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EPR 581: Protection &

Switchgear

Prof. Hossam Eldin Talaat


FUE - Fall 2018
2
Impact of Faults
without Proper
Protection

Fires Electric Shock

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


3

Objectives of
Protection

Minimize Maintain
Protect the
damage to system
public
equipment stability

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


Functional Requirements of Protection System
4
Requirements of Protection
System

Selectivity
Selectivity Reliability
Reliability Speed
Speed
Max service continuity Ability to function properly Minimize fault time to
with min system throughout its life prevent equipment
Simplicity
Sensitivity Economy
Simplicity& Economy
disconnection Reliability% = damage and maintain
Ability to detect the
(No. of Correct Trips/Max No. performance
desired with
system interconnection
smallest possible fault simplest
Trips + No. of incorrect Trips) xdesign
100 and at
condition min cost
Security
Security Dependability
Dependability
Ability to not trip when Ability to trip when it is
it is not expected to trip expected to trip
Security % = Dependability% =
(No. of Correct Trips/ (No. of Correct Trips/
Total No. of Trips) x 100 No. desired Trips) x 100
EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat
Example on Reliability Calculations
5 The performance of an overcurrent relay was monitored
over a period of one year. It was found that the relay
operated 14 times, out of which 12 were correct trips. If the
relay failed to issue trip decision on 3 occasions, compute
dependability, security and reliability of the relay.

Solution

Number of correct trips = 12


Number of desired trips = 12 + 3 = 15

Dependability% = (No. of Correct Trips/ No. desired Trips) x 100


= (12 / 15) x 100 = 80%
Security % = (No. of Correct Trips/ Total No. of Trips) x 100
= ( 12 / 14) x 100 = 85.71%
Reliability% = (No. of Correct Trips)/( No. desired Trips + No. of
incorrect Trips) x 100
= [12 / (15 + 2) ] x Prof.
EPM581- Protection& Switchgear
100 = 70.59%
Hossam Talaat
Basic Protection Circuit
6
Busbar

Trip Coil
CB
Battery

Relay
Contact Trip Circuit

CT

Relay Coil

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


Components of Protection System
7 1- Current Transformers

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


2- Circuit Breakers
8

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


9 3- Protective Relays

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


Developments in Power
10
System Relaying
Smart Relays

Performance Microprocessor- Communication


Based Relays Facility
(Numerical)
AI-based
Methods
Static Digital Proc.
Relays Algorithms Digital ICs
Electromechanical Relays
Digital ICs (mP,DSP,ADC
Electronic , neuro-IC
(mP,DSP,ADC,)
Circuits fuzzy-IC)

1900 years 1960 1975 2005

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


Zones of Protection
11

(To satisfy Selectivity Requirement)

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


12 Backup Protection

R1: Backup Relay


R2: Primary Relay

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


Course Syllabus
13

Fall 2018
Title: Protection and Switchgear in EPS
Code: EPR 581 Credits: 3
Lectures: 3 hours/week Tutorials: 2
hours/week

Instructor: Prof. Dr. Hossam Eldin A. Talaat


Teaching Assistant: Eng. Mohamed Shaheen

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


Textbooks
14

1- Glover & Sarma, “ Power System Analysis and


Design”, 4th Edition, Thomson, 2008 (Chapter 10).

2- Sunil Rao, “ Switchgear, Protection and Power


Systems”, 14th Edition, Khanna Publishers, 2014

EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat


Course Contents
Wk Topic # Text
15
Book
1 Fundamentals of Power System Protection 10.1 1
2 Instrument Transformers 10.2 1
3 Overcurrent Relays 10.3 1
4 Radial System Protection 10.4 1
5 Reclosers and Fuses 10.5 1
6 Mid Exam I
7 Distance Protection of Lines 10.9 1
8 Differential Relay 10.10 1
9 Differential Protection of Transformers 10.12 1
10 Fundamentals of Switching Operations 2.1:2.14 2
11 Transient Recovery Voltage 3.6:3.13 2
12 Rated Characteristics of Circuit Breakers 3.18 2
13 Arc Extinction
EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat 4.1:1.13 2
14 Circuit Breakers 5:9 2

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