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Perbedaan vertigo sentral dan

Vertigo can be of central or peripheral
Involving structures in
the central nervous
system (e.g., cerebrum,
cerebellum, brainstem)

Involving structures
not part of the central
nervous system, most
frequently the inner
Likely aetiology
Peripheral Central
Vertigo episodes. Mild/ moderate Chronic and
Symptom onset Sudden Gradual
Imbalance Mild/ mod Severe
Nausea, vomiting Severe Varying
Auditory symptoms Common Rare
Neurological symptoms Rare Common
Changes in mental status/ Infrequent Sometimes
Compensation/ resolution Rapid Slow
Vertigo of Peripheral origin: causes
Condition Details
Benign paroxysmal Brief, position-provoked vertigo episodes
positional vertigo caused by abnormal presence of particles in
(BPPV) semicircular canal
Meniere’sdisease An excess of endolymph, causing distension
of endolymphatic system
Decreasing frequency

Vestibular neuronitis Vestibular nerve inflammation, most likely

due to virus
Acute labyrinthitis Labyrinth inflammation due to viral or
bacterial infection
Labyrinthine infarct Compromises blood flow to the labyrinthine
Labyrinthine concussion Damage to the labyrinthine after head trauma
Perilymphfistula Typically caused by labyrinth membrane
damage resulting in perilymphleakage into
the middle ear
Autoimmune inner ear Inappropriate immunological response that
disease attacks inner ear cells
Vertigo of Central origin: causes
Condition Details

Migraine Vertigo may precede migraines or occur

Vascular disease Ischaemia or haemorrhage in vertebrobasilar
system can affect brainstem or cerebellum
Multiple sclerosis Demylination disrupts nerve impulses which
can result in vertigo
Vestibular epilepsy Vertigo resulting from focal epileptic discharges
in the temporal or parietal association cortex
Cerebellopontine tumours Benign tumours in the internal auditory meatus