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The Protestant Reformation

1500’s Europe
The Beginning
● 1500’s
● Educated Europeans
influenced by
Renaissance ideas
● Secularism
● Humanism
● Wanted change in
Catholic Church
● Extravagance and
hedonism
The Issues
● Pope Leo X
● Trying to raise money to
rebuild St. Peter’s
Basilica
● Authorized selling of
indulgences
The Issues
● Martin Luther
● German Monk
● Believed in Justification
by Faith
● Church was not ultimate
authority
The Issues
● 95 Theses
● Against indulgences and corruption in church
● Advocated Justification by Faith
● Indulgence sales went down
● Began to affect the finances of the Church
The Pope Goes Off
Leo X is angered by effects of 95 Theses
● Asks Martin Luther to recant his criticisms
● Luther refuses and is condemned
● Luther is excommunicated and his works are banned
Edict of Worms
● Passed by Charles V and Pope Leo X
● German princes meet and try to convince Luther to recant
● Still refuses
● Makes it a crime to shelter/feed Luther or spread his word
● While in hiding, Luther translates New Testament to German
The Spread of Lutheranism
● Catholicism ● Lutheranism
● Catholicism stresses ● Salvation by faith alone
faith and good works ● Bible, not clergy, is the
necessary for salvation only source of religious
● Church Teachings truth
necessary for spiritual ● Less ritual
guidance ● Services held in
● Ritual Heavy vernacular (everyday
● Communion, language)
confession, baptism, etc. ● Up for interpretation
● Services in Latin
Protestantism Spreads
● Huldrych Zwingli
● Leads Prot. Movement
in Switzerland
● Stresses salvation by
faith alone
● Criticizes Catholic
beliefs/practices
● Wants to break from
Catholic tradition
● Desires a theocracy
(church-run state)
Protestantism Spreads
● John Calvin
● Sets up a theocracy in
Geneva
● Believes in
predestination
● God determines the fate
of every person
Anabaptists
● Adult Baptisms ● Many were persecuted
● Believe that only a ● Fled to North America
person who can make ● Promoted religious
an informed decision freedom and separation
should be baptized of church and state
● Denied the authority of ● Branched off into:
local gov’t to direct ● Baptists
their lives
● Mennonites
● Refused to hold office,
● Amish
bear arms, swear oaths
Henry VIII
● King of England
● Wants a divorce from
Catherine
● Could not produce a
male heir
● Pope refuses stating
church rules
● Just so happened that
Catherine was aunt of
Charles V (HRE)
● Henry abandons the
Catholic Church
● Passes the Act of
Supremacy
● Forms the Church of
England (Anglican) w/
the monarch as the head
Today’s Assignment
In your purple textbooks, complete the
following questions:

Page 60 Numbers 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8


Page 66 Numbers 6 and 7