rejection line wise.
• One week data showed sudden jump from average 5000 ppm to
5500 ppm

99
PDCA - one example

• Line wise data was reviewed to understand the increase

10
PDCA - one example

• Molding constituted maximum to the week’s rejection.


• Further study indicated that rejection was highest for 15 mm dia ‘O’
Rings for dia variation
• O rings are molded in six cavity die
• Immediate action taken:
–Introduced 100% inspection of all O rings
• Long term action:
–Data collected on dia stratified cavity wise
–Cavity number 4 and 6 had oversize
–Action was to modify die and re-run the batch
–100% inspection variation within spec

10
PDCA - one example

• Transfer to Daily management through standardization:

–Die health check list modified to check cavity condition every week

–Product control plan modified to add cavity-wise measurement


of dia of O ring once a week in addition to shift-wise check on
random basis.

10
PDCA - one example

 XYZ Bank Reviews data on TAT non-compliance


 Usually compliance to customer query is expected within 48 hrs.
XYZ Bank has shown compliance to the tune of 85%.
 One week showed unusually low level of 75%
 Reason was major bug crept up in system software leading to
outage for more than 8 hrs.
 Immediate action:
Restore with the help of the vendor

 Long term action:


Make preventive check and back up of system to ensure new
queries are not affected.

10
PDCA - one example

 Transfer to Daily management through


standardization:
-AMC with vendor modified to have trial check of system and keep a
back up with both the XYZ Bank and the vendor

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DWM - Benefits
1. Consistency in meeting section, department and company
targets
2. Leads to customer focus
3. Pleasant and safe workplace
4. Enhanced employee capability, hence organization capability
5. Enhanced employee motivation
6. Leads to deployment of company values of fairness, trust,
integrity and respect for others
7. Inculcates sense of self discipline
8. Accumulation of soft technology
9. Foundation for sustainable development of people, processes
and the organization
10.Foundation for Performance Management System

10
Typical Benefits

 Consistency in PQCDSM
 Some examples:
 Faster response to customer complaint handling
 Faster turnaround to trucks to speed up logistic process
 Faster recruitment due to standardization and clarity of Job
description
 Reduction in meeting time due to discussions based on data (rather
than feelings)
 Improvement in IT help desk response time.
 Reduced errors in a project environment due to clarity of Work
Breakdown sheets
 Reduced transaction errors in accounts leading to reduced rework
and faster response.
 Better employee involvement
 Better interfaces with other function by ease of communication with
visual controls and alarms

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DWM Assessment
DWM Level assessment criteria :
Check point Level
DWM not visualized 0
DWM visualized I
DWM visualized as per standard (
II
established Step 1,2,3)
DWM review & monitoring done as per
III
plan ( Step # 4 followed)
Work improvement regularly carried
IV
out ( Step # 5 followed)

DWM Scoring assessment criteria:


Scoring assessment to be carried out
only after reaching level- III
(To follow the assessment score sheet)
*(minimum 90% score is necessary in
Preliminary Information, Role
Clarity,Mesures & Alignment ,
Standardization before assessing next 5 Elements of DWM
1. Establishing Roles and Responsibilities
two steps) 2. Defining Performance measures (MP/ CP)

Star Rating based on scoring 3. Standardization


 Work Instruction Sheet (WIS)
* < 25%,
4. Daily Monitoring and control
* * < 26~50%, 

Visual Management
Control Charts
* * * < 51~ 75%, 5. Daily Work improvement

* * * * = 76 ~ 100%) Plan Do Check Act (PDCA)

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Revisiting the expectations jotted down at the
beginning of the session

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Sum up

• Write down key learning's form DWM session today.


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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Any Questions?

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