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EE-379

LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS


Lecture No 12

“CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING”


Text Book: Chapter 4 (6th Ed)
Reduction of Multiple Sub-Systems

Instructor: Dr. Farid Gul


Class: BEE 4A/B
Electrical Engineering Department

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Antenna Azimuth Position Control System

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Block diagram of Antenna Azimuth Position Control System

θi(s) θo(s)
G(s)

G = Kp*K*K1*Km*Kg/(s*(s+am)*(s+a)+K*K1*Km*Kg*Kp)

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Introduction
• Subsystems represented by a block with its input and output.
• We have learned how to find response of the subsystem.
• Complicated systems are represented by the interconnection
of subsystems.

• We want to find response of the entire system. ?????

 Represent the interconnected multiple subsystems as a single


transfer function
 Apply the analytical techniques, we lave learned for
analyzing a subsystem, and obtain response information
about the entire system.
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Example: Multiple Sub-Systems

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Components of a block diagram for a
linear, time-invariant system

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Common Topologies
for Interconnecting
Subsystems

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Cascade Form

Equivalent transfer function

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Loading in cascaded systems

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Parallel Form

Equivalent transfer function

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Feedback Form

Equivalent transfer function


E ( s)  R( s) G ( s) H ( s) E ( s)

R( s )  E ( s )  G ( s ) H ( s ) E ( s )

C (s)  G (s) E (s)


C ( s) G( s) E ( s )
T ( s)  
R( s) E ( s)  G ( s) H ( s) E ( s )

G( s)
T ( s) 
1  G ( s) H ( s)

Simplified model
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Block diagram algebra

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Block diagram algebra for
summing junctions
Equivalent forms for
moving a block

a. To the left past a


summing junction

b. To the right past a


summing junction
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Block diagram algebra
for pickoff points
Equivalent forms for moving
a block

a. To the left past a


pickoff point

b. To the right past


a pickoff point

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Examples

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Example 5.1
PROBLEM: Reduce the block diagram shown in
the Figure to a single transfer function.

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Example 5.1
(Solution)
a. collapse summing junctions

b. form equivalent cascaded system


in the forward path and
equivalent parallel system in the
feedback path

c. form equivalent feedback system


and multiply by cascaded G1(s)

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Example 5.2
PROBLEM: Reduce the system shown in
the Figure to a single transfer function.

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Example 5.2
(Solution)

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Example 5.2
(Solution)

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Assignment

• Exercise 5.1
• Problems: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Don’t submit

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Analysis and Design of
Feedback Systems

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Analysis and Design of
Feedback Systems

C (s) K ( s( s  a)
T ( s)  
R( s) 1  K ( s( s  a)

K
T ( s) 
s 2  as  K

As K varies, the poles move through


the three ranges of operation of a
second-order system:
• overdamped
• critically damped
• underdamped
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K
T ( s)  2
s  as  K

a a 2  4k  a2 
s1,2    for 0  K   overdamped
2 2  4

a  a2 
s1,2   for K   critically damped
2  4

a 4k  a 2  a2 
s1,2   j  for K   underdamped
2 2  4
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Example 5.3
Finding Transient Response

PROBLEM: For the system shown in the Figure, find the peak
time, percent overshoot, and settling time.

Tp  ?; Ts  ?; %OS  ?
Solution
25 
T (s) 
s 2  5s  25 Tp   Tp  0.726 second
n 1   2

n  25  5
%OS  e  1 2
100
 %OS  1.6 seconds
2n  5

 
5
 0.5 Ts 
4  Ts  16.303
2n n
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Example 5.4
Gain Design for
Transient Response

PRO BLEM: Design the value of gain K for the feedback control
system, so that the system will respond with a 10% overshoot.

Solution

 1 2 K
%OS  e 100  10 T (s)  2
s  5s  K 5
   0.591
2 K
  0.591 2n  5

n  K K  17.9
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