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Acid - Base

Presented by:
Ms. Ma. Leonora Theresa M.
Aguilar
Acid - base

Definition of acid,
base and salt
Equilibrium
expression for
acid, base and
salts
Problems related
to Kc, Kb and Ksp.
Definitions of acids and bases

Arrhenius
acid: generates [H+] in solution

base: generates [OH-] in solution

normal Arrhenius equation:


Example:
 acid + base salt + water
 HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
Definitions of acids and bases
Bronsted-Lowery:
acid: anything that donates a [H+] (proton donor)

base: anything that accepts a [H+] (proton


acceptor)

normal Bronsted-Lowery equation:

 acid + base acid + base

Example:
Each acid has a conjugate
base and each base has a HNO2 + H2O NO2- + H3O+
conjugate acid. These
conjugate pairs only differ by
a proton. In this example:
HNO2 is the acid, H2O is the
base, NO2- is the conj. base,
and H3O+ is the conj. acid.
Definitions of acids and bases

Lewis
acid: accepts an electron pair

base: donates an electron pair

The advantage of this theory is that many


more reactions can be considered acid-base
reactions because they do not have to occur in
solution.
Acid base equilibria

 What is the concentration of hydronium


ions in a solution with a hydroxide-ion
concentration of 2.31 x 10-4 M at 25°C?
Acid base equilibria

What is the [OH-] in an aqueous solution of


orange juice with [H+] = 3.4 x 10-4 M at
25°C?
Acid base equilibria

 At normal body temperature, 37°C, Kw =


2.4 x 10-14. Calculate [H+] and [OH-] for
a neutral solution at this temperature.
Acid base equilibria

 Calculate the pH of a solution if its [OH-]


= 0.000700 M and indicate whether the
solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.
Acid base equilibria

 If the pH of a solution is 6.30, what are


the molar concentrations of H+(aq) and
OH-(aq) at 25°C?
Acid base equilibria

 Calculate the pH of each of the following


strong acid solutions:
 (i) 1.02 g of HNO3 in 250. mL of solution
 (ii) 2.00 mL of 0.500 M HClO4 diluted to
50.0 mL
Acid base equilibria

 Calculate the pOH of the following


solutions:
 (i) 8.24 x 10-3M KOH
 (ii) 3.98 x 10-2 M Mg(OH)2
Acid base equilibria

 Lactic acid, HC3H5O3, has one acidic


hydrogen. A 0.10 M solution of lactic acid
has a pH of 2.44. Calculate Ka.
Acid base equilibria

 Phenol is a weak acid with one acidic


hydrogen. The pH of a 0.00500 M
solution of phenol is 6.09. Calculate Ka.
Acid base equilibria

 Calculate the pH of a 0.025 M solution of


propanoic acid (Ka = 1.3 x 10-5).
Acid base equilibria

 Determine the pH of a 0.15 M H2NNH2


solution (Kb for H2NNH2 is 8.5 x 10-7).
Acid base equilibria

 Determine the pH of a 0.15 M H2NNH2


solution (Kb for H2NNH2 is 8.5 x 10-7).
Acid base equilibria

 Calculate the molar concentration of OH-


ions in a 0.050 M solution of ethylamine,
C2H5NH2, (Kb = 6.4 x 10-4). What is
[OH-] and the pH of this solution?
Acid base equilibria

 The pH of a 0.25 M solution of base, B,


is 9.10. Calculate the Kb for base B.