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# EPR 581: Protection &

Switchgear

FUE - Fall 2018
2
Impact of Faults
without Proper
Protection

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

3

Objectives of
Protection

Minimize Maintain
Protect the
damage to system
public
equipment stability

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

Functional Requirements of Protection System
4
Requirements of Protection
System

Selectivity
Selectivity Reliability
Reliability Speed
Speed
Max service continuity Ability to function properly Minimize fault time to
with min system throughout its life prevent equipment
Simplicity
Sensitivity Economy
Simplicity& Economy
disconnection Reliability% = damage and maintain
Ability to detect the
(No. of Correct Trips/Max No. performance
desired with
system interconnection
smallest possible fault simplest
Trips + No. of incorrect Trips) xdesign
100 and at
condition min cost
Security
Security Dependability
Dependability
Ability to not trip when Ability to trip when it is
it is not expected to trip expected to trip
Security % = Dependability% =
(No. of Correct Trips/ (No. of Correct Trips/
Total No. of Trips) x 100 No. desired Trips) x 100
EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat
Example on Reliability Calculations
5 The performance of an overcurrent relay was monitored
over a period of one year. It was found that the relay
operated 14 times, out of which 12 were correct trips. If the
relay failed to issue trip decision on 3 occasions, compute
dependability, security and reliability of the relay.

Solution

## Number of correct trips = 12

Number of desired trips = 12 + 3 = 15

## Dependability% = (No. of Correct Trips/ No. desired Trips) x 100

= (12 / 15) x 100 = 80%
Security % = (No. of Correct Trips/ Total No. of Trips) x 100
= ( 12 / 14) x 100 = 85.71%
Reliability% = (No. of Correct Trips)/( No. desired Trips + No. of
incorrect Trips) x 100
= [12 / (15 + 2) ] x Prof.
EPM581- Protection& Switchgear
100 = 70.59%
Hossam Talaat
Basic Protection Circuit
6
Busbar

Trip Coil
CB
Battery

Relay
Contact Trip Circuit

CT

Relay Coil

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

Components of Protection System
7 1- Current Transformers

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

2- Circuit Breakers
8

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

9 3- Protective Relays

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

Developments in Power
10
System Relaying
Smart Relays

## Performance Microprocessor- Communication

Based Relays Facility
(Numerical)
AI-based
Methods
Static Digital Proc.
Relays Algorithms Digital ICs
Electromechanical Relays
Electronic , neuro-IC
Circuits fuzzy-IC)

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

Zones of Protection
11

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

12 Backup Protection

## R1: Backup Relay

R2: Primary Relay

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

Course Syllabus
13

Fall 2018
Title: Protection and Switchgear in EPS
Code: EPR 581 Credits: 3
Lectures: 3 hours/week Tutorials: 2
hours/week

## Instructor: Prof. Dr. Hossam Eldin A. Talaat

Teaching Assistant: Eng. Mohamed Shaheen

Textbooks
14

## 1- Glover & Sarma, “ Power System Analysis and

Design”, 4th Edition, Thomson, 2008 (Chapter 10).

## 2- Sunil Rao, “ Switchgear, Protection and Power

Systems”, 14th Edition, Khanna Publishers, 2014

## EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat

Course Contents
Wk Topic # Text
15
Book
1 Fundamentals of Power System Protection 10.1 1
2 Instrument Transformers 10.2 1
3 Overcurrent Relays 10.3 1
4 Radial System Protection 10.4 1
5 Reclosers and Fuses 10.5 1
6 Mid Exam I
7 Distance Protection of Lines 10.9 1
8 Differential Relay 10.10 1
9 Differential Protection of Transformers 10.12 1
10 Fundamentals of Switching Operations 2.1:2.14 2
11 Transient Recovery Voltage 3.6:3.13 2
12 Rated Characteristics of Circuit Breakers 3.18 2
13 Arc Extinction
EPM581- Protection& Switchgear Prof. Hossam Talaat 4.1:1.13 2
14 Circuit Breakers 5:9 2