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Heriot-Watt University

INSTITUTE OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

ECLIPSE 100
Introductory Course

Course tutor: Eric Mackay

12 January 2007
ECLIPSE 100
 General purpose black oil simulator
 De facto standard
 Robust
 Obtains input data from a user created file
which uses a keyword system
 Output data can be visualised using post
processing packages Floviz and ECLIPSE
Office (or MS Excel)
Conceptually How Eclipse Works
Construct
grid

Kr FVF
Provide
PVT and
rock data
Sw P
Output
Input GOC
visualisation
data WOC

Initialise
model
& analysis

Define
Rate wells and
supply
production
Ti me schedule
ECLIPSE Input File

Rules govern how input file to be edited


 split into sections
 each section starts with a keyword
 sections must be in order
ECLIPSE File Sections
 RUNSPEC General characteristics of model
 GRID Cell dimensions & rock
properties
 PROPS Fluid properties
 SOLUTION Initial reservoir conditions
 SUMMARY Output required
 SCHEDULE Well data & production schedule
Preparing Data File
 Data specified using appropriate keywords.
 Keywords are explained in the manual.
 Keywords must start in column 1 of the file.
 Data should be on next line after keyword.
 A / must be inserted after specifying the data.
 Any line beginning with - - is ignored.
 Blank lines are ignored.
ECLIPSE Tutorial 1
1 2 3 4 5

500 50
500 50
500 50
500
1
500
2
1
3
2
4
3
5
500 500 500 500 500
RUNSPEC Section
Contains general information such as:
 title of simulation

 number of grid cells in model

 phases present

 units used

 maximum number of wells & groups

 maximum number of relative permeability


tables
 start date of simulation
Tutorial 1: RUNSPEC Section
 RUNSPEC keyword
 Title (TITLE)
3D 2-Phase
 Number of grid cells (DIMENS)
(NX) 5 (NY) 5 (NZ) 3
 Phases present
OIL WATER (GAS)
Tutorial 1: RUNSPEC Section

 Choice of units
FIELD (METRIC) (LAB)
 Maximum number of wells, connections & groups
(WELLDIMS)
(max wells) 2 (max cons/well) 3
(max groups) 2 (max wells/group) 1
 Maximum number of relative permeability tables
(TABDIMS) 2
Tutorial 1: RUNSPEC Section

 Unified output files


UNIFOUT
(alternative to having output files for each
time step)
 Start date (START)
1 Jan 2006
GRID Section
 Defines the geometry of the simulation
grid and the various rock properties:
 geometry
– size and location of each grid block
 rock properties
– porosity and absolute permeability
Tutorial 1: GRID Section

 Starts with GRID keyword


 Model will use block centred geometry
 Data for each grid block can be
specified in either of two ways:
1 Defining values for each cell, one at
a time
2 Defining a value for a box which
contains a group of cells
Tutorial 1:
Defining values one cell at a time

 Example: set 10 cells to have length of


500 feet using DX keyword
DX
500 500 500 500 500
500 500 500 500 500 /
or
DX
10*500 /
Tutorial 1: Notes on
Defining values one cell at a time

 No data on same line as keyword


 At least one space between data
 If using multiplier * no space on either
side of *
 x co-ordinate varies fastest, z co-
ordinate slowest
 end input of data with /
Tutorial 1:
Defining values using BOX

 Example: Define a box as follows:


X direction - cell 1 to cell 5
Y direction - cell 1 to cell 5
Z direction - cell 1 to cell 1 (top layer only)
 Set the depth below sea level of the tops of
each cell in the box to 8,000 feet using the
BOX, TOPS and ENDBOX keywords
Tutorial 1:
Defining values using BOX
-- X1 X2 Y1 Y2 Z1 Z2
BOX
1 5 1 5 1 1 /
TOPS
25*8000 /
ENDBOX
 Notes - specify value for each cell in box
- use ENDBOX to end definition
Tutorial 1: GRID Section

Rock properties must be defined for each cell


 Absolute permeability in each direction:
– PERMX
– PERMY
– PERMZ
 Porosity
– PORO
PROPS Section
Contains:
 Fluid densities

 PVT properties of

– dead oil
– live oil
– dry gas
– wet gas
– water
 Rock compressibility
 Relative permeability tables
Tutorial 1: PROPS Section
 Starts with PROPS keyword
 Oil, water and gas densities (DENSITY)
 Tables of PVT properties
– PVDO PVT properties of dead oil
– PVTW PVT properties of water
 Rock compressibility (ROCK)
 Oil and water relative permeabilities in
one (SWOF) table
SOLUTION Section
Initial reservoir conditions are set by one of:
1 EQUILIBRATION - Define pressure at
datum depth to allow internal pressure vs.
depth tables to be calculated.
2 RESTART - Load pressures and
saturations for each grid cell from a
previous run.
3 ENUMERATION - Specify pressures and
saturations for each cell explicitly.
Tutorial 1: SOLUTION Section
 Starts with SOLUTION keyword
 Use Equilibration data (EQUIL)
– pressure at datum depth
– WOC
– GOC
 Outside the transition zones the initial
saturations are set to the appropriate end
points of the saturation table (SWOF)
SCHEDULE Section
Drives the simulator by defining:
 Well locations and completions
 Production and injection rates and
pressures
 Time steps
– for calculations
– for reports
Tutorial 1: SCHEDULE Section
 Starts with SCHEDULE keyword
 WELSPECS and COMPDAT to specify
– Vertical oil production well (prod) in
cells (1,1,1) -> (1,1,3)
– Vertical water injection well (inj) in
cells (5,5,1) -> (5,5,3)
Tutorial 1: SCHEDULE Section
 WCONPROD
– produce 10,000 stb/day of liquid
– minimum BHP limit of 2,000 psia
 WCONINJ
– inject 11,000 stb/day of water
– maximum BHP limit of 10,000 psia
 TSTEP gives each t (not total time)
Output Files
Two files can be created at start, containing time
invariant data
1 GRID File (eg TUT1A.EGRID)
Generated by default, used by Floviz
2 INIT File (eg TUT1A.INIT)
INIT keyword must be in GRID section
Contains DX, DY, DZ, PERMX, PERMY, PERMZ,
etc for plotting in Floviz
Output Files

Two files can be written to at each report step


1 SUMMARY Files
(eg TUT1A.UNSMRY & TUT1A.RSM)
– Contents specified in SUMMARY section.
– Contain summary data for field, regions,
wells, connections or specific grid cells.
– Used by ECLIPSE Office or MS Excel for
lines graphs.
Output Files

2 RESTART Files (eg TUT1A.UNRST)


– Contents specified in SCHEDULE
section.
– Contain data on pressures and
saturations in each grid cell.
– Used by Floviz, along with GRID file,
for grid displays.
SUMMARY Section
 Specifies items to be output to summary
files at each time step. These can be
plotted using ECLIPSE Office or Excel.
 May include, for example:
– Field quantities, such as total oil
production rate or fluid in place
– Well quantities, such as water cut or
bottom hole pressure
– Completion quantities, as for wells
SUMMARY Section

Keywords usually have four letters


1st letter F Field
R Region
W Well
C Completion
B Block
SUMMARY Section

2nd letter O Oil (@ surface)


W Water (@ surface)
G Gas (@ surface)
L Liquid (oil + water @ surface)
V Volume (in reservoir)
3rd letter P Production
I Injection
SUMMARY Section

4th letter R Rate


T Total (or cumulative)

Examples:
FOPR Field Oil Production Rate
WWIT Well Water Injection Total
SUMMARY Section

Some exceptions
WWCT Well Water Cut
WBHP Well Bottom Hole Pressure
FPR Field Average Pressure
CPR Connection Pressure
FGOR Field Gas Oil Ratio
Restart Files

 Keyword RPTRST is used to output time


varying grid data (eg pressures and
saturations)
 In SOLUTION section specifies output of
initial conditions ( time = 0 )
 In SCHEDULE section specifies output
for every report time step ( time > 0 )
Restart Files
Same format in SOLUTION & SCHEDULE
sections
 Request data every TSTEP (time step)
– BASIC=2