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INTRODUCTION

Reservoir, an open-air storage


area (usually formed by masonry
or earthwork) where water is
collected and kept in quantity so
that it may be drawn off for use
INTRODUCTION

Reservoirs two main


categories:
 Impounding reservoirs
 Service or balancing reservoirs
La Mesa Dam and Reservoir
- an earth dam whose reservoir can hold up
to 50.5 million cubic meters and occupying
an area of 27 square kilometers in Quezon
City, Philippines.
- Impounds Tullahan River
San Roque Dam
- 1.2 kilometer long embankment dam on the
Agno River. It is the largest dam in the
Philippines and sixteenth largest in the
world
- The dam impounds a reservoir with a
surface area of about 12.8 square kilometers
extending North into the municipality of
Itogon, Benguet.
Angat Dam
- Angat reservoir in the Philippines provides
97% of the water supply for metro Manila,
home to 11 million people.
- Water from Angat also provides irrigation
for about 30,000 hectares of rice in Bulacan
Province over two seasons,
- supplies 248MW of hydropower for the
island of Luzon, and provides flood
protection for downstream communities.
RESERVOIR STORAGE ZONE AND USES OF RESERVOIR
Full Reservoir Level
(FRL)
- It is the level corresponding
to the storage which includes
both inactive and active
storages and also the flood
storage
RESERVOIR STORAGE ZONE AND USES OF RESERVOIR
Minimum Drawdown
Level (MDDL)
-It is the level below which
the reservoir will not be
drawn down so as to maintain
a minimum head required in
power projects
RESERVOIR STORAGE ZONE AND USES OF RESERVOIR
Dead Storage Level (DSL)
- Below the level, there are no
outlets to drain the water in
the reservoir by gravity
Maximum Water Level
(MWL)
- This is the water level that
is ever likely to be attained
during the passage of the
design flood
RESERVOIR STORAGE ZONE AND USES OF RESERVOIR
Live storage
- This is the storage available
for the intended purpose
between Full Supply Level and
the Invert Level of the lowest
discharge outlet
RESERVOIR STORAGE ZONE AND USES OF RESERVOIR
Dead storage
- It is the total storage below
the invert level of the lowest
discharge outlet from the
reservoir
RESERVOIR STORAGE ZONE AND USES OF RESERVOIR
Outlet Surcharge or Flood
storage
- This is required as a reserve
between Full Reservoir Level
and the Maximum Water level
to contain the peaks of floods
that might occur when there is
insufficient storage capacity
for them below Full Reservoir
Level.
RESERVOIR STORAGE ZONE AND USES OF RESERVOIR
Purposes of Reservoir
 Human consumption and/or industrial use
 Irrigation
 Hydropower
 Pumped storage hydropower schemes
 Flood control
 Amenity use
PLANNING OF RESERVOIRS

The first step in planning the construction of a reservoir with


the help of a dam is for the decision makers to be sure of the
needs and purposes for which the reservoir is going to be built
together with the known constraints (including financial), desired
benefits.
PLANNING OF RESERVOIRS

The second step is the assembly of all relevant existing information,


which includes the following:
 Reports of any previous investigations and studies, if any.
 Reports on projects similar to that proposed which have already been
constructed in the region.
 A geographical information system (GIS) for the area of interest may be
created using a base survey map of the region.
PLANNING OF RESERVOIRS
 Topographical data
 Geological data
 Seismic activity data of the region
 Meteorological and hydrological data
 For water supply projects, data on population and future population growth
 For irrigation projects, data on soils in the project area and on the crops
already grown
PLANNING OF RESERVOIRS
 For hydropower projects, data on past demand and forecasts of future
public and industrial demand for power and energy
 Data on flora and fauna in the project and on the fish in the rivers and
lakes, including data on their migratory and breeding habits
 Data on tourism and recreational use of rivers and lakes and how this
may be encouraged on completion of the proposed reservoir.
Two important aspects of reservoirs planning:

Sedimentation Studies

Geological Explorations
EFFECT OF SEDIMENTATION IN PLANNING OF RESERVOIRS

Reservoir sedimentation is a
process of erosion, entrainment,
transportation, deposition and
compaction of sediment
carried into reservoirs formed
and contained by dams
EFFECT OF SEDIMENTATION IN PLANNING OF RESERVOIRS

Some of the important points from the IS Code “Guidelines for determination of
effects of sedimentation in planning and performance of reservoir” are as follows:

 Performance Assessment (Simulation) Studies with varying rate of sedimentation.


 Likely effects of sedimentation at dam face.
EFFECT OF SEDIMENTATION IN PLANNING OF RESERVOIRS
In special cases, where the effects of sedimentation on backwater levels are likely
to be significant, the steps to be followed for performance assessment studies with
varying rates of sedimentation are as follows:
 Estimation of annual sediment yields into the reservoir or the average annual
sediment yield and of trap efficiency expected.
 Distribution of sediment within reservoir to obtain a sediment elevation and
capacity curve at any appropriate time.
 Simulation studies with varying rates of sedimentation
 Assessment of effect of sedimentation.
PROCEDURE FOR PLANNING A NEW RESERVOIR

The standard procedure that needs to be carried out for planned


storages requires an assessment of the importance of the problem to
classify the reservoir sedimentation problem as insignificant, significant,
or serious
PROCEDURE FOR PLANNING A NEW RESERVOIR

The following studies are required if the problem is insignificant:


 No simulation studies with sediment correlation is necessary.
 The feasible service time for the project may be decided. Sediment distribution
studies to ensure that the new zero-elevation does not exceed the dead storage
level may be made
PROCEDURE FOR PLANNING A NEW RESERVOIR

The following studies are required if the problem of sedimentation in the reservoir
is assessed to be significant, but not serious.
 Both the full service time and feasible service time for the reservoir may be
decided.
 Simulation studies for conditions expected at the end of full service time may be
made to ensure that firm outputs with required depend ability are obtained
 No simulation studies beyond full service time, is required
 Sediment distribution studies required for feasible service time are essential
PROCEDURE FOR PLANNING A NEW RESERVOIR

The following studies are required if the problem of sedimentation is serious.


 All studies described for the ‘Significant’ case have to be made
 The secondary benefits available in the initial years should be more in such cases
 In these cases, the drop of benefits after the full service time may be sharper. To
bring out these effects, a simulation of the project at the end of the feasible
service time is required to be done.
GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS FOR RESERVOIR SITES
The following aspects of the reservoirs
have to be properly investigated
 Water tightness of the basins
 Stability of the reservoir rim
 Availability of construction material in
the reservoir area
 Silting
 Direct and indirect submergence of
economic mineral wealth
 Seismo-techtonics
FIXING THE CAPACITY OF THE RESERVOIRS
Once it is decided to build a reservoir on a river by constructing a dam across it, it is
necessary to arrive at a suitable design capacity of the reservoir. The reservoir storage
generally consists of there main parts which may be broadly classified as:

 Inactive storage including dead storage


 Active or conservation storage
 Flood and surcharge storage.
FIXING THE CAPACITY OF THE RESERVOIRS
The data and information required for fixing the various components of the design
capacity of a reservoir are as follows:
 Precipitation, run-off and silt records available in the region
 Erodibility of catchment upstream of reservoir for estimating sediment yield
 Area capacity curves at the proposed location
 Trap efficiency
 Losses in the reservoir
FIXING THE CAPACITY OF THE RESERVOIRS

 Water demand from the reservoir for different uses


 Committed and future upstream uses
 Criteria for assessing the success of the project
 Density current aspects and location of outlets
 Data required for economic analysis; and
 Data on engineering and geological aspects
FIXING THE CAPACITY OF THE RESERVOIRS
Data on Engineering and Geological Aspects
a) Engineering
1) Preliminary surveys to assess the catchment and reservoir,
2) Control surveys like topographical surveys,
3) Location of nearest Railway lines/Roads and possible access, and
4) Detailed survey for making area capacity curves for use in reservoir flood
routing
FIXING THE CAPACITY OF THE RESERVOIRS
Data on Engineering and Geological Aspects
b) Geology
1) General formations and foundation suitability;
2) Factors relating to reservoir particularly with reference to water tightness;
3) Contributory springs;
4) Deleterious mineral and salt deposits; and
5) Location of quarry sites, etc.