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Introduction to Human Development
Human
Development
Theories of Human Development

Prenatal Development

Infancy and Childhood

Adolescence

Human Development

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Early and Middle Adulthood
Human
Development
(continued)
Aging: Late Adulthood

Human Development

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Human Development > Introduction to Human Development

Introduction to Human Development


• Nature vs. Nurture
• Methods for Researching Human Development

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www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/human-development-14/introduction-to-human-development-69/
Human Development > Theories of Human Development

Theories of Human Development


• Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
• Attachment Theory
• Freud's Psychosexual Theory of Development
• Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
• Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

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Human Development > Prenatal Development

Prenatal Development
• The Role of Genes in Prenatal Development
• Prenatal Brain Development
• Environmental Impacts on Prenatal Development

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Human Development > Infancy and Childhood

Infancy and Childhood


• The Newborn
• Physical Development in Childhood
• Cognitive Development in Childhood
• Socioemotional Development in Childhood
• Influence of Parenting Style on Child Development
• Cultural and Societal Influences on Child Development

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Human Development > Adolescence

Adolescence
• Physical Development in Adolescence
• Cognitive Development in Adolescence
• Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
• Cultural and Societal Influences on Adolescent Development

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Human Development > Early and Middle Adulthood

Early and Middle Adulthood


• Physical Development in Adulthood
• Cognitive Development in Adulthood
• Socioemotional Development in Adulthood
• Relationships and Families in Adulthood

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Human Development > Aging: Late Adulthood

Aging: Late Adulthood


• Physical Development in Late Adulthood
• Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
• Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood
• How Culture and Society Impact the Elderly

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Appendix
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Human Development

Key terms
• adolescence The transitional period of physical and psychological development between childhood and maturity.
• Alzheimer's disease A disorder involving loss of mental functions resulting from brain-tissue changes; a form of senile
dementia.
• antisocial Antagonistic, hostile, or unfriendly toward others; opposed to social order or the principles of society.
• assimilation The absorption of new ideas into an existing cognitive structure.
• attachment A strong bonding toward or with.
• autonomy Self-government; freedom to act or function independently.
• cerebellum Part of the hindbrain in vertebrates; in humans it lies between the brainstem and the cerebrum and plays an
important role in sensory perception, motor output, balance, and posture.
• chromosome A structure in the cell nucleus that contains DNA, histone protein, and other structural proteins.
• cohort A demographic grouping of people, especially those in a defined age group, or sharing a common characteristic.
• colic Severe pains that grip the abdomen or the disease that causes such pains (due to intestinal or bowel related problems).
• conception The fertilization of an ovum by a sperm to form a zygote.
• conscience A personification of the moral sense of right and wrong, usually in the form of a person, a being, or merely a voice
that gives moral lessons and advices.

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Human Development

• constructive Carefully considered and meant to be helpful.


• contradiction A logical incompatibility among two or more elements or propositions.
• corpus callosum In mammals, a broad band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
• correlation One of the several measures of the linear statistical relationship between two random variables, indicating the
strength of the relationship but not necessarily the causation.
• culture The beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that constitute a people's way of life.
• deductive reasoning Inference in which the conclusion cannot be false given that the premises are true.
• dementia A broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term decrease in the ability to think and remember to the extent
that a person's daily functioning is affected.
• deoxyribonucleic acid A genetic component found in all living things which it is associated with the transmission of genetic
information; consists of a polymer formed from nucleotides which are shaped into a double helix.
• dexterity Skill in performing tasks, especially with the hands.
• dialectic Any formal system of reasoning that arrives at a truth by the exchange of logical arguments; a contradiction of ideas
that serves as the determining factor in their interaction.
• differentiation The act of distinguishing or describing a thing; exact definition or determination.
• egocentric Self-centered; concerned with the self; selfish.

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Human Development

• egocentric Self-centered; absorbed with the self; selfish.


• embryo An organism in the earlier stages of development; in humans, usually the cell growth up to the end of the seventh week
in utero.
• empathy The capacity to understand another person's point of view, or the result of such understanding.
• ethnography The branch of anthropology that scientifically describes specific human cultures and societies.
• fertilization The act of impregnating animal or vegetable gametes.
• fetal alcohol syndrome Any of a spectrum of birth defects that result from excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during
pregnancy.
• gene A unit of heredity; a segment of DNA or RNA that is transmitted from one generation to the next and carries genetic
information such as the sequence of amino acids for a protein.
• generativity Contributing to the development of others and of future generations; productivity and creativity; the act of helping
society move forward.
• genotype That part (DNA sequence) of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which
determines a specific characteristic (phenotype) of that cell/organism/individual.
• glaucoma An eye disease or disorder of the optic nerve that, if untreated, may lead to damage to the optic disc of the eye and
resultant visual-field loss, which can lead to blindness.
• glial cell Non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the
central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
• gonad A sex organ that produces gametes; specifically, a testicle or ovary.

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Human Development

• heritability The ratio of the genetic variance of a population to its phenotypic variance; i.e., the proportion of variability that is
genetic in origin.
• heterosexual Sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex.
• hospice The provision of palliative care for terminally ill patients, either at a specialized facility or at a residence, along with
support for the family; typically refrains from taking extraordinary measures to prolong life.
• innate Inborn; native; natural.
• intellectualization The act or process of finding a seemingly rational explanation for something.
• interpersonal Existing between two or more people.
• intersubjectivity The state or condition of involving or occurring between separate conscious minds; a term used to represent
the psychological relation between people.
• introspection A looking inward; the act or process of self-examination, or inspection of one's own thoughts and feelings; the
cognition that the mind has of its own acts and states; self-consciousness.
• Longitudinal Sampling data over time rather than merely once.
• menarche The onset of menstruation in human females; the beginning of the menstrual period.
• menopause The ending of menstruation; the time in a woman's life when this happens.
• milestone An important event in a person's life or career, in the history of a nation, in the life of some project, etc.

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Human Development

• mnemonic device Any specific learning technique that aids information retention.
• morality Recognition of the distinction between good and evil or between right and wrong; respect for and obedience to the
rules of right conduct; the mental disposition or characteristic of behaving in a manner intended to produce good results.
• myelination The production of a coating of myelin around an axon.
• neonatal Of or pertaining to the period of time immediately following birth.
• neural tube A hollow longitudinal dorsal tube formed in the folding and subsequent fusion of the opposite ectodermal folds in
the embryo that gives rise to the brain and spinal cord.
• neurodegenerative Of, pertaining to, or resulting in the progressive loss of nerve cells and of neurologic function.
• neurotransmitter Any substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, responsible for sending nerve signals across a synapse
between two neurons.
• norms That which is regarded as normal or typical; a rule that is enforced by members of a community.
• object permanence The understanding (typically developed during early infancy) that an object still exists even when it
disappears from sight or other senses.
• peer pressure Encouragement by others in one's age group to act or behave in a certain way.
• placenta A vascular organ in mammals, present only in the female during gestation, that supplies food and oxygen from the
mother to the fetus and passes back waste.
• plasticity The brain's ability to change and adapt over the course of a lifetime; changes in neural pathways and synapses due to
changes in behavior, environment, neural processes, thinking, and emotions.

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Human Development

• posture The way a person holds and positions their body.


• prefrontal cortex The anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas; a part of the
brain associated with higher cognition.
• prejudice An adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge of the facts.
• presbyopia Inability of the eye, due to aging, to focus on nearby objects; farsightedness.
• psychosexual Of or relating to the psychological aspect and aspects of sexuality.
• psychosocial Having both psychological and social aspects.
• puberty The age at which a person is first capable of sexual reproduction.
• puberty The period during which a person first becomes capable of sexual reproduction.
• racialized Categorized or treated in a particular way based on race.
• relativistic Of or relating to the concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity, and instead have only subjective
value according to differences in perception.
• self-esteem Confidence in one's own worth; self-respect.
• self-fulfilling prophecy A prediction that, by being voiced, causes itself to come true.

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Human Development

• separation anxiety A psychological condition in children characterized by apprehension when separated from a parent.
• socioemotional selectivity theory A life-span theory of motivation which maintains that as time horizons shrink, as they typically
do with age, people become increasingly selective, investing greater resources in emotionally meaningful goals and activities.
• stereotype A conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image.
• sudden infant death syndrome The sudden and unexplained death of an infant aged one month to one year, normally while
sleeping.
• synapse The junction between the terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve
impulses pass.
• temperament A person's normal manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting.
• teratogen Any agent or substance which can cause malformation of an embryo or birth defects.
• trait An identifying characteristic, habit, or trend.
• Transitivity The idea that if A is related to B, and B is related to C, then A must be related to C.
• zygote A fertilized egg cell.
• zygote A fertilized egg cell.
• zygote A fertilized egg cell.

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Human Development

Aging factors
As an individual progresses through adulthood, a variety of factors can affect the aging process. This includes primary factors like decline of cellular
function and oxidative damage, and secondary factors like an unhealthy lifestyle.

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Human Development

Play and childhood relationships


Associative and cooperative play occurs when children learn to engage with one another, exchanging and sharing toys and creating games together.

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Human Development

The effects of parenting style


Different parenting styles influence children differently depending on cultural norms and standards.

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Human Development

Longitudinal Designs
Children experience rapid physical changes through infancy and early childhood. In a longitudinal study, a researcher observes many individuals born at
or around the same time and observes them as they age. (credit "left": modification of work by Kerry Ceszyk; credit "middle-left": modification of work by
Kristi Fausel; credit "middle-right": modification of work by "devinf"/Flickr; credit "right": modification of work by Rose Spielman)

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Human Development

Stages of development
During the fetal stage, the brain develops and the body adds size and weight, until the fetus reaches full-term development.

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Human Development

Parenting styles
The way in which a parent interacts with his or her child is an important factor in the child's socioemotional growth.

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Human Development

Social relationships in old age


Research has shown that social support is important as we age, especially as loss and death become more common.

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Human Development

Intelligence
Cognitive ability changes over the course of a person's lifespan, but keeping the mind engaged and active is the best way to keep thinking sharp.

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Human Development

Timeline of prenatal development


This chart details prenatal development from conception to birth.

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Human Development

Childhood Attachment
Children who have secure attachment to parents are more likely to be successful adults.

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Human Development

Developmental Psychology Research


Many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individual's behavior, and environmental factors including social
context, and their impact on development.

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Human Development

Embryo
During the germinal stage of prenatal development, the cells necessary for the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid will differentiate to form the
embryo.

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Human Development

Piaget's stages of cognitive development


Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development includes four stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

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Wikispaces. "mcmETEC5303 - My Stance on Educational Technology, by Jean Piaget." CC BY
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Human Development

Jean Piaget
Piaget's theory of child development is still one of the most widely accepted in modern psychology.

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Human Development

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development


Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development includes four stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

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Human Development

Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud developed his theory of development based on five psychosexual stages.

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Human Development

Erik Erikson
Erikson developed his eight stages of psychosocial development based on Freud's psychosexual theory.

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Human Development

Baby in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit)


Exposure to teratogens during pregnancy can cause many problems for a developing fetus and newborn baby.

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Human Development

Newborn baby
The newborn baby requires a great deal of care to develop.

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Human Development

Culture
Culture is learned and socially shared, and it affects all aspects of an individual's life. Social responsibilities, sexual expression, and belief-system
development, for instance, are all things that are likely to vary by culture.

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Human Development

Social relationships in adulthood


Social relationships are important to overall well-being in early and middle adulthood. (credit: Philippe Put)

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Human Development

The parent-child relationship


When children go through puberty, there is often a significant increase in parent-child conflict.

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Human Development

Cultural views on aging


Depending on the culture, aging can be seen as an undesirable phenomenon or as an accumulation of wisdom and respect.

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Human Development

The id, ego, and superego


Freud believed that we are only aware of a small amount of our mind’s activities and that most of it remains hidden from us in our unconscious. The
information in our unconscious affects our behavior, although we are unaware of it.

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Human Development

Intelligence
Cognitive ability changes over the course of a person's lifespan, but keeping the mind engaged and active is the best way to keep thinking sharp.

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Human Development

A Nepali Hindu couple in a marriage ceremony


Interpersonal relationships take many forms in many different cultures.

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Human Development

Structure of a nerve cell


Synapses, or the spaces between nerve cells, develop rapidly during childhood. These structures are responsible for releasing neurotransmitters, which
are chemical signals that help the brain communicate.

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Human Development

DNA
DNA is a ladder-like structure that contains genetic material.

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Human Development

Photos depicting the progression of Alzheimer's disease


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and is the most common form of dementia in older adults.

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Human Development

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder


The symptoms of FASD include slow physical growth, abnormal facial features (such as a smooth philtrum, or no dent in the upper lip), and brain injury.

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Human Development

Toddler exploring her world


By manipulating the world around them, children learn and grow physically in both gross and fine motor skills.

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Human Development

The "False Belief" Test: Theory of Mind


False-belief tasks are useful in determining a child’s acquisition of theory of mind. Take a look at this video clip showing a false-belief task involving a
box of crayons.

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Human Development

Chromosome
Chromosomes are the genetic material that make up a person's traits.

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Human Development

Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget describes adolescence as the stage of life in which the individual's thoughts start taking more of an abstract form and egocentric thoughts
decrease.

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Human Development

The anatomy of the brain


The brain grows and matures rapidly during early childhood, faster than any other organ in a child's body.

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Human Development

Personality Development
Diagram of an analogy using an iceberg to explain how the id, ego and superego work together to develop personality.

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Human Development

Brain Development During Adolescence


Brain growth continues into the early 20s. The development of the frontal lobe, in particular, is important during this stage.

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Human Development

Conservation task
This video features three children completing conservation tasks. The first two children are confronted with a classic conservation task concerning liquid
volumes. The first child does not understand conservation (the principle that even though the appearance of substances may change, their key
properties remain the same) and is likely in the preoperational stage. The second child understands conservation, demonstrating the concrete
operational stage. The third child fails to show an understanding of conservation, and thus is likely still in the preoperational stage of cognitive
development.

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YouTube. "Conservation task." Youtube License http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o View on Boundless.com
Human Development

Kohlberg's stages of moral development


Kohlberg identified three levels of moral reasoning: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Each level is associated with increasingly
complex stages of moral development.

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OpenStax CNX. "CNX Psychology, Psychology. August 4, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-
2cefd46e68cc@4.100:51/Psychology View on Boundless.com
Human Development

Kohlberg's Model of Moral Development


Kolhberg's stages of moral development use moral dilemmas to teach individuals the difference between right and wrong.

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Wikimedia. "Kohlberg Model of Moral Development." CC BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kohlberg_Model_of_Moral_Development.png View on
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Human Development

Jean Piaget
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is still widely used and accepted today.

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Wikimedia. "Jean Piaget." CC BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_Piaget.jpg View on Boundless.com
Human Development

Mother with child


Mother to child attachment plays a key role in the emotional and social development of children.

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Wikimedia. "Mother & child." CC BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mother_&_child.jpg View on Boundless.com
Human Development

Food or Security? Harlow


Short documentary part on the controversial studies performed by Harry Harlow and his assistants. "Food or security, what will it be for the monkey".
Harlow's research emphasized the importance of "contact comfort" for young monkeys, as well as humans.

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Human Development

Appearance and genetic makeup of garden pea plant flowers


Based on Mendel's experiments, the genotype of the pea flowers could be determined from the phenotypes of the flowers.

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Wikimedia. "Punnett square mendel flowers." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Punnett_square_mendel_flowers.svg View on Boundless.com
Human Development

Loneliness and depression


Middle aged and elderly adults are more likely to suffer depression due to loneliness.

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Wikimedia. "Depression-loss of loved one." Public domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Depression-loss_of_loved_one.jpg View on Boundless.com
Human Development

Family taking care of elderly relatives


Many elderly people need assistance in meeting daily needs as they age, making them easy targets for elderly abuse.

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Flickr. "Saying farewell to Nana after 88th birthday cookies | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY 2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/tim_and_selena/1460656644/ View on
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Human Development

Death and dying


People perceive death, whether their own or that of others, based on the values of their culture. Thoughts of impending death can lead people to
experience the five stages of grief- denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.

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Wikimedia. "Belmont Cemetery (1809218994)." CC BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Belmont_Cemetery_(1809218994).jpg View on Boundless.com
Human Development

Heritability Estimates
This chart illustrates three patterns one might see when studying the influence of genes and environment on individual traits. Typically, monozygotic
twins will have a high correlation of sibling traits, while biological siblings will have less in common, and adoptive siblings will have less than that.
However, this can vary widely by trait.

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Wikipedia. "Nature versus nurture." GNU FDL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nature_versus_nurture View on Boundless.com
Human Development

Identity
Adolescence is the period of life between the onset of puberty and the full commitment to an adult social role. It is the period known for the formation of
personal and social identity. Identity is a combination of many factors, including choices, beliefs and values, ethnicity, hobbies, family, friends, and many
other features.

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Wordpress. "Personal Identity | Bodhi Leaf." License: Other http://bodhileaf.wordpress.com/2010/01/12/personal-identity/ View on Boundless.com
Human Development

Attribution
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Human Development

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Human Development

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Human Development

• Wikipedia. "Regulation of gene expression." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulation_of_gene_expression


• Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Gene Regulation." CC BY-SA 3.0
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Human Development

• Wikipedia. "Teratogens." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teratogens


• Wikibooks. "Obstetrics and Gynecology/Teratology and Associated Outcomes." CC BY-SA 3.0
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http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology/Pregnancy_and_birth
• Wikibooks. "Introduction to Psychology/Child and Adolescent Psychology/Prenatal Environment." CC BY-SA 3.0
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http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Psychology/Child_and_Adolescent_Psychology/Infants_and_Toddlers
Human Development

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http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Professionalism/Using_Animals_in_Research
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Human Development

• Wiktionary. "permissive." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/permissive


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Human Development

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Human Development

• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Psychology. August 6, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-


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9cbc-2cefd46e68cc@4.100:52/Psychology
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• Wikibooks. "Psychiatric Disorders/Substance abuse disorders." CC BY-SA 3.0
Human Development

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• Wiktionary. "heterosexual." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/heterosexual
• Wiktionary. "interpersonal." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/interpersonal
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• Wikibooks. "Relationships/Adulthood." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Relationships/Adulthood
• Wiktionary. "corpus callosum." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/corpus_callosum
• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Psychology. August 7, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-
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• Wiktionary. "grief." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/grief
• Wiktionary. "integrity." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/integrity
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Human Development

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http://cnx.org/content/m42876/latest/
• Wikibooks. "Human Physiology/Development: birth through death." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology/Development:_birth_through_death%23Old_Age
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9cbc-2cefd46e68cc@4.100/Death-and-Dying
• Wikipedia. "Ageism." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageism
• Wikipedia. "Old age." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_age
• Wiktionary. "piety." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/piety
• Wiktionary. "culture." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/culture
• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society. November 19, 2013." CC BY 3.0
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• Wikipedia. "Aging." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aging%23Cultural_variations
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• Wikipedia. "Dementia." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia
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https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/human-development-14/early-and-middle-
adulthood-74/cognitive-development-in-adulthood-288-12823/

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