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Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) for

Airfield Pavements

2010 FAA Worldwide Airport Technology Transfer


Conference

Brian Prowell
Don Watson
Graham Hurley
Ray Brown
Acknowledgements
• This work was conducted as part of the
Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology
Program Project 04-04, Evaluation of
Stone Matrix Asphalt for Airfield
Pavements.
Background
• SMA designed in Germany in the
1960’s as mix resistant to studded tires
• Adopted in US in 1991
Gradation
Superpave SMA Superpave Control Points
100
90
Percent Passing, %

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 0.075 0.60 1.18 2.36 4.75 9.5 12.5 19.0

Sieve Size, mm
Aggregate Skeleton
Stone Matrix Asphalt Mix
Aggregate Skeleton
Dense-Graded Mix
9.5 mm NMAS SMA
Surface Texture
How is SMA Different?

• Gradation
• Asphalt Content
• Dust Content
• Stabilizing Additives
SMA Performance in the USA

• Marshall- 50 blow design has been used


• Improved performance over HMA
Objectives of AAPTP 04-04 Study

The objectives:
• Evaluate performance of SMA
pavements
• develop technical guidance for the FAA
to implement SMA on U.S. airfields
Documented SMA Use on Airfields
• Australia
• China
• Europe
• Belgium
• Germany
• Italy
• Norway
• United States
Experimental Design
Mix Combinations

P401 SMA SMA SMA SMA SMA


75- 50- 50 65 80 100
Coarse Binder Blow Blow Gyrations Gyrations Gyrations Gyrations
Aggregate Grade
Diabase 76-22 X X X X X X
Granite 76-22 X X X X X X
Gravel 76-22 X X X X X X
Limestone 76-22 X X X X X X
Limestone 64-22 X X X

Granite 76-22 X X X X X X
Rutting Susceptibility

• Laboratory evaluations typically


show SMA to have increased rutting
susceptibility compared to HMA
• Experiments to compare SMA and
P401
• Three tests: stability and flow,
repeated-load creep, and Hamburg
wheel-tracking
Stability and Flow
SMA P401
4% Air Voids 3.5% Air Voids
High Stability Flow Stability Flow
Aggregate PG AC% lbs 0.01 in AC% lbs 0.01 in

Diabase 76 7.5 NA NA 5.1 4,846 11


Granite 1 76 5.9 2,828 23 5.3 5,190 13
Granite 2 76 7.3 1,798 21 5.3 4,720 11
Gravel 76 7.6 1,808 29 5.4 3,799 11
Limestone 76 6.9 1,477 24 5.4 3,940 12
Granite 1 64 NA NA NA 5.3 4,200 11
Limestone 64 NA NA NA 5.5 3,111 8
Average 76 7.0 1,978 24 5.3 4,499 12
Average 64 NA NA NA 5.4 3,656 10
Repeated Load Permanent Deformation
to Asses Rutting Potential
• 100 mm diameter, 150 mm height
• 6% air voids
• 58 C (climatic high temp. - 6 C )
• 20 psi confinement
• 0.1 second load; 0.9 second rest
• 100, 200, 350 psi vertical load
• Continue for 10,000 cycles or until tertiary
flow
With the repeated load test the
permanent deformation
performance of SMA mixtures and
P401 mixtures were not
significantly different.
Hamburg Test
Test combines rutting performance with moisture
susceptibility
• Uses a steel wheel 47 mm wide by 204 mm
diameter
• Load = 685 N (154 lb)
• Full test is 20,000 cycles
• Temperature - 50 C
• VTM - 6 + 0.5 %
• Tested under water
With Hamburg, rutting very
similar for P-401 and SMA
Overlay Tester Results
18,000
736%
16,000

14,000

12,000
847%
Cycles to Failure

10,000 412%

8,000

6,000
258%
4,000
35%
2,000 24%

0
Diabase Columbus Ruby Granite Gravel Limestone PG Limestone PG
Granite 67-22 76-22

SMA P401
Fuel Resistance
• China has reported that SMA improves
fuel resistance
• AAPTP 05-02 evaluating fuel resistant
sealers and binders
• Citgo Fuel Resistance Test
– Soaked in kerosene for 24 hours
– Mass loss less than 5% good
Fuel Resistance
Aggregate Mix Mass Loss, %
P401 7.8
Granite
SMA 4.5
P401 11.6
Gravel
SMA 6.6
Deicer Resistance
Immersion Tensile Test
1400

1200

101%
1000
Tensile Strength, kPa

98% 96%
800
108%
600

400

200

0
Granite P401 Granite SMA Gravel P401 Gravel SMA

Dry Water 2% Potassium Acetate


Two Case Studies

• Aviano AFB, Italy


• Spangdahlem AFB, Germany
Aviano SMA

• Constructed in 1999
• Provided good
performance up
through 2010
• Some water issues
• More rubber build up
• No grooving
Rubber Build Up on SMA
Aviano Air Force Base 2000
Aviano Surface Texture in 2000
Seepage of Water from
Underneath, Aviano 2000
Draindown, Aviano 2000
Aviano, 2006
Aviano 2008
SMA Aviano

• Provided good performance to date


• Good friction
• Some water issues
• No grooves
Based on good performance at
Aviano, SMA was used at
Spangdahlem in 2007
Spangdahlem AFB

• Milled and overlaid with SMA in 2007


• High density obtained
• Some water vapor (blisters) problems
Spangdahlem 2006, patch
Spangdahlem 2006, cracking and
condition of grooves
After mixture was milled, approximately 2
weeks of rainfall occurred causing the
asphalt mixture to become soaked with
moisture
Construction in 2007

• The contractor used


two asphalt plants,
two pavers, and up to
8 rollers
• In place air voids
were typically 3 to 4
percent
Spangdahlem, 2007, moisture on surface of
SMA
Spangdahlem, 2007, blisters caused by
water vapor
Plans are underway to remove
and replace the SMA at
Spangdahlem
Summary of SMA / P401 Comparison

Property Performance Performance Performance


worse than similar to better than
P401 P401 P401
Permanent Deformation X1 X2
Moisture Damage X
Cracking X
Fuel Resistance X
Deicer Resistance X
Texture X2
1Based on laboratory tests performed as part of this study.
2Based on review of the literature or in-service performance.
Recommendations

• SMA could cost 82 to 94 percent more


than dense-graded mixes and still be
cost effective on a life-cycle basis.
• SMA is not typically suited to small
quantity production
• 65 gyrations recommended as
alternative to 50-blow Marshall
The complete report is available
at: www.AAPTP.US
Contact Information for authors:
Ray Brown ray.brown@usace.army.mil
Brian Prowell Brian.AMSLLC@Charterinternet.com
Don Watson Watsode@auburn.edu
Graham Hurley Graham.AMSLLC@Charterinternet.com