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COMPARISON OF 1973

AND 1987 CONSTITUTION


Preamble
1973 Constitution 1987 Constitution
We, the sovereign Filipino people, We, the sovereign Filipino people,
imploring the aid of Divine Providence, in imploring the aid of Almighty God, in
order to build a just and humane society
order to establish a government that and establish a Government that shall
shall embody our ideals, promote the embody our ideals and aspirations,
general welfare, conserve and develop promote the common good, conserve and
the patrimony of our Nation, and secure develop our patrimony, and secure to
ourselves and our posterity the blessings
to ourselves and our posterity the of independence and democracy under
blessings of democracy under a regime the rule of law and a regime of truth,
of justice, peace, liberty, and equality, do justice, freedom, love, equality, and
ordain and promulgate this Constitution. peace, do ordain and promulgate this
Constitution.

SYNTHESIS: The goal of the 198 Constitution which is to build a just and humane
society and acknowledge the blessings of independence in our country. This
phrases are added to clearly differentiate the 1987 also called as Freedom
Constitution from the 1973 or the Marcos regime Constitution that greatly affect
and boost the desire of the people from freedom and to free ourselves from the
fear of experiencing the martial law again.
ARTICLE I: National Territory
1973 Constitution 1987 Constitution
Sec 1: The national territory The national territory compromises the
compromises the Philippine archipelago, Philippine archipelago, with all the islands
with all the islands and waters embraced and waters embraced therein, and all the
therein, and all the other territories other territories over which the Philippines
belonging to the Philippines by historic or has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of
legal title, including territorial sea, the air its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domain,
space, the subsoil, the sea-bed, the insular including its territorial sea, the sea bed, the
shelves, and the submarines areas over subsoil, the insular shelves and other
which the Philippines has sovereignty or submarine areas. The waters around,
jurisdiction. The waters around, between, between, and connecting the islands of the
and connecting the islands of the archipelago, irrespective of their breadth
archipelago, irrespective of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal
and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.
waters of the Philippines.

SYNTHESIS: In the 1973 Constitution, it says that the Philippines has sovereignty
or justification to all the territories belonging to the Philippines by historic or
legal title, including the territorial sea, the air space, the sub-soil, the sea bed,
the insular shelves and the submarine areas while in 1987 Constitution they
remove the clause “belonging to the Philippines by historic or legal title”, in that
case, it can be imply that in 1987 constitution we can lost our rights for the
Spratly Islands.
ARTICLE II: Declaration of Principles and
State Policies
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 6: The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.
 Sec 7: The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy.
In its relations with other states the paramount consideration
shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national
interest, and the right of self – determination.
 Sec 8: The Philippines, consistent with the national interest,
adopts and pursue a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons
in its territory.
 Sec 11: The State values the dignity of every human person
and guarantees full respect for human rights.
ARTICLE II: Declaration of Principles and
State Policies
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 15: The State shall protect and promote the right to
health of the people and instill health consciousness among
them.
 Sec 16: The State shall protect and advance the right of the
people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the
rhythm and harmony of nature.
 Sec 17: The State shall give priority to education, science and
technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and
nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total
human liberation and development.
 Sec 19: The State shall develop self – reliant and independent
national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos.
ARTICLE II: Declaration of Principles and
State Policies
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 20: The State recognizes the indispensable role of
the private sector, encourages private enterprise, and
provides incentives to needed investments.
 Sec 22: The State recognizes and promote the rights of
indigenous cultural communities within the framework
of national unity and development.
 Sec 23: The state shall encourage non – governmental,
community – based, or sectoral organizations that
promote the welfare of the nation.
 Sec 24: The state recognizes the vital role of
communication and information in nation – building.
ARTICLE II: Declaration of Principles and
State Policies
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 26: The State shall guarantee equal access to
opportunities for public service, and prohibit political
dynasties as may be defined by the law.
 Sec 27: The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in
the public service and take positive and effective
measure against graft and corruption.
 Sec 28: Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by
the law, the State adopts and implements a policy of full
public disclosure of all its transactions involving public
interest.
ARTICLE II: Declaration of Principles and
State Policies
SYNTHESIS: The 1973 Constitution composed of 10 sections while the
1987 Constitution composed of 28 sections. Section 6, Section 7, Section
8, Section 11, Section 15, Section 16, Section 17, Section 19, Section 20,
Section 22, Section 23, Section 24, Section 26, Section 27 and Section 28
are the additional sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution. The
Section 1, Section 2, Section 3, Section 4, Section 5, Section 6, Section 7,
Section 8, Section 9 and Section 10 can still be seen in the 1987
Constitution only with minimal changes in the words used but still the
thought is the same. There is also an instances that one section in 1973 is
divided into two sections in 1987 Constitution, an example of this is the
Section 9 in 1973 Constitution and the Section 14 and Section 18 in 1987
Constitution which is both about the protection to labor, promotion of full
employment and equality in employment.
ARTICLE III: Bill of Rights
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 8: The right of the people, including those employed in the public and
private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not
contrary to law shall not be abridged.
 Sec 12: (1)Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense
shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have
competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person
cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with one. These rights
cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel.
(2) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means
which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. Secret detention
places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are
prohibited.
(3)Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17
hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him.
(4)The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this
section as well as compensation to the other rehabilitation of victims of
torture or similar practices, and their families.
 Sec 18: (1)No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs
and aspirations.
ARTICLE III: Bill of Rights
Below are the Sections that are included in 1973 but not in the
1987 Constitution:
 Sec 10: No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be
enacted.
 Sec 12: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be
presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall
enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be
informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against
him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the
witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to
secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of
evidence in his behalf. However, after the arraignment, trial
may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused
provided that he has been duly notified and his failure to
appear is unjustified.
ARTICLE III: Bill of Rights

SYNTHESIS: The Bill of Rights in 1973 Constitution is the fourth Article


which composed of 23 sections while in the 1987 Constitution it is the
third Article which composed of 22 sections. The Section 8, Section 12 and
Section 18 paragraph 1 of 1987 Constitution are the three sections that
are not included in the 1973 Constitution. It includes the right to form
association, right of person under custodial investigation and the right for
expressing his political beliefs and aspiration respectively. The latter is one
of the rights that we don’t have during the Martial Law. On the other
hand, there are two sections in 1973 that are not included in 1987 this are
Section 10 and Section 19. Though Section 19 is somewhat similar to
Section 12 of 1987 Constitution which is about the rights of the accused,
they differ in the sense that Section 12 is a result of a precaution from the
experience of the past. All the other articles that is not mention on the
aforementioned slides is all the same in thought but differs somehow in
section numbers.
ARTICLE IV: Citizenship

1973 Constitution 1987 Constitution


 Sec 1 par 3: Those who  Sec 1 par 3: Those born
elect Philippines citizenship before January 17, 1973, of
pursuant to the provisions of
the Constitution of nineteen Filipino mothers, who elect
hundred and thirty – five Philippine citizenship upon
(1935). reaching the age of majority.

SYNTHESIS: Citizenship can be seen in Article IV in 1987 Constitution and Article


III in 1973 Constitution. It comprises the characteristic of a Filipino citizen and
how to become or to renounced the Philippine citizenship. The Section I of both
Constitution differs only in paragraph 3 as presented above. The Section 2 in
1973 is the same of the Section 4 in 1987 Constitution while Section 3 of 1973
Constitution remain the same in 1987 Constitution. Lastly the Section 4 in 1973
Constitution is the same in 1987 Constitution in thought except for the phrases
“A female citizen” which change to “A citizen” in the new Constitution which is
fair as we promote equality for men and women.
ARTICLE V: Suffrage
1973 Constitution 1987 Constitution
 Sec 1: Suffrage may be  Sec 1: Suffrage may be exercised by
exercised by citizens of the all citizens of the Philippines not
otherwise disqualified by law, who are
Philippines not otherwise at least eighteen years of age, and
disqualified by law, who are at who shall have resided in the
least eighteen years of age, and Philippines for at east one year, and in
who shall have resided in the the place wherein they propose to
Philippines for at east one year, vote, for at least six months
and in the place wherein they immediately preceding the election.
No literacy, property, or other
propose to vote, for at least six substantive requirement shall be
months immediately preceding the imposed on the exercise of suffrage.
election. No literacy, property, or
other substantive requirement  Sec 2: The Congress shall provide a
system for securing the secrecy and
shall be imposed on the exercise of sanctity of the ballot as well as a
suffrage. The Batasang Pambansa system for absentee voting by qualified
shall provide a system for the Filipinos abroad.
purpose of securing the secrecy
and sanctity of the vote.
ARTICLE V: Suffrage

SYNTHESIS: The right to suffrage or the right to vote is also discussed in


Article VI of 1973 Constitution. It is divided into two sections in 1987
Constitution which made it clear and briefly discussed. In the 1973
Constitution the Batasang Pambansa (House of Representative) are the
one incharge in providing a syste, for the purpose of securing the secrecy
and sanctity of the vote while in 1987 Constitution it is the Congress
which composed of both the House of Representative and the Senate of
the Philippines, they also have the same purpose as written above. In
addition, they also provide a system for absentee voting by qualified
Filipino abroad.
ARTICLE VI: The Legislative
Below are the Sections that are included in 1973 but not in the
1987 Constitution:
 Sec 12: (1)There shall be a question hour at least once a month or
as often as the rules of the National Assembly may provide, which
shall be included in its agenda, during which the Prime Minister or
any Minister may be required to appear and answer questions and
interpellations by Members of the National Assembly. Written
questions shall be submitted to the Speaker at least three days
before a scheduled question hour. Interpellations shall not be
limited to the written questions, but may cover matters related
thereto. The agenda shall specify the subjects of the question hour.
When the security of the State so requires and the Prime Minister
so states in writing, the question hour shall be conducted in
executive session.
(2)The National Assembly or any of its committees may
conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly
published rules of procedure. The rights of persons appearing in
such inquiries shall be respected.
ARTICLE VI: The Legislative
Below are the Sections that are included in 1973 but not in the
1987 Constitution:
 Sec 13: (1)The National Assembly may withdraw its confidence from the Prime
Minister only by electing a successor by a majority vote of all its Members. No
motion for the election of such successor shall be debated and voted upon until
after the lapse of three days from the submittal of such motion.
(2)The Prime Minister may advise the President in writing to dissolve
the National Assembly whenever the need arises for a popular vote of
confidence on fundamental issues, but not on a matter involving his own
personal integrity. Whereupon, the President shall dissolve the National
Assembly not earlier than five days nor later than ten days from his receipt of
the advice, and call for an election on a date set by the Prime Minister which
shall not be earlier than forty – five days nor later than sixty days from the
date of such dissolution. However, no dissolution of the National Assembly
shall take place within nine months immediately preceding a regular election
or within nine months immediately following any general election.
(3)In case of dissolution of the National Assembly or the termination
of its regular term, the incumbent Prime Minister and the Cabinet shall
continue to conduct the affairs of government until the new National
Assembly is convoked and a Prime Minister is elected and has qualified.
ARTICLE VI: The Legislative
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 12: All members of the Senate and the House of
Representatives shall, upon assumption of office, make full disclosure
of their financial and business interests. They shall notify the House
concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may arise from the
filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors.
 Sec 17: The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have
an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contest relating
to the election, returns, and qualifications of their respective Members.
Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members, three of
whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the
Chief Justice, and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or
the House of Representatives, as the case may be, who shall be chosen
on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and
the parties or organizations registered under the party – list system
represented therein. The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be
its Chairman.
ARTICLE VI: The Legislative
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 18: There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of
the President of the Senate, as ex officio Chairman, twelve Senators, and
twelve Members of the House of Representatives, elected by each House
on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties or
organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein.
The Chairman of the Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie.
The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within
thirty session days of the Congress from
their submission. The Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the
Members.
 Sec 19: The Electoral Tribunal and the Commission on
Appointments shall be constituted within thirty days after the Senate
and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the
election of the President and the Speaker. The Commission on
Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session, at the call
of its Chairman or a majority of all its Members, to discharge such
powers and functions as are herein conferred upon it.
ARTICLE VI: The Legislative
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 20: The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be
preserved and be open to the public in accordance with law, and such books
shall be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an
itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each Member.
 Sec 21: The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its
respective committees may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in
accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. The rights of persons
appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be respected.
 Sec 22: The heads of departments may upon their own initiative,
with the consent of the President, or upon the request of either House, as
the rules of each House shall provide, appear before and be heard by such
House on any matter pertaining to their departments. Written questions
shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the
House of Representatives at least three days before their scheduled
appearance. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions, but
may cover matters related thereto. When the security of the State or the
public interest so requires and the President so states in writing, the
appearance shall be conducted in executive session.
ARTICLE VI: The Legislative
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 23: (1) The Congress, by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint
session assembled, voting separately, shall have the sole power to declare the
existence of a state of war.
(2) In times of war or other national emergency, the Congress
may, by law, authorize the President, for a limited period and subject to such
restrictions as it may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry
out a declared national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the
Congress, such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof.
 Sec 24: All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills authorizing increase
of public debt, bills of local application, and private bills shall originate
exclusively in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or
concur with amendments.
 Sec 30: No law shall be passed increasing the appellate jurisdiction of the
Supreme Court as provided in this Constitution without its advice and
concurrence.
ARTICLE VI: The Legislative
Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
 Sec 31: No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be enacted.

 Sec 32: The Congress shall, as early as possible, provide for a system of
initiative and referendum, and the exceptions there from, whereby the people
can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject any act or law or part
thereof passed by the Congress or local legislative body after the registration of
a petition there for signed by at least ten per centum of the total number of
registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at
least three per centum of the registered voters thereof.
ARTICLE VI: The Congress

SYNTHESIS: The 1987 and 1973 Constitution really differs from each other.
It is one of the three branches of government that is greatly affected by
the changes in our Constitution. The above are the sections that are not
included in one or another. We can see as we read thoroughly that the
1987 Constitution is more definite on the roles, provisions and
characteristics of the House of Representative and the Senate of the
Philippines compared to the 1973. but on the other hand 1973, Section 8
gives an exact amount of compensation for the Congress (P60,000 for the
Member and P75,000 for the Speaker) while in 1987 Constitution Section
10, it only states that the salaries of the House and Senate shall be
determined by law. There is also an instances that one of the Section in
Article IV, Section 10 of 1973 Constitution are included in the Article VI,
Section 31 of 1987 Constitution. And lastly, the Section 10 in 1973
Constitution contradicts the Section 13 in 1987 Constitution.
ARTICLE VII: The Executive
Below are some of the Sections that are added in the 1987
Constitution:
 Sec 5: Before they enter on the execution of their office, the President, the Vice –
President, or the Acting President shall take the following oath or affirmation:
“I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill
my duties as President [or Vice – President or Acting President] of the Philippines,
preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and
consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.” [In case of
affirmation, last sentence will be omitted].
 Sec 12: In case of serious illness of the President, the republic shall be informed of
the state of his health. The members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and
foreign relations and the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, shall not be
denied access to the Philippines during such illness.
 Sec 14: Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective,
unless revoked by the elected President, within ninety days from his assumption or
reassumption of office
Sec 15: Two months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to
the end of his term, a President or Acting President shall not make appointments, except
temporary appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein will
prejudice public service or endanger public safety.
ARTICLE VII: The Executive

SYNTHESIS: In the 1987 Constitution, Section 2 (Section 3 in 1973


Constitution) the age of the President and Vice – President were decrease
to 40 years old from 50 years old to be a qualified candidate at the day of
election. Also in Section 3 in 1987 Constitution they remove the fourth
paragraph of Section 2 in 1973 Constitution, “The President shall be
elected from among the Members of the National Assembly by a majority
vote of all its Members for a term of six years from the date he takes his
oath of office, which shall not be later than three days after the
proclamation of the National Assembly, no in any case earlier than the
expiration of the term of his predecessor. Upon taking his oath of office,
the President shall cease to be a Member of the National Assembly and of
any political party. He shall be ineligible to hold any other elective office
during his term”. The Section 6 and Section 7 of 1973 Constitution are
about the duties and function of the President and Vice President which is
separately discussed and elaborated in 1987 Constitution Section 16 –
Section 22.
ARTICLE VIII: The Judiciary
Below are some of the Sections that are added in the 1987
Constitution:
 Sec 3: The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Appropriations
for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the legislature below the
amount appropriated for the previous year and, after approval, shall be
automatically and regularly released.
Sec 12: The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts
established by law shall not be designated to any agency performing
quasi – judicial or administrative functions.
ARTICLE VIII: The Judiciary
Below are some of the Sections that are added in the 1987
Constitution:
 Sec 8: (1)A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervision of
the Supreme Court composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman, the
Secretary of Justice, and a representative of the Congress as ex officio Members, a
representative of the Integrated Bar, a professor of law, a retired Member of the
Supreme Court, and a representative of the private sector.
(2)The regular members of the Council shall be appointed by the
President for a term of four years within the consent of the Commission on
Appointments. Of the Members first appointed, the representative of the Integrated
Bar shall serve for four years, the professor of law for three years, the retired Justice
for two years, and the representative of the private sector for one year.
(3)The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Secretary ex officio of the
Council and shall keep a record of its proceedings.
(4)The regular Members of the Council shall receive such emoluments as
may be determined by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall provide in its
annual budget the appropriations for the Council.
(5)The Council shall have the principal function of recommending
appointees to the Judiciary. It may exercise such other functions and duties as the
Supreme Court may assign to it.
ARTICLE VII: The Judiciary

SYNTHESIS: There are three new sections added in the 1987 Constitution.
This are Section 3: the fiscal autonomy; Section 8: judicial and Bar Council;
and Section 12: the members of the Supreme Court. The Section 1 of 1973
Constitution is the combination of Section 1 and Section 2 of the 1987
Constitution. In 1987 Constitution. Section 7, the person to be appointed
as Member of the Supreme Court must have a 15 years or more
experience as a Judge of a court. It also include an additional paragraph 3.
all the not mentioned sections are the same in thought and only differs in
section numbers.
ARTICLE IX: Constitutional Commission
Below are some of the Sections that are added in the 1987
Constitution:
Common Provision:
Sec 5: The Commission shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their approved
annual appropriation shall be autonomically and regularly released.
Sec 6: Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules
concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of it offices. Such
rules, however, shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights.
Sec 7: Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its
Members, any case or matter brought before it within sixty days from the
date of its submission for decision or resolution. A case or matter is deemed
submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading brief,
or memorandum required by the rules of the Commission or by the
Commission itself. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law,
any decision, order, or ruling of each Commission maybe brought to the
Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from
receipt of a copy thereof.
Sec 8: Each Commission shall perform such other functions as may be
provided by law.
ARTICLE IX: Constitutional Commission

SYNTHESIS: Article IX is divided into three commissions: Civil Service


Commission (CSC); Commission on Election (ComElec); and the
Commission on Audit (COA). Each has their own role and provisions. For
the common provisions there is an additional four sections that are
already mention above. On the CSC in the 1987 Constitution there are
three additional Sections (Section 3, Section 5 and Section 8) while two
sections are removed in the 1973 version (Section 5 and Section 6). In the
COA in the 1973 Constitution Section 2 is divided into two sections in
1987 Constitution. Also the Section 1 in 1973 Constitution, the term ‘40
years of age to be appointed” is changed to “35 years” in the 1987
version. And lastly the term Prime Minister to President.
ARTICLE X: Local Government
Below are some of the Sections that are added in the 1987
Constitution:
Sec 4: The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision
over local governments. Provinces with respect to component cities and
municipalities, with respect to component barangays, shall ensure that the acts
of their component units are within the scope of their prescribed powers and
functions.
Sec 7: Local governments shall be entitled to an equitable share in the
proceeds of the utilization and development of the national wealth within their
respective areas, in the manner provided by law, including sharing the same
with the inhabitants by way of direct benefits.
Sec 9: Legislative bodies of local governments shall have sectoral
representation as may be prescribed by law.
Sec 12: Cities that are highly urbanized, as determined by law, and
component cities whose charters prohibit their voters from voting for
provincial elective officials, shall be independent of the province. The voters of
component cities within a province, whose charters contain no such
prohibition, shall not be deprived of their right to vote for elective provincial
officials.
ARTICLE X: Local Government
Below are the Sections that are included in 1973 but not in the
1987 Constitution:
 Sec 2: The Batasang Pambansa shall enact a local government code
which may not be thereafter amended except by a majority vote of all
its Members, defining a more responsive and accountable local
government structure with an effective system of recall, allocating
among the different local government units their powers,
responsibilities, and resources, and providing for the qualifications,
election and removal, term, salaries, powers, functions and duties of
local officials and all other matters relating to the organization and
operation of the local units. However, any change in the existing form
of local government shall not take effect until ratified by a majority of
the votes cast in a plebiscite called for the purpose.
 Sec 4, par 1: Provinces with respect to the component cities and
municipalities with respect to component barrios, shall ensure that the
acts of their component units are within the scope of their assigned
powers and functions. Highly urbanized cities as determined by
standards established in the local government code shall be
independent of the province.
ARTICLE X: Local Government

SYNTHESIS: This is Article IX in 1973 Constitution. In 1987 Constitution,


Section 1 they used “barangay” instead of “barrios” and include an
autonomous region in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordillera. Also it is
composed of 21 sections while the 1973 Constitution composed only of 5
sections. The 1987 Constitution is more broad in such way that it also
includes the role and term of the local officials. Also it includes provisions
for ARMM. Section 4, paragraph 2 of 1973 becomes Section 13 in 1987
Constitution. Sections that are not mention above means they are still in
the present constitution though may differ in section number.
ARTICLE XI: Accountability of Public
Offices
Below are some of the Sections that are added in the 1987
Constitution:
Sec 6: The officials and employees of the Office of the Ombudsman, other
than the Deputies, shall be appointed by the Ombudsman, according to the
Civil Service law.
Sec 7: The existing Tanodbayan shall hereafter be known as the Office of
the Special Prosecutor. It shall continue to function and exercise its power as
now or hereafter may be provided by law, except those conferred on the Office
of the Ombudsman created under this Constitution.
Sec 18: Public officers and employees owe the State and the Constitution
allegiance at all times and any public officer or employee who seeks to change
his citizenship or acquire the status of an immigrant of another country during
his tenure shall be dealt by law.
ARTICLE XI: Accountability of Public
Offices
SYNTHESIS: This is Article XIII in 1973 Constitution. The 1987 Constitution
compose of 18 sections, 12 of this are new sections and 6 are from the
1973 Constitution. In the Section 2 of 1987 the term “Vice President” is
added. Article XI are about the right, function, protection of the public
officers specially the President, Vice President, Ombudsman and Supreme
Court.
ARTICLE XII: National Economy and
Patrimony
SYNTHESIS: This is Article XIV in 1973 Constitution which composed of 22
sections. It really differs from the 1973 Constitution. Here (1987
Constitution), every sections explain thoroughly and briefly the rights and
provisions with regards to our national territory and economy. We could
see many loopholes in 1973 that was given answers and explanation in
the 1987 version of the Constitution.
ARTICLE XIII: Social Justice and Human
Rights
SYNTHESIS: This Article is not included in 1973 Constitution and doesn’t
give importance. It comprises the right of all workers, right of farmers,
protection of women, role of independent people’s, and creation of
human rights.

ARTICLE XIV: Education, Science &


Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports
SYNTHESIS: In support in Section 17, Article 2 of 1987 Constitution, this
Article was made. It tackles about supporting, establishing, promoting,
protecting and preservation of the education, science & technology, arts,
culture and sports. Explains the advantages or benefit that the
government will get on giving importance to this categories.
ARTICLE XV: Family

SYNTHESIS: This Article composed of four sections which discussed the


responsibility of the state to the family and the duty of the family to each
other. This article is also missing in the 1973 Constitution though its one of
the goals of 1973 is to strengthen the family as basic unit of the social
institution.
ARTICLE XVI: General Provisions

Below are some of the Sections that are added in the 1987
Constitution:
Sec 8: The State shall, from time to time, review to increase the pensions
and other benefits due to retirees of both the government and the private
sectors.
Sec 9: The State shall protect consumers from trade malpractices and from
sub standard or hazardous products.
Sec 12: The Congress may create a consultative body to advise the
President on policies affecting indigenous cultural communities, the majority of
the members of which shall come from such communities.
ARTICLE XVI: General Provisions
Below are the Sections that are included in 1973 but not in the
1987 Constitution:
Sec 5: No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive
additional or double compensation unless specifically authorized by law, nor
accept, without the content of the National Assembly, any present, emolument,
office or title of any kind from any foreign state.
Sec 10: It shall be the responsibility of the State to achieve and maintain
population levels most conducive to the national welfare.
Sec 12: The state shall establish and maintain an integrated national
police force whose organization, administration and operation shall be
provided by law.
ARTICLE XVI: General Provisions

SYNTHESIS: In the general provisions of 1973, it includes some sections


that are included in the Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution. An example
of this is the Section 3, Section 8, Section 9 and Section 11 which tackles
about language, education, science & technology, arts, and cultural
respectively. Also the Section 15 in the 1973 Constitution is included in
the Article II of 1987 Constitution. This Article includes 12 sections in 1987
and 16 sections for 1973 Constitution.
ARTICLE XVII: Amendments

Below are the Sections that are added in the 1987 Constitution:
Sec 2: Amendments to this Constitution may likewise be directly proposed
to the people through initiative upon a petition of at least twelve per centum of
the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be
represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters therein. No
amendment under this section shall be authorized within five years following
the ratification of this Constitution nor oftener than once every five year
thereafter.
Sec 3: The Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of all its members call a
constitutional convention, or by a majority vote of all its Members, submits to
the electorate the question of calling such a convention.
ARTICLE XVII: Amendments

SYNTHESIS: The 1987 Constitution provide 1 additional section from the


original 2 sections in the 1973 Constitution. In Section 4 of the 1987
Constitution it clearly States the time frame for the amendments not like
n the Section 2 of 1973 that only the last date were discussed. Also in
1973, Section 1 is divided into 2 section in 1987 Constitution the Section 1
and Section 3.
ARTICLE XVIII: Transitory Articles

SYNTHESIS: The Transitory Articles of 1987 Constitution has a big


difference from the 1973 Constitution. The latter contains 16 section
while the 1987 Constitution has 27 sections. Though there is some
sections that are the same. The Freedom Constitution protects the citizen
and the government, clearly listed all their rights, role of each department
or people in maintaining and enjoying the blessings of democracy and
independent.
THANK YOU!
Joyreene Anne C. Lopez
BSA – 5103