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ë Retail: Sophisticated,
established and variable
ë Decision factors: Varying

ë Market Route: Varying

ë General: Each market is


different
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ë Retail: Sophisticated, highly concentrated,
difficult indie market
ë Decision factors: 1. Price, 2. Branding, 3.
Celebrity
ë Market Route: Direct approach
ë General: The direct approach works well
but retailers are heavily influenced by price
and practice chargebacks. Most UK
designers export as they cannot sell
profitably here. There is a small
agent/showroom network and some good
international PR/sales set ups.
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ë Retail: Sophisticated, few fashion
department stores, important indie market
ë Decision factors: 1. Quality, 2. Design, 3.
Price
ë Market Route: Agents and trade fairs
ë General: A commission agent is the most
favoured route for most companies. There
is a good agent network. German buyers
prefer to work in German, with Germans
and do not travel extensively. Some agents
will cover Switzerland and Austria.
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ë Retail: Sophisticated, a few fashion department
stores whose market is growing, a struggling
indie market especially outside Paris. Paris is an
important shop window.
ë Decision factors: 1. Design, 2. Quality, 3. Price
ë Market Route: Trade fairs and some direct
approach
ë General: The department stores and indies visit
the key Paris shows. Some agents survive but
they are struggling. A huge presence of
permanent and temporary shows and
showrooms attracting key international buyers
for the fashion weeks. Preference for French,
Belgian and German brands.
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ë Retail: Relatively sophisticated, few fashion
department stores , more UK-style chains,
important indie market
ë Decision factors: 1. Design, 2. Price, 3.
Quality
ë Market Route: Agents and trade fairs
ë General: Commission agent are the most
favoured route for most companies. There
is a good agent network but in Belgium in
some cases the French agent might cover
Wallonia and the Dutch agent the Flemish
part of the country. Dutch agents also
³stray´ into German territory.
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ë Retail: Highly sophisticated, only real two fashion
department stores (Coin and La Rinascente) and a
huge indie market throughout the whole country. An
important shop window.
ë Decision factors: 1. Branding, 2. Design, 3. Quality
ë Market Route: Agents and trade fairs and some
direct approach.
ë General: A commission agent is the most effective
way of penetrating this market and getting paid!
Preference for Italian brands but also a hunger for
the best the world has to offer as long as it fits in
the right Italian market segment. A very trend
based market. A huge network of agents and
showrooms.
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  "  
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ë Retail: Not excessively sophisticated, only one
fashion department store (El Corte Ingles) and
a big indie market throughout the whole
country. A more conservative market.
ë Decision factors: 1. Design, 2. Price, 3.
Branding
ë Market Route: Distributors, trade fairs and
some direct approach
ë General: A Spanish distributor is the most
effective way of penetrating this market and
getting paid! Preference for Spanish,
Portuguese and Italian brands. El Corte Ingles
buys regularly from the UK. The market is
conservative and elegant/formal
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á$%
ë Retail: Primarily independents, often buying
from local brands. An important high/indie
market.
ë Decision factors: 1. Branding, 2. Design, 3.
Quality
ë Market Route: Agents (often based in Italy and
France) and trade fairs and some direct
approach.
ë General: These markets are often used by
Italian and French agents as useful additions to
their territory as there is a small number of
good quality high end boutiques. The local
manufacturing base is likely to cover all other
areas. Very few local agents are known to exist.
á  
  "  & 
$ '() ! %

ë Retail: Relatively sophisticated, few fashion


department stores in each market, more
UK-style chains, important indie market but
overall pricepoint conscious.
ë Decision factors: 1. Branding, 2. Price, 3.
Design
ë Market Route: Agents and trade fairs
ë General: Commission agent are the most
favoured route for most companies. There
is a good agent network and most of the
buyers visit their local trade shows, the
most important of which are in
Copenhagen.
** 
ë Retail: A complicated, entrepreneurial and
fashion-conscious market where 5-6 store
groups dominate the fashion scene at the
higher level. An important growth market
for the UK/EU until recently with numerous
logistical and bureaucratic challenges.
ë Decision factors: 1. Branding, 2. Design, 3.
Quality
ë Market Route: Direct approach or contact
through French, Italian and German trade
shows. Buyers looking for brands.
ë General: This market is going through
difficult times but will resurface. EU exports
are at the high end designer and middle
market. Agents/introducers can help. The
Italian look is in. Barriers to trade.
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  * 
  "

ë Retail: Not heavily retailed, looking for


cheaper merchandise in most cases, one or
two designer/streetwear multibrands in
some of the larger cities. Overall a
disappointing market
ë Decision factors: 1. Branding, 2. Price, 3.
Design
ë Market Route: Agents and trade fairs and
some direct approach. Distributors in some
territories.
ë General: A small and unprofitable market
for most. The better end retailers travel to
European shows and will work with agents
but the agents and distributors can be
difficult to work with and difficult to
identify. Not a high priority for most.
á 
"*+,  
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ë Retail: Highly sophisticated, a number of
multibrand department stores and a major
importer of UK and Irish fashion. Also an
important indie market throughout the whole
country.
ë Decision factors: 1. Branding, 2. Price, 3.
Design
ë Market Route: US trade fairs, direct approach
and agents.
ë General: A demanding and sophisticated
market with a complicated duty and excise
framework. Buyers expect US$ LDP prices and
payments are an issue. The market is open to
better end products from the EU but the mid
market is penalised by duties and competition
from domestic suppliers. Some important
cultural and business difficulties and payments
problems. Some agents but increasingly
difficult.
â
ë Retail: The most sophisticated and best
informed market of all. Strong department
stores working direct and through
wholesalers, trading companies, specialty
boutique chains and a good indie market.
ë Decision factors: 1. Design, 2. Quality, 3.
Branding
ë Market Route: EU trade shows/direct
ë General: For many a Bread and Butter
market. They buy professionally and well,
visit all the shows, polite and honest and
settle their bills. Major cultural issues and
quality is everything. Long lead times and
attention to detail and design are a must.
Agents are less useful. IP issues can be a
problem. Turmoil in the market at present!
" 
ë Retail: Sophisticated and interesting. Consumers
generally well informed. Strong department stores
(chaebol) working direct and through wholesalers.
Some quality indie market. An important shop
window.
ë Decision factors: 1. Branding, 2. Design, 3. Celebrity
ë Market Route: EU trade shows and direct approach.
ë General: After a long period of sluggishness, there
are signs this market is growing again. Buyers
generally visit the French shows and follow key
trends from Japan but are more dependent on
branding, luxury branding and local celebrity. Major
cultural issues. IP can be a problem.
á  *
ë Retail: Fairly sophisticated with a preference
for overstated luxury collections, often with
longer sleeve lengths for cultural reasons. A
few multibrand department stores and many
disparate indies. A lot of the UK low end high
street is already here where it is perceived as
middle market.
ë Decision factors: 1. Branding, 2. Price, 3.
Design
ë Market Route: French and Italian trade fairs
and some direct approach. In-market approach
difficult
ë General: A great market for elegant and
elaborate collections and quality kidswear but
has to be handled with care. Complicated
import restrictions apply in many markets and
the market is not transparent with many cross-
border agreements. Secure terms
recommended.
)  .*  **

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ë Australia and New Zealand
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