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Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity.
This is called hydroelectric power or hydropower.
The most common type of hydroelectric power plant uses a dam on a river to
store water in a reservoir.
Hydropower, generated mainly from hydroelectric dams, is a clean, renewable,
non-emitting source of energy that provides low-cost electricity and helps reduce
carbon emissions.
In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of
all renewable electricity ,and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for
the next 25 years.
- Nearly 2000 years ago the Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat
into flour
- In the 1700's, hydropower was broadly used for milling of lumber and
grain and for pumping irrigation water

-The power of falling water has been used to produce electricity for over
135 years.
- The world’s first hydroelectric project was used to power a single lamp in
the Cragside country house in Northumberland, England, in 1878.
- Appleton, Wisconsin became the first operational hydroelectric generating
plant in the world, in 1882, producing 12.5 kilowatts (kW) of power

- Within the next 20 years roughly 300 hydroelectric plants were operational
around the world

- The invention of the hydraulic reaction turbine created the sudden

expansion of hydropower

- 40% of the United States' electricity was provided by hydroelectric power in

the early 1900's
Hydroelectricity promotes guaranteed energy and price stability.
Hydroelectricity contributes to the storage of drinking water.
With an average lifetime of 50 to 100 years, hydroelectric developments
are long-term investments that can benefit various generations.
Hydroelectricity is a fundamental instrument for sustainable development.
The capacity of hydroelectric systems to reach maximum production from
zero in a rapid and foreseeable manner makes them exceptionally
appropriate for addressing alterations in the consumption and providing
ancillary services to the electricity system, thus maintaining the balance
between the electricity supply and demand.
 The first step in the generation of energy in a hydropower plant is the collection of run-off
of seasonal rain and snow in lakes, streams and rivers, during the hydrological cycle.

 The run-off flows to dams downstream.

 The water falls through a dam, into the hydropower plant and turns a large wheel called a

 The turbine converts the energy of falling water into mechanical energy to drive the

 After this process has taken place electricity is transferred to the communities through
transmission lines and the water is released back into the lakes, streams or rivers.

 This is entirely not harmful, because no pollutants are added to the water while it flows
through the hydropower plant.
Conventional (dams)
Run of the river
Conventional (dams)

Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential

energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator.
The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the
difference in height between the source and the water's outflow.
This height difference is called the head. A large pipe (the "penstock")
delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine.
This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving
water between reservoirs at different elevations.
At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used
to pump water into the higher reservoir.
When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the
lower reservoir through a turbine.
Run of the river
Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir
capacity, so that only the water coming from upstream is available for
generation at that moment, and any oversupply must pass unused.
A constant supply of water from a lake or existing reservoir upstream is a
significant advantage in choosing sites for run of the river.
In the United States, run of the river hydropower could potentially provide
60,000 megawatts
A tidal power station makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water
due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit
construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power
during high demand periods.
Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or
undammed sources such as undershot water wheels.
Tidal power is viable in a relatively small number of locations around the
Micro: upto 100 KW

Mini: 101KW to 2 MW

Small: 2 MW to 25 MW

Mega: Hydro projects with installed capacity >= 500 MW

Calculating available power
A simple formula for approximating electric power production at a hydroelectric
station is:P= ρhrgk, where

• P is Power in watts,
• ρ is the density of water (~1000 kg/m3),
• h is height in meters,
• r is flow rate in cubic meters per second,
• g is acceleration due to gravity of 9.8 m/s2,
• k is a coefficient of efficiency ranging from 0 to 1. Efficiency is often higher (that
is, closer to 1) with larger and more modern turbines.
Low cost/high value power
The major advantage of conventional hydroelectric dams with reservoirs
is their ability to store water at low cost for dispatch later as high value
clean electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger
than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour. When used as
peak power to meet demand, hydroelectricity has a higher value than
base power and a much higher value compared to intermittent energy
Suitability for industrial applications
While many hydroelectric projects supply public electricity networks,
some are created to serve specific industrial enterprises.
Reduced CO2 emissions
Since hydroelectric dams do not use fuel, power generation does not produce carbon
dioxide. While carbon dioxide is initially produced during construction of the project,
and some methane is given off annually by reservoirs, hydro normally has the
lowest lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for power generation.

Hydropower is a flexible source of electricity since stations can be ramped up and
down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Hydro turbines have a start-
up time of the order of a few minutes. It takes around 60 to 90 seconds to bring a unit
from cold start-up to full load; this is much shorter than for gas turbines or steam
plants. Power generation can also be decreased quickly when there is a surplus
power generation.
Ecosystem damage and loss of land
Large reservoirs associated with traditional hydroelectric power stations result in
submersion of extensive areas upstream of the dams, sometimes destroying
biologically rich and productive lowland and riverine valley forests, marshland
and grasslands. Damming interrupts the flow of rivers and can harm local
ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves displacing
people and wildlife
Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people
living where the reservoirs are planned. In 2000, the World Commission on
Dams estimated that dams had physically displaced 40-80 million people
Methane emissions
Lower positive impacts are found in the tropical regions, as it has been noted that
the reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions produce substantial amounts
of methane. This is due to plant material in flooded areas decaying in
an anaerobic environment, and forming methane, a greenhouse gas.

When water flows it has the ability to transport particles heavier than itself
downstream. This has a negative effect on dams and subsequently their power
stations, particularly those on rivers or within catchment areas with high
siltation. Siltation can fill a reservoir and reduce its capacity to control floods along
with causing additional horizontal pressure on the upstream portion of the dam.
Ten of the largest hydroelectric producers

Annual hydroelectric Installed Capacity % of total

production (TWh) capacity (GW) factor production

China 1064 311 0.37 18.7%

Canada 383 76 0.59 58.3%

Brazil 373 89 0.56 63.2%

United States 282 102 0.42 6.5%

Russia 177 51 0.42 16.7%

India 132 40 0.43 10.2%

Norway 129 31 0.49 96.0%

Japan 87 50 0.37 8.4%

Venezuela 87 15 0.67 68.3%

France 69 25 0.46 12.2%

The Koyna Hydroelectric Project is
the largest completed hydroelectric
power plant in India. It is a complex
project with four dams including the
largest dam on the Koyna River,
Maharashtra hence the name
Koyna Hydroelectric Project. The
total capacity of the project
is 1,960 MW.

The Three Gorges Dam is

a hydroelectric gravity
dam that spans the Yangtze
River located in China.
The Three Gorges Dam is
the world's largest power
station in terms of installed
capacity (22,500 MW).
In the U.S., hydropower is produced for an average of 0.85 cents per
kilowatt-hour(kwh). This is about 50% the cost of nuclear, 40% the cost
of fossil fuel, and 25% the cost of using natural gas.
Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region
generating 33 percent of global hydropower.
China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 1064 TWh of
production, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use.
In Norway, about 99% of electricity production is contributed by
hydropower with 20 plants installed.




S.M.HASAN FAYAZ(1510110316)
DUSHYANT SINGH(1510110134)
ANUBHAV BHATT(1510110071)