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ECE 207

Embedded Systems- I

Dr. B. C. Mandi

Dr. B. C Mandi IIIT Naya Raipur 1

•LTP- 1-1-2, Credit-2,
•For theory: Mid Exam-25, End Exam- 50, Internal Assessment- 25.
•For Practical: 50 Marks
Unit Content No of
Introduction to Embedded systems, application perspective, 2
I Concepts of embedded programming
II 8 Bit Microprocessors: architecture of 8085, addressing modes, 6
memory interfacing, interrupts, instructions, timing diagram.
III 16 Bit Microprocessor: 8086 and ARM Processor; Peripheral chips: 5
I/Os, timer, interrupt controller, USART, DMA.
IV Hardware 8051 Micro-controller: Architecture of 8051 Micro- 6
controller, Function and basic description of 8051 components to
include Special Function Registers (SFRs), Programming in
Atmega, Arduino and PIC, Interfacing and address decoding
V Real World Interfacing – LCD, ADC, Sensors, Stepper motor, 3
keyboard and DAC.
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C Mandi IIIT Naya Raipur 2
Text Book
1. Douglas V. Hall, “ Microprocessors & Interfacing”, 2nd ed,TMH.
2. The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Using Assembly and C by
Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Pearson edu.

3. Embedded System- Architecture, Programming and Design by Raj Kamal 3rd Ed., Mc
Graw Hill edu.

4. Microprocessor- Architecture, Programming and Applications with the 8085 by R.

Gaonkar, 6th Ed, RPI.
5. Introduction to Embedded systems- Shibu K V, Mc Graw Hill Edu, 2 nd Edition

Reference Book
1. A K Rayand, K M Bhurchandi,“ Advanced Microprocessors & Peripherals”, 2nd ed.,
TMH, 2006.

2. Barry B. Brey: Intel Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Interfacing-

8086/8088, 80186, 80286, 80386 and 80486, PHI.

Dr. Dr.
B. CB.Mandi
C Mandi IIIT Naya Raipur 3
Embedded system???

 Embedded technologies use in daily activities- refrigerator, washing

machine, microwave oven, AC, TV, DVD player and Music system

Even Honda, Toyota or Ford vehicle and security systems-

intelligent embedded systems for example engine controller, ignition
control systems

It is an electronic/ electromechanical system designed to perform a

specific function and is a combination of both hardware and
software. Every embedded system is unique.

Dr. Dr.
B. CB.Mandi
C Mandi IIIT Naya Raipur 4
Application Domain:

Household appliance


 Medical Equipment

Industrial control

Consumer Products

Dr. Dr.
B. CB.Mandi
C Mandi IIIT Naya Raipur 5

• Based on Generation-
• 1st Gen – 8bit µP(8085, Z80), 4 bit µC, digital telephone,
stepper motor control
• 2nd Gen- 16 bit µP, 8 bit or 16 bit µC; DAS(data acquisition
system), SCADA Systems (Supervisory control and data
• 3rd Gen- 32 bit µP, 16 bit µC ; DSP, ASICs, Intel Pentium,
Motorola 68 k
• 4th Gen- SoC, reconfigurable processors and multicore
processors- high performance
• Ex: Smart phone devices, mobile internet devices (MID)

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Dr. B. C Mandi
Complexity and Performance

• Small Scale Embedded Systems: 8/16 bit µP or µC. It may

contain OS or not for its functioning. Simple in application

• Medium Scale Embedded Systems: Slightly complex in

hardware and software, medium performance. Low cost. It
usually contains Embedded Operating Systems/ RTOS for

• Large Scale Embedded Systems: Highly complex hardware and

firmware requirements, high performance for critical

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General Purpose OS vs Embedded systems
General Purpose OS Embedded systems

It is a combination of a generic hardware It is a combination of special purpose

and a General Purpose Operating System hardware and embedded Operating
for executing a variety of applications System

It contains GPOS It may or may not contains GPOS.

Applications are programmable Applications are pre-programmed

Response requirement are not time Response requirement are time critical

Performance depends on the selection of Performance, power, memory are the

the systems key deciding factor

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Major applications
• Consumer electronics: Camera, Camcorders, etc.
• Household appliance: TV, DVD Players, washing machine, fridge, microwave
oven etc.
• Home Automation and Security Systems: AC, Sprinkler, alarm, CCTV, fire
• Automotive industry: anti-lock breaking systems, engine control, ignition
systems, automatic navigation systems,
• Telecom: Cellular phone, telephone switches, handset, multimedia
• Computer Peripherals: Printers, Scanners, FAX machines
• Computer Networking Systems: Network routers, switches hubs, firewalls
• Heath care: EEG, ECG machine, scanner, MRI
• Measurement & Instrumentation: DMM, Digital CRO, PLC, Logic Analyzers
• Banking and Retail: ATM, Currency counter, Point of Scale (POS),
• Card reader: Barcode, Smart Card Reader, PDA
• Wearable Devices: heath and Fitness Trackers, Smartphone screen extension
for notification

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Purpose of Embedded Systems:

• Data collection/storage/ representation – Example: Camera

• Data communication – Example: wireless network router

• Data (signal) processing – Example: Digital hearing aid

• Monitoring – Example: Patient Monitoring System

• Control – Example: AC for controlling room temp.

• Application specific user interface – Example: Blackberry

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Elements of Embedded Systems

I/O ports (Sensor)
O/P ports (Actuator)
System Core
Communication Interface
Other supporting integrated circuits and

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Microprocessor /microcontroller

• General Purpose and Domain Specific Processors- 8085 micro


• It has CPU (Central Processing Unit) which contains ALU

(Arithmetic Logic Unit), Control Unit and working Registers

• It requires the combination of other hardware like memory , timer

unit, and interrupt controller

• 8051 It contains a CPU, scratch pad RAM, special and general

purpose arrays, on chip ROM/FLASH memory, Timer, Interrupt
Control Unit, and dedicated I/O chips

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Microprocessor vs Microntroller
Microprocessor Microcontroller

It is a CPU. Memory, I/O ports to be It is a single Chip. It consists of memory,

connected externally. I/O ports.

It is dependent unit. It requires timers, It is a self-contained unit.

program, data memory chips, interrupt
Most of the time it uses general purpose in It has domain specific application.
design and operation.
Limited power saving options compared to It includes power saving options.

Targeted for high end market. Targeted for embedded market where
performance is not critical.

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RISC processors vs CSIC processors

It has lesser no. of instructions. It has greater no. of instructions.

Instructions has pipelining features and Instructions has no pipelining features

increased execution speed
Operations are performed on register only Operations are performed on register
/memory depends on instructions
A large no. of registers Limited no. of general purpose registers

Programmer needs to write more code to Instructions are like macros in C

execute a task language
Single and fixed length instruction Variable length instruction

It works with Harvard Processor It works with Harvard/ von Neumann

Architecture Processor Architecture
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Harvard vs Von-Neumann Processor
Harvard Von-Neumann

Separate buses for instruction and data Single shared bus for instruction and
fetching data fetching

Easier to pipeline, so high performance Low performance compared to Harvard

Comparatively high cost It is cheaper

No memory alignment problems Allows self modifying codes

Since the data and program memory are Since the data and program memory are
stored in different locations, no chances for stored in same locations, chances for
accidental corruption for program accidental corruption for program
memory memory

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DSP (Digital Signal Processor): Powerful special purpose 8/16/32 bit
microprocessors designed specially to meet the computational
demands and power constraints
Data memory: Working memory for storing temporary variables
ASICs – Application Specific Integrated Circuits-
• A microchip to perform a specific or unique application to replace
conventional general logic chips.
• It integrates several functions into a single chip to reduced system
development cost.
• They are proprietary products consume very small area.
• They are prefabricated or custom fabricated by using the
components from a reusable building block.
FPGA- Field Programmable Gate Array used in a wide variety of
applications ranging from data processing and storage, to
instrumentation, telecommunications, digital signal processing.
CPLD- offers much smaller amounts of logic- up to 1000 gates. It
offer very predictable timing characteristics and therefore ideal for
critical control applications
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Microprocessor based system

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Pin diagram of 8085

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Bus Structure of 8085

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Hardware and Programming Model

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Memory Read/Write Operation

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Memory Read/Write Machine Cycle

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Instruction Fetch and Decoding

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