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ITB, Bandung, 8 Februari 2005

Wastewater treatment design


based on Advanced Oxidation
Processes (AOP)

Anto Tri Sugiarto, Ph.D.

Pusat Penelitian Kalibrasi, Instrumentasi, dan Metrologi


Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia
Environmental pollution
• Sampah di DKI Jakarta 20.000
ton/hari
• Kasus pencemaran Teluk Jakarta
• Kasus pencemaran Teluk Buyat
• Pencemaran Danau Toba
• Pencemaran Merkuri di Bogor
• Pencemaran PT. Freeport

Benjolan pada ikan yang


ditangkap di Teluk Buyat
(Foto: Radja Siregar, Mei
2003 - WALHI)

Sampah DKI Jakarta


Current wastewater treatment

Pollutant removal Methods

Separation Decomposition

Filtration Coagulation Absorption Biological Chemical

Screening, Activated carbon, Aerobic Anaerobic Chlorine


Sand filtration Ion exchange resin

Dehydrator Suspended biology


Bio film process
Coagulating sedimentation
Flotation separation Digestion process
Oxidation reduction Obligate aerobe
Common problem

•Organic contaminants
•Microorganism (bacteria, virus, helmith)
•Color
•Odor
•Sludge
•Big area
•High operational and Maintenance cost
•etc.

Current technology not enough


Need more advantaged technology
Sludge problem
Current WWTP
* Workshops on problem around sludge
European Commission (2000)

Current sludge management


• Landfilling
• Incineration
• Reuse
Sludge increased every year
High cost sludge management
New innovation technology
Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) Oxidation
Species
potential (V)
• Ozonation (O3 with UV, O3 with H2O2)
fluorine 3.03
• Sonolysis
hydroxyl radical 2.80
• Photolysis
atomic oxygen 2.42
• Electron beams
ozone 2.07
• Plasma discharge
hydrogen 1.78
• etc. peroxide

etc.

AOP

reactive ions & destroyed


radicals (· OH, · H, · O, O3, etc) Organics and bacteria
Ozone technology
What is ozone
Ozone is “active oxygen” nature’s special element. Each
ozone molecule consists of three oxygen atoms
O3
Ozone technology
•Ozone is a natural purifier
•Ozone was discovered by schonbein at 1840’s
•Ozone is made by ultraviolet light or corona discharge
•In 1906, Nice, France, built the first water purification plant to utilize
ozone
•Now, more than 3000 water treatment plant in the world to utilize
ozone
Ozone advantaged
•Disinfectant
•Taste and odor control
•Color removal
•Iron and manganese oxidation
•H2S, Nitrate and Cyanide removal
•etc.
Principe of ozone made
by corona discharge
Oxidation process with O3-UV (254nm)
O3 + UV → O2 + O(1D)
O(1D) + H2O → 2 ·OH

Complex organic removal


•Benzene Deodoration
•Dioxin
•Furan
•Pesticide Degradation O3-UV Decoloration
•Phenol
•Dyes
Sterilization
•TNT
•etc.
Sterilization

O3

H2O
H2O + OH
Mechanism of sterilization

Sterilization
of water
contaminated
with E-Coli

TEM photo of before TEM photo of after


Organic removal
Reaction;
O3 + UV → O2 + O(1D) (1)
O(1D) + H2O → 2 ·OH (2)

Phenol, TCE, PCE aqueous solution removal


Phenol decomposition mechanism
Decoloration

Phenol red
·OH

Phenol red decoloration

Other
+ + intermediates

Hydroquinone
p-benzoquinone

CO2 + H2O
Deodoration

CH4 (methane) + O3  CO2 + CO + H2O


(CH3)3N (Amino) + O3  CH3NO + H2O + CO2
H2S (sulfide acid) + O3  S + H2O + O2
Zero Sludge
* Joint research with Kobe steel Corp. Japan 1998-20

Wastewater
Control
Coagulation chamber 8000

Sludge conc. (mg/L)


Clean water
Activated sludge
6000
chamber

sludge 4000

2000
No sludge Oxidation

Sludge before 0
Chamber
after 0 20 40 60
Ozone process
Treatment time (day)

Ozone sludge reduction system Industrial waste Kobe bay sludge treatment
OKSIDA

Oksidasi Air Limbah


OKSIDA MOBILE PROTOTYPE
oxidation
coagulation filtration
O3/UV

clear water

wastewater

ozonizer

Basic flow design WWTP

Spesifikasi alat:
Pengolah limbah cair OKSIDA MOBILE M-1
• Metode : Ozone-UV
• Capacity : max 1 m3/h
• Power : 750 W
• Dimensi(plt) : 2.01.01.75 m
OKSIDA MOBILE DESIGN
Tampak samping

Tampak samping
Tampak depan
Bisnis indonesia, 27 Agustus
Patent
2004

DIT. JEN. HKI. DEP. KEH. RI


PATENT REG. No. P00200300419
Anto Tri Sugiarto,
“Reaktor air berozon” ( Agustus, 2003)
Practical use of OKSIDA MOBILE
OKSIDA MOBILE can be use for several purposes such as,
• Industrial wastewater treatment (single and/or combination)
• Domestic wastewater treatment
• Hospital wastewater treatment
• Wastewater recycle
• Drinking water treatment
• etc.

Flocculation
Wastewater Clean water

Chemical Sedimentation
mixing
① Receiving well SBR Sludge

Ozone killer
Clean
gas

Oxidation
chamber
Injector

Raw gas

② Ozone generator

Design concept of Drinking water treatment


System advantages
No Item Current WWTP system AOP

Biological Chemical O3-UV

1 Area Large Large Small

2 Time Long Medium Fast

3 Chemical use High High Low

4 Removal efficiency Medium Good Good

5 Sludge High High Low

6 Maintenance & Medium High Low


Operational

7 Recycle unable unable able


Industrial wastewater treatment
OKSIDA
Uji coba lapangan limbah
OKSIDA model
mobile
Di PT Gajah Tunggal
Prakarsa Industri Cat
dan Resin. Tangerang

Air bersih
Result
Limbah cair
Di PT Gajah Tunggal Prakarsa
Industri Cat dan Resin.
Tangerang

COD = 4000 – 25000 mg/L

Hasil ujicoba OKSIDA


Di PT Gajah Tunggal Prakarsa
Industri Cat dan Resin.
Tangerang

COD = 4 – 23 mg/L
Domestik wastewater treatment

Ujicoba oksida pada


pengolahan air
limbah domestik
PDAM Cirebon
23 Dec’ 2004
Hospital wastewater treatment

Ujicoba oksida pada


pengolahan air limbah
rumah sakit
Di Serang, Banten
Seminar Nasional Produk Oksida
Malang Post,
21-Dec-’04

Surat kabar Surya, 21-Dec-’04