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# EE-379

Lecture No 12

## “CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING”

Text Book: Chapter 4 (6th Ed)
Reduction of Multiple Sub-Systems

## Instructor: Dr. Farid Gul

Class: BEE 4A/B
Electrical Engineering Department

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Antenna Azimuth Position Control System

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Block diagram of Antenna Azimuth Position Control System

θi(s) θo(s)
G(s)

G = Kp*K*K1*Km*Kg/(s*(s+am)*(s+a)+K*K1*Km*Kg*Kp)

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Introduction
• Subsystems represented by a block with its input and output.
• We have learned how to find response of the subsystem.
• Complicated systems are represented by the interconnection
of subsystems.

##  Represent the interconnected multiple subsystems as a single

transfer function
 Apply the analytical techniques, we lave learned for
analyzing a subsystem, and obtain response information
about the entire system.
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Example: Multiple Sub-Systems

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Components of a block diagram for a
linear, time-invariant system

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Common Topologies
for Interconnecting
Subsystems

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9

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Parallel Form

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Feedback Form

## Equivalent transfer function

E ( s)  R( s) G ( s) H ( s) E ( s)

R( s )  E ( s )  G ( s ) H ( s ) E ( s )

## C (s)  G (s) E (s)

C ( s) G( s) E ( s )
T ( s)  
R( s) E ( s)  G ( s) H ( s) E ( s )

G( s)
T ( s) 
1  G ( s) H ( s)

Simplified model
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Block diagram algebra

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Block diagram algebra for
summing junctions
Equivalent forms for
moving a block

summing junction

## b. To the right past a

summing junction
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Block diagram algebra
for pickoff points
Equivalent forms for moving
a block

pickoff point

## b. To the right past

a pickoff point

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Examples

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Example 5.1
PROBLEM: Reduce the block diagram shown in
the Figure to a single transfer function.

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Example 5.1
(Solution)
a. collapse summing junctions

## b. form equivalent cascaded system

in the forward path and
equivalent parallel system in the
feedback path

## c. form equivalent feedback system

and multiply by cascaded G1(s)

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Example 5.2
PROBLEM: Reduce the system shown in
the Figure to a single transfer function.

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Example 5.2
(Solution)

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Example 5.2
(Solution)

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Assignment

• Exercise 5.1
• Problems: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Don’t submit

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Analysis and Design of
Feedback Systems

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Analysis and Design of
Feedback Systems

C (s) K ( s( s  a)
T ( s)  
R( s) 1  K ( s( s  a)

K
T ( s) 
s 2  as  K

## As K varies, the poles move through

the three ranges of operation of a
second-order system:
• overdamped
• critically damped
• underdamped
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K
T ( s)  2
s  as  K

a a 2  4k  a2 
s1,2    for 0  K   overdamped
2 2  4

a  a2 
s1,2   for K   critically damped
2  4

a 4k  a 2  a2 
s1,2   j  for K   underdamped
2 2  4
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Example 5.3
Finding Transient Response

PROBLEM: For the system shown in the Figure, find the peak
time, percent overshoot, and settling time.

Tp  ?; Ts  ?; %OS  ?
Solution
25 
T (s) 
s 2  5s  25 Tp   Tp  0.726 second
n 1   2

n  25  5
%OS  e  1 2
100
 %OS  1.6 seconds
2n  5

 
5
 0.5 Ts 
4  Ts  16.303
2n n
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Example 5.4
Gain Design for
Transient Response

PRO BLEM: Design the value of gain K for the feedback control
system, so that the system will respond with a 10% overshoot.

Solution

 1 2 K
%OS  e 100  10 T (s)  2
s  5s  K 5
   0.591
2 K
  0.591 2n  5

n  K K  17.9
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