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Motion in a straight

line
Chapter: 02

By Shahzada
Khan
(M.Sc in Physics)

Vision Academy of Maths and


Science
Mechanics
• Defination
• It is old branch of Physics that refers us to study the
motion as well as its parameters like distance,
velocity, acceleration, etc.

Explanation
• Let us take the example of a football
that is kicked by you. Now can you tell
me that how much time will it take to
reach down? Or what will be distance
covered by football?
• These questions lead us to motion and
its parameters that is calculated by
Mechanics.
Mechanics is further divided into following
branches.
• Kinematics
• Dynamics

Kinemati Kinematics is that branch in which we study the motion without


referece of force.
cs
It is also defined as that the field which gives the answer the
question that “How an object moves?”

For example, runing of a train or car.

Dynamics Dynamics lead us to that mechnics in which motion is considered


with respect to force.

In simple words, that field which tells us “why objects moves?”

For example, pushing of a wall.


Rest Statement

and • Rest is defined as the body that does not change its position or
not moving with respect to observer is known as Rest.

Motion
• Motion is refers us that if a body changes its position or moved
with respect to observer is known as Motion.
• Explanation
• Take the example of a book that is on the table. How can you defined the state of
book? The answer lead us to Rest where you are observing that it is not moving so this
position is known as Rest.
• Now look a person who is running. Here, what is state of a running person? Mind aries
the answer that it is changing its position with respect to me then this condition is
called Motion.

Rest Motion
Types of Motion

• Motion is further divided into three branches.


• Translatory Motion
• Rotatory Motion
• Vibratory

• It refers our concept to moving of an object to


straight line. In simple words, a body that travels
in a straight line is known as translatory motion. In
Translatory this motion, line can be found straight or curved.
Motion
• For example, a car moving in straight line or
moving of a train in a straight line is a translatory
motion.

There are three types of translatory.


Linear motion Circular motion Random motion
•If a body moves in a straight line then •If a body moves in a circular path •The disorder or irregular motion of an
such motion is known as Linear then such motion is known as Circular object is known as Random motion
Motion. Motion. •Motion of snake or dust particle in the
•Example: Aeroplane goes into straight •Motion of Earth around the Sun air.
line.
ROTATORY The spining motion of a body about its
MOTION axis is called its rotatory motion.
• For example, the motion of a wheel around its axis.

VIBRATORY Vibratory motion is the back and forth (to


MOTION and fro) motion of an object.
• For example, a swing set and pendulum of a clock.
Length is base quantity that measures the path
Length between two or more points.
• It is also point out the location of an object.
• It is further divided into two types.
• Distance
• Displacement

Distance
• It is length that is calculated more than two points.
• It is also defined as the total length that an object
covers.
• For example, you want to go to school. For that
purpose, first you go to bus stop than it takes you to
school. Here length from house to bus stand till school
is known as Distance.
Displacement
• It is also lenght that is measured from initial point to
final point.
• In simple words, it is shortest length between two
pionts.
• For example, if you go to school in short way that starts
from house and end to school then such length is
known as Displacement.
Speed
•Statement
•Speed is the rate of changing of distance. Or speed is the distance traveled by an object in
a unit time.
•In simple words, how far an object goes in certain time?
𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑑
•Speed= 𝑣=
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡
•Unit=𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟Τ𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑚Τ
𝑠

Velocity
•Statement
•Velocity is the rate of displacement. Or it is a displacement traveled by an object in a unit
time.
•In simple words, how far an object goes in a direction in a certain time.
𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑛𝑡 𝑑
•Velocity= 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
𝑣= 𝑡
•Unit=𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟Τ𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑚Τ
𝑠
Types of velocity
Uniform
Velocity or
Constant It occurs when traveling at a constant time in
velocity one direction.

Variable
Velocity The velocity that occurs when traveling is not
at a constant time.

Average
velocity The resultant displacement divided by the total
time elapsed
Statement

Accelerati •Acceleration is the rate of changing of velocity. When velocity of an object


changes, the object accelerates.

on •Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes.


•Acceleration occurs when an object changes its speed, direction, or both.
•When an object increases it velocity it is called acceleration, when an object
decreases its velocity it is called deceleration.
•Formula
𝑣𝑓 −𝑣𝑖
•𝑎 =
𝑡
•Vf = final velocity (m/s)
•Vi = initial velocity (m/s) Example
•a = acceleration (m/s2)
•t = time (s)
• A car is initially at rest. Ten seconds later it is
moving at 30 m/s:

An acceleration of +3.0 m/s2 means that


+3.0 m/s is added to the velocity each
second.
Those equations which shows the
Kinemati relationships among five quantities or
c variables. (displacement, time, initial
Equation velocity, final velocity and
s acceleration).
• These equations are helpful to solve for the key variables describing the
motion of an object when you have a constant acceleration.
• Once you know the value of any three variables, you can use the
kinematic equations to solve for the other two!
• Key Kinematics Variables
• Variable Meaning
• v0 Initial velocity
•v Final velocity
• Δd Displacement
•a Acceleration
•t Time elapsed
Derivations of Equations of Motion
FIRST EQUATION OF MOTION

• The first equation of motion relates initial


velocity, final velocity, acceleration and time.

Derivation
𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
• The uniform acceleration=
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
𝑣𝑓 −𝑣𝑖
•𝑎=
𝑡
• Or 𝑣𝑓 − 𝑣𝑖 = 𝑎𝑡
• Or 𝑣𝑓 = 𝑣𝑖 + 𝑎𝑡
Second Equation of Motion

• This equation relates distance, initial velocity, time and


acceleration.
Derivation

• The distance covered by a moving body is: s=𝑣𝑎𝑣 × 𝑡 .......(i)


𝑣𝑖 +𝑣𝑓
• Now, average velocity is: 𝑣𝑎𝑣 = .........(ii)
2
• Substituting the eqution (ii) in (i), we get
𝑣𝑖 +𝑣𝑓
• 𝑠= × 𝑡........(iii)
2
𝑣𝑖 +𝑣𝑖 +𝑎𝑡
• 𝑠= ×𝑡
2
2𝑣 +𝑎𝑡
• 𝑠= ( 𝑖 )×𝑡
2
𝑎𝑡
• 𝑠= (𝑣𝑖 + ) × 𝑡
2
1
• 𝑠= 𝑣𝑖 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑡 2
2
Third Equation of Motion

• This equation relates distance, acceleration, initial velocity and final


velocity.
Derivation

• The distance covered by a moving body is: s=𝑣𝑎𝑣 × 𝑡 .......(i)


𝑣𝑖 +𝑣𝑓
• Now, average velocity is: 𝑣𝑎𝑣 = .........(ii)
2
• Substituting the eqution (ii) in (i), we get
𝑣𝑖 +𝑣𝑓
•𝑠= × 𝑡........(iii)
2
• From first equation of motion, we have
• 𝑣𝑓 = 𝑣𝑖 + 𝑎𝑡
• 𝑎𝑡 = 𝑣𝑓 − 𝑣𝑖
𝑣𝑓 −𝑣𝑖
•𝑡= ...........(iv)
𝑎
• Substituting the value of “t” in equation (iii)
𝑣𝑖 +𝑣𝑓 𝑣𝑓 −𝑣𝑖
•𝑠=( )×( )........(iii)
2 𝑎
𝑣𝑓 −𝑣𝑖2
2
•𝑠=
2𝑎
Acceleration Acceleration due to gravity (g) is the
Due to acceleration of an object falling vertically
Gravity towards the Earth’s surface.
• From observation, it would appear that objects fall to the earth at
different rates (e.g. a paper ball and a piece of paper dropped from
the same height do not hit the ground at the same time)
• However, if air resistance is neglected, falling objects would only be
affected by the earth’s gravity and they fall at the same rate.
• Acceleration due to the earth’s gravity is quantified as:

𝑔റ = 9.8 m/s 2