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 Because most minerals are finely disseminated and

intimately associated with the gangue, they must

be initially “unlocked” or “liberated” before
separation can be undertaken.

 Comminution: the particle size of the ore is

progressively reduced until the clean particles of
mineral can be separated by available methods.
 Explosives are used in mining to remove ores
from their natural beds, and blasting be regarded
as the first stage in comminution.

 Comminution in the mineral processing plant, or

“mill”, takes place as a sequence of crushing and
grinding processes.

 Crushing reduces the particle size of run-of-

mine (ROM) ore to such a level that grinding can
be carried out until the mineral and gangue are
substantially produced as separate particles.
 Crushing is accomplished by compression of
the ore against rigid surfaces, or by impact
against surfaces in a rigidly constrained
motion path.

 This is contrasted with grinding which is

accomplished by abrasion and impact of the
ore by the free motion of unconnected media
such as rods, balls, or pebbles.
 It had been generally observed that in the process of size
reduction, as the size of the particles diminishes the surface
area of the particles increases.
 So a measure of size or surface area before and after size
reduction would indicate the extent of energy expended in
the comminution process.
 Hence if E was the energy used for a desired size reduction,
which resulted in a change in surface area S, it has been
found that
dE =k[SndS] (1)
where k is a constant and a function of the crushing strength of
the rock.
n = -2 (Rittenger), n = -1 (Kick), n = -1.5 (Bond)
 It has been found that Rittinger's expression, n = -
2 , is more applicable for coarse size.

 reduction while that of Kick, n = - 1, is more

appropriate for finer size reductions in the region
where large surface areas of particles are exposed
as in the case of grinding operations.

 Bond's intermediate value of 1.5 covers almost the

entire range of particles.
 Substituting n = - 1.5 in equation 1 and integrating
between feed particle size, F, and product particle
size, P, yields Bond's general expression for the
energy required in size reduction as:

E = 2k(1/P1/2 -1/F1/2) (2)

where k is a constant and a function of ore

 For size reduction of ore in a closed circuit
reduction process Bond derived the specific
energy for grinding as:
 1 1 
W  10Wi    kWh / t
 P80 F80 

 Where W is the specific power requirement

(kWh/t), F80 is 80% passing size of feed in
microns, P is 80% passing size of the product in
microns, and Wi is the Bond work index-a
material specific constant
 The number 10 indicates 100 m.
Berdasarkan pengujian lab., Bond Ball Mill
Work Index untuk bijih tembaga adalah 19.1
kWh/t. Jika bijih tersebut direduksi dengan
menggunakan ball mill dari ukuran
umpannya, F80 = 2.5 mm, hingga dihasilkan
produknya, P80 = 120 mikrometer.
Hitunglah berapa besar energi yang
diperlukan per ton.
• Determining Bond’s work index (Bond 1961):

Wi ,TEST  kWh / t

0.23 0.82  10 10 
A Gbp 
 P F 
 80 80 
Where A = test-sieve size in m, Gbp = net gram
product per mill revolution (g/rev), P80 = 80%
passing size of circuit product, and F80 = 80%
passing size of the new feed.
 The Bond work index then defined as the
resistance of the material to crushing and
grinding and determined from Bond’s grindability
test or plant operation.
 Also suggested the specific grinding energy (W)
required for size reduction in industrial tumbling
mills can be calculated from mill shaft power (P)
and mill capacity (Q).
 Grinding power determined from work indices
works appropriately in the range of rod mill and
ball grinding conditions, and also for other
conditions by using Bond’s correction/efficiency
Property Soft Medium Hard Very hard

UCS 50-100 100-150 150-250 >250

Bond WI 7-9 9-14 14-20 >20
• From the Bond work index, calculate energy direct
as total energy required from infinitely large size to
80% passing 100microns.
• Work index applied to specific operating
equipment for which he had comparable data. But
as mills got larger and feed changed, there was a
need for “efficiency factors”.
• RM, wet open circuit grinding in 8-ft dia mill
• BM, wet, closed circuit grinding in 8-ft dia mill
• Power calculated is at the pinion shaft, which includes
mill bearings and gear pinion losses, but does not
include motor losses or losses in any other drive
component, such as reducers and clutches.
Bond Equation w/ efficiency factors: the first step in
selecting grinding mills is to determine power needed.