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The Abdominal Organs

The Digestive System

Muh.Iqbal Basri
Anatomy Department
Hasanuddin University
The Digestive
System
and
The Spleen
The Digestive System
 Alimentary Canal
 Accessory Organs
 Mouth
 Teeth, Tongue
 Pharynx
 Salivary Glands
 Esophagus
 Gallbladder
 Stomach
 Liver
 Small Intestine
 Pancreas
 Large Intestine
Food Processing Activities
 Ingestion
 Taking of food into the mouth

 Propulsion
 Movement of food through the GI tract

 Swallowing
• Pharynx
• Voluntary
 Peristalsis
• Involuntary waves of contraction and relaxation
• Starts in esophagus
• Mix food and squeeze from one organ to next
Food Processing Activities
 Mechanical Digestion
 Physically prepare food for chemical
digestion
•Chewing
•Churning
•Segmentation
 Chemical Digestion
 Chemical breakdown of molecules to
chemical building blocks
 Enzymes
Figure 24.11 The
Swallowing Process

Figure 24.11a-h
Swallowing reflex: Soft
Palate & Esophagus

Figure 21-13: The swallowing reflex


Food Processing Activities

 Absorption
 Digestive end products transported into
into blood and lymph
 Defecation
 Elimination of indigestible substances
Gross Anatomy of the Stomach
 “J” shape
 Greater and
lesser curvatures
 Cardiac Region
 Junction with
esophagus
 Gastroesophageal
sphincter
Stomach
 Fundus
 Dome
 Under diaphragm
 Body
 Large, midportion
 Pyloric region
 Distal portion
 Pyloric sphincter
Anatomy of Stomach Wall

 Mucosa
 Rugae
• mucosal folds that
allow expansion
 Typical
Submucosa
 Muscularis externa
 Oblique layer
 Circular layer
• Pyloric sphincter
 Longitudinal layer
 Serosa
Figure 24.12 The Stomach

Figure 24.12b
Figure 24.18 The Pancreas

Figure 24.18a-c
Figure 24.21 The Gallbladder

Figure 24.21a, b
Figure 24.19 The Anatomy
of the Liver

Figure 24.19b, c
Figure 24.20 Liver
Histology

Figure 24.20a, b
Intestinal Phase: Pancreatic
Secretions

Figure 21-19: The hepatic portal system


Large Intestine, H2O
Absorption & Defecation

Figure 21-27: Anatomy of the large intestine


Innervation of Alimentary Canal

 Myenteric &
Submucosal
Plexuses
 Parasympathetic,
sympathetic, and
visceral sensory
fibers
 ANS and CNS
influence activity of
enteric nervous
system
Innervation of Alimentary Canal

 Enteric Nervous
System
 100 million neurons in
walls of alimentary canal
 Within above plexuses
 Independent reflex arcs
 Controls glandular
secretion, peristalsis,
and segmentation
Function of Stomach
 Temporary storage of chyme
 Holds from 1.5 - 4 liters
 Breakdown begins
 Churning
 Pepsin - breakdown of proteins
 HCL – allows action of pepsin and destruction of
bacteria
 Absorption
 H2O, electrolytes
 Alcohol, aspirin
 Food remains in stomach about 4 hours
Gross Anatomy of Small Intestine

 Divisions
 Duodenum (5%)
 Jejunum (<40%)
 Ileum (<60%)
 Runs from pyloric
sphincter to large
intestine
 Roughly 2.7-5m in
length
 About 3-6 hours to
move food through

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19221.htm
Functions of the Small Intestine
 Most enzymatic
digestion
 Bile (gallbladder,
liver)
 Enzymes
(pancreas)
 Almost all nutrient
absorption
 Segmentation
• Moves chyme
around to increase
contact with
intestine walls
http://www.msms.doe.k12.ms.us/teachers/wodom/anatomy-old/digestive/digestive.html#5
Small Intestine
 Duodenum
 short, straight
 Mostly
retroperitoneal
 Receives digestive
enzymes and bile
 Jejunum/Ileum
 Highly coiled
 Suspended by
mesenteries
http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/smallgut/mesentery.jpg
Large Intestine
 Cecum
 Vermiform
appendix
 Colon
 Ascending
 Transverse
 Descending
 Sigmoid
 Rectum
 Anal Canal
http://www.uhealthy.com/cancer-chinese/image/colon.jpg
Special Features pg 655

 Teniae coli
 3 longitudinal strips
 thickening of
longitudinal muscle of
muscularis externa
 maintain muscle tone
 Cause puckering of
colon creating haustra
 Haustra
 saclike divisions
 Epiploic Appendages
 a.k.a omental
appendices
 fat-filled pouches
 significance unknown
Cecum + Vermiform Appendix

 Cecum
 sac-like, blind pouch
 right lower quadrant
 Ileocecal valve
 raised edges of mucosa
 prevents feces going
back into ileum
 Vermiform Appendix
 blind tube opens into
cecum
 masses of lymphoid
tissue in wall
 Probable tonsil-like
function http://www.bartleby.com/images/A4images/A4vermif.jpg
Colon
 Ascending colon
 Right side
 Hepatic flexure
(right colic
flexure)
 Transverse colon
 Descending colon
 Left side
 Splenic flexure
(left colic flexure )
 Sigmoid colon
 Enters pelvis
 “S” shape
http://www.enjoyyoung.com/menu-colon/colon-colonmap.gif
Functions of the Colon

 Minimal digestion by bacteria


 Absorb H2O and electrolytes
 Mass Peristaltic Movements (2-3x
day)move feces to rectum
 Residue moves through colon in 12-
24 hours
Rectum and Anal Canal
 Rectum
 No teniae coli
 Longitudinal muscle layer
complete – strong contractions
 Rectal valves
 Anal Canal
 Passes through levator ani
muscle
 Anal sinuses release mucus
 Internal anal sphincter
• involuntary, smooth muscle
 External anal sphincter
• voluntary, skeletal muscle
http://medicine.iupui.edu/ercp/digestive_system_anatomy.asp
Defecation Reflex
 Initiated by stretching of wall of rectum
 Parasympathetic reflex signals sigmoid
colon & rectum to contract and anal
sphincters to relax (involuntary)
 Reflex initiated again until defecation
occurs
 Contraction of abdominal muscles,
diaphragm, and levator ani muscle
supplements contraction of rectum
(voluntary)
Liver
 Largest gland (3 lbs)
 Location
 Right upper quadrant
 Some left upper quadrant
 Protected by ribs
 Some functions (>500!)
 produce bile
 Glucose to glycogen
 Process fats, amino acids
 Detoxification
 Manufacture blood proteins

http://digilander.libero.it/BodyMindCare/kapil/images/medi/more/horz/liver.jpg
Gross Anatomy of Liver

 Diaphragmatic surface
 Anterior/superior
 Bare area – fused to
diaphragm
 Falciform ligament between
left and right lobes
 Visceral surface
 Posterior/inferior
 Quadrate lobe
 Caudate lobe
• Both part of left lobe
Blood Supply of Liver
 Hepatic Artery
 from abdominal aorta
 Hepatic Vein
 to inferior vena cava
 Hepatic Portal Vein
 Carries nutrient-rich
blood from stomach
and intestines to liver
 Portal system = 2
capillary beds, first in
small intestine, second
in liver, then empty
into hepatic vein

http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual_home/illus/i119_1.gif
Gallbladder
 Muscular sac
 Located between
right and quadrate
lobes of liver
 Bile
 Produced by liver
 Stored in
gallbladder
 Emulsification of
fats
http://www.indiacancer.org/coca/g/gal.html
Bile Ducts

 Cystic duct
 from gallbladder
 Hepatic duct(s)
 from liver
 Common Bile duct
 carries bile into
duodenum
Flow of Bile
 Hepatopancreatic
ampulla
 common bile & main
pancreatic duct meet
and enter duodenum
 sphincter of Oddi
around it
 Bile then backs up into
gallbladder via cystic
duct
 When needed
gallbladder contracts,
sphincters open
pg 652
Pancreas
 Retroperitoneal
 Exocrine Gland
 digestive
enzymes
 Endocrine
Gland
 insulin
 glucagon
 Location
 Head - curve of
duodenum
 Tail - extends
http://www.schebo.com/bilder/gastro/pancreas.jpg to spleen
Ducts of Pancreas
 Main Pancreatic duct
 joins common bile duct
 enters duodenum
 Hepatopancreatic
(Vater) ampulla
 Accessory Pancreatic
duct
 enters duodenum in
other location

pg 652
Figure 24.23 The Large
Intestine

Figure 24.23a
Figure 24.23 The Large
Intestine

Figure 24.23b, c
Blood Supply to Abdominal Organs

 All branches of Abdominal Aorta


 Anastomoses are formed by:
 Left + Middle colic
 Left + Right gastric

 Left + Right gastroepiploic

 Cranial + Caudal pancreaticoduodenal

 Deep Iliac Circumflex + Adrenolumbar

STUDY HAND OUT. You are responsible for arterial


supply of abdominal organs.
Blood Supply to Abdominal Organs
 Stomach
 Branches of celiac trunk
• Right and left gastric a.
• Short gastric a.
• Right and left gastroepiploic a.
 Small Intestine
 Superior mesenteric a.
• Intestinal arteries
 Celiac Trunk
• Gastroduodenal (branch of common hepatic a.)
Blood Supply to Abdominal Organs
 Large Intestine
 Superior Mesenteric artery
•Ileocolic a
•Right colic a.
•Middle colic a.
 Inferior Mesenteric artery

•Left colic a.
•Sigmoidal a.
•Superior rectal arteries
Blood Supply to Abdominal Organs
 Liver
 Celiac trunk
• Hepatic a.
 Gall Bladder
 Cystic a. (arises from r. branch of hepatic a.)
 Pancreas
 Hepatic a.
• Cranial pancreaticoduodenal a.
(Gastroduodenal a.)
 Splenic a. branches
 Superior mesenteric
• Caudal pancreaticoduodenal a.
Blood Supply to Abdominal Organs
 Kidneys
 Renal a.
 Adrenal Glands
 Suprarenal a.
 Gonads
 Gonadal a. (testicular/ovarian)
 Spleen
 Splenic a.
Spleen
 Left upper quadrant
 Largest lymph organ
 Highly vascular
 Covered by
peritoneum
 Function
 remove blood-borne
antigens (immune)
 remove and destroy
old/damaged blood
cells
 store platelets
 hematopoiesis in fetus

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/8933.htm
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