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Global System For Mobile

Communication (GSM)

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History
 Europe cell tech fragmented in early 80’s
 1982 GSM Study Group started
 1991 1st Commercial System
 1993 1 Million Users, 22 Countries
 Today 10 % of World Population
 Today 709 Million users, 179 Countries
 Today 71 % of entire digital wireless

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Goals
 Full international roaming.
 Provision for national variations in charging
and rates.
 Efficient interoperation with ISDN systems.
 Signal quality better than or equal to that of
existing mobile systems
 Accommodation of non voice services
 Accommodation of portable terminals

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Features: Multiple Access
 TDMA/FDM
 Multiple users share the same frequency channel
sequentially
 Time slot sequence repeats
TIME

User 3
User2
User 1

FREQUENCY

TDMA
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Cellular System
 SIR: 11 dB
 Reuse Factor: 3
 Sectoring: 3 sectors/cell

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Features: Service
 Telephone
 Data
 support packet switched protocol
 data rate from 300bps to 9.6kbps
 Other
 SMS (Short Message Service)
 limit 160 7bit ASCII characters

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Frequency Characters
 Carrier Spacing: 200kHz
 Channels per carrier: 8
 Modulation: 0.3 BT GMSK
 Data Rate: 270.833kbps

Uplink Downlink

GSM 900 890-915 MHz 935-960 MHz

GSM 1800 1710-1785 MHz 1805-1880 MHz

GSM 1900 1850-1910 MHz 1930-1990 MHz

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Duplex
 Duplex: FDD
 Frequency spacing:
 45MHz(GSM 900)
 95MHz(GSM 1800)
 80MHz(GSM 1900)
 Time slot spacing: 3
time slots

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Architecture: Networking

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Architecture: GSM Areas

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Network Components
 The network system
is divided into three
major subsystems
 Base Station System
(BSS)
 Switching System
(SS)
 Operation Support
System (OSS)

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Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Network Component

BSS

Base Station Controller (BSC)

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

SS

OSS

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Base Station Controller (BSC)
 Number of BSC varies
 Manages the allocation of radio resources for
one or more BTSs, responsible for connection
to MS on demand of MSC
 Controls handover between BTS and another
BTS
 The link between the mobile station (MS) and
the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)

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Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
 Handles the radio transceivers (transmitters
and receivers) that define a cell
 Handles the radio-link protocols (air
interface) with the Mobile Station (MS)
 SPP (Signal Processing Part) which includes
the coding, encryption, modulation of the
signal

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Switching System (SS)
Network Component

BSS

SS

Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)

Home Location Register (HLR)

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

Authentication Centre (AUC)

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

OSS

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Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)
 Handles the switching of calls between
external networks and the BSCs
 Controls handovers between BSC within the
MSC area
 Decide which function that is going to be
used (call, SMS etc)
 Coordinates VLR, HLR, OSS (OMC)

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Home Location Register (HLR)
 Database that keeps information about all
subscribers within it’s area
 Name, identification number, type of service,
subscriber status, temporary roaming number
for handovers
 Temporary information

 Permanent information

 Responsible for changing VLR-info if the


subscriber changes VLR area

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Visitor Location Register (VLR)
 Database that keeps information about all subscribers
that temporary are within it’s area (MSC service area)
 Position updating if the MS moves to a different LA
 To connect up a call, the system now has no need to
contact HLR, since VLR has all the necessary
information
 Differs from HLR by the TMSI (Temporary Mobile
Subscriber Identity) because of avoiding to send the
IMSI (International Mobile Identification Number) via
radio signals

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Authentication Centre (AUC)
 Stores information regarding safety
 Encryption keys
 ki (subscriber authentication key)
 rand
 MSC computes SRES (Signal response)
from ki and rand
 SRES = generated Identification parameter out
of a randomly selected variable and the ki
 SRES now stored in HLR for use in case of call

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Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
 EIR is an option available for any operator in
GSM
 Contains information about stolen cellular,
defect cellular that may not be used in the
network etc
 Serial number, IMEI (international Mobile
Equipment Identity)
 IMEI contains info about manufacturer, country of
manufacturing and certificate

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Operation Support System (OSS)
 Used mainly for supervision of GSM
network
 Subscriber administration
Network Component
 Configuration (connect cells, award
identities to local areas (LAI)
BSS
 TRX administrator (specifies the
TRX, channel administration) SS

 TMOS (Telecommunications OSS


Management and Operations
Support) is a standard for
implementation in a
telecommunication network
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Operation Support System (OSS)
(continued)
 Errors from the network manually handled by an
operator e.g.
 Defect circuit boards in a BTS
 Messages from a cellular that are registered in EIR that tries
to call
 Checking the functionality of the systems components
 Statistics (current traffic between BTS-BSC etc)

 Keeps info about definitions of all cells


 Graphical tools for presenting images of the network

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GSM Time Intervals

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Traffic Multiframe

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GSM Traffic Time Slot
 T: Tail bits
 F: Flag
 Train: Equalizer Training Sequence
4.615 ms

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

T DATA F TRAIN F DATA T GUARD


3 57 bits 1 26 1 57 bits 3 8.25
577 us

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GSM Frames
Hyper-frame 0 1 1022 1023

6.12 s 6.12 s

Super-frame 0 1 2 48 49 50 0 1 2 23 24 25

120 ms (Speech) 235 ms (Control)

Multi-frame 0 1 2 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 47 48 49 50

4.615 ms 4.615 ms

Frame 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

A time slot contains 156.25 bits


Time Slot
 bit rate = 156.25 * 8 / 4.615ms = 271 kbps
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GSM Channels
 Traffic Channels (TCHs)
 Digitally encoded user speech or user data;
 Identical functions and formats on both the
forward and reverse link.
 Control Channels (CCHs)
 Signaling and synchronizing commands between
the base station and the mobile station
 Certain types of control channels are just for the
forward or reverse link

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GSM Control Channels

Control Channel (CCH)

Broadcast CH (BCH) Common CCH (CCCH) Dedicated CCH (DCCH )

Broadcast CCH (BCCH) Paging CH (PCH) Stand Alone DCCH (SADCCH)

Frequency Correction CH (FCCH) Random Access CH (RACH) Slow Assisted CCH (SACCH)

Synchronization CH (SCH) Grant CH (Access AGCH) Fast Associated CCH (FACCH)

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Broadcast and Common Control
Channels
 Synchronization and System operation info
 Multiplexed on Time Slot 0 (TS) and if needed
it uses TS 2, 4 or 6
 Occupies Control Multi-frame
FWD Link Multiframe

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 202122 39404142 4950


F SBBBBCCCCF SCC F SC CF SC C I

F: FCCH frame (BCH) C: PCH/AGCH frame (CCCH)


S: SCH frame (BCH) I: Idle frame
B: BCCH frame (BCH)

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Frequency Correction Channel
 148 0s transmitted in FCCH
 Used by terminal to adjust its frequency
reference to match that of the base station
 Occupies time slot 0 in a frame of eight time
slots
FCCH 3 142 3 8.25
Tail bits All zeros Tail bits Guard period

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Synchronization Channel
 Contains Base Station Identity Code and
current frame number in hyper frame
 Helps terminals synchronize their operations
to a new base station

SCH 3 39 64 39 3 8.25
Start bit Encrypted Data Training bits Encrypted Data Tail bit Guard period

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Paging and Access Grant
 Used to notify terminals of arriving calls and
to direct a terminal to a stand alone
dedicated control channel
 Every mobile is assigned to a particular
paging group

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Random Access Channel
 Used by mobiles to originate phone calls,
initiate SMS, respond to paging massages and
register their locations.
 Shared by all mobiles on contention basis

RACH 8 41 36 3 68.25
Start bit Synchronization Encrypted Data Tail bit Extended Guard period

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Speech Coding
 GSM uses linear prediction coding with regular pulse
excitation (LPC-RPE)
 Each block of 20 ms consists of 260 bits
 36 bits carry information about eight linear prediction
coefficients
 188 bits carry excitation information
 36 bits represent long term predictor
 Speech coding rate is (260 bits/block)/ (20 ms/block)
= 13,000 bits/second

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Channel Coding for Speech Signals

78 least important bits


LPC-RPE
Speech
Coder 132 important bits

Data field
50 53 Of 4 time
essential bits slots
Calculate 3 Rate ½ Multiplex
bits parity bits Channel code interleave
456
378 bits
bits
4 tail bits

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Channel Coding
 The channel coding process generates a total
of 456 bits every 20 ms
 50 essential bits
 3 error-detecting parity bits
 132 important bits
 The speech transmission rate is
 (456 bits/block)/(20 ms/block) = 22,800
bits/second

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Interleaving
 Interleaving takes error clusters and spreads
them out over large intervals.
 2 speech blocks, or 40 ms of speech
(2x456=912 coded speech bits), distributed
over 8 frames.

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Multipath Equalization
 Time varying effect of radio channels
 Adaptive equalizer is an important component of every
GSM receiver
 Extracts desired signal from multiple versions of the signal
 Uses 26-bit training sequence and inverse filter
 GSM specifies 8 different training sequences assigned to
nearby cells which use the same carrier
 Enables terminals and base stations to confirm the received
signal comes from the correct transmitter
 GSM can handle delay spreads up to 16us ~ 4-bit period

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Power Control
 GSM specifies 5 classes of terminals by maximum
transmitter power (20W, 8W, 5W, 2W, 0.8W)
 Power can adjust by steps of 2 dB to any of 16 power
levels that range over 30 dB
 A full-rate transmitter is active for 1 time slot per frame
 Advantages:
 Minimizes co-channel interference
 Conserves power

 Power control should be handled carefully because terminals


increasing their power can cause co-channel cells’ terminals to
increase their power levels, which results in unstable condition.

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GSM Innovations
 Mobile assisted handoffs (MAHO)
 Location-based mobility management
 Network interfaces in addition to air interface
 Made the subscriber mobile with the Subscriber
Identity Module (SIM) Card

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GSM Mobility management
 Location management
 In GSM a compromise between the two is
achieved by requiring the mobile to register only
when it changes a collection of cells called a
location area. The mobile is then paged only in the
cells in the location area it last registered from.
This is a tradeoff between high number of
registrations to high number of paging attempts.

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GSM Mobility management
 Handoff – In GSM handoff is done using the
assistance of the mobile. This is called as MAHO
(mobile assisted handoff).
 Handoff process proceeds like this :
 The mobile detects that the bit error rate for the base
station signal has increased beyond a threshold value
 The mobile then measures the signal strength of the
surrounding cells and sends measurement reports to MSC
 MSC then decides the target cell for handoff.
 The handoff is hard - ‘break before make’ handoff

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GSM Mobility Management
 Roaming
 Terminal Mobility – If same radio frequency is
employed or if mobile has multiple modes, then
terminal mobility is possible
 Subscriber Mobility – By swapping the SIM card to
the appropriate GSM terminal, subscriber is freed
from the terminal

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Frequency Hopping
 Objective
 To avoid severe multipath problems
 Procedure
 Change the carrier frequency of a given
user
 Characters
 Hopping frame by frame
 Maximum 217.6 hops / second

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