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# Digital

Modulation

Binary signals are switched dc pulses, so how do such signals get
transmitted over telephone lines, cable TV, coaxial cables, twisted-
pair cables, or wireless links? Binary pulses can be transported over
short cables even at very high data rates. The transformers,
capacitors, and other ac circuitry in the data path virtually ensure
that no dc signals get through in a recognizable form. Furthermore,
high-speed data is filtered out by the limited-bandwidth media.

How does digital data get transmitted over cables and wireless

## By using broadband communication techniques involving

modulation, which are implemented by a modem, a device
containing both a modulator and a demodulator.
Types of Modulation

## Four main types of modulation are used in modern modems:

frequency-shift keying (FSK), phase-shift keying (PSK), quadrature
amplitude modulation (QAM), and orthogonal frequency-division
multiplexing (OFDM). FSK is used primarily in lowerspeed (,500
kbps) modems in a noisy environment. PSK operates in narrower
bandwidths over a wide range of speeds. QAM is a combination of
both amplitude modulation and PSK. It can produce very high data
rates in narrow bandwidths. OFDM operates over a very wide
bandwidth and can achieve very high rates in a noisy environment.

##  simplest digital modulation techniques

 binary information signal directly modulates the amplitude of
an analog carrier
 similar to standard AM except there are only two output
amplitudes possible
 also called digital amplitude modulation (DAM)
 also called om-off keying (OOK)

where,
vm(t) = digital information (modulating) signal (volts)
A/2 = unmodulated carrier amplitude (volts)
second, 2π fct)

B = fb baud = fb

Example 1

## Determine the baud and minimum bandwidth necessary to pass

a 10 kbps binary signal using amplitude shift keying.

## ASK is low-quality, low-cost type of digital modulation

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

modulation.

##  is a form of constant-amplitude angle modulation similar to

standard frequency modulation (FM) except the modullating
signal is a binary signal.

##  sometimes called binary FSK (BFSK)

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

where,
vfsk(t) = binary FSK waveform
Vc = peak analog carrier amplitude (volts)
fc = analog carrier center frequency (hertz)
f = peak change (shift) in the analog carrier frequency
(hertz)
vm(t) = binary input (modulating) signal (volts)

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

## for a logic 0 input, vm(t) = -1 V,

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)
With binary FSK, the carrier center frequency (fc) is shifted
(deviated) up and down in the frequency domain by the
binary input signal. As the binary input signal changes from a
logic 0 to a logic 1 and vice versa,the output frequency shifts
between two frequencies: a mark, or logic 1 frequency (fm),
and a space, or logic 0 frequency (fs). The mark and space
frequencies are separated from the carrier frequency by the
peak frequency deviation ( f) and from each other by 2 f.

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)
With FSK, frequency deviation is defined as the difference
between either the mark or space frequency and the center
frequency, or half the difference between the mark and
space frequencies. Frequency deviation is expressed
mathematically as

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)
For FSK
bit rate = baud rate
Let N=1,

FSK is the exception to the rule for digital modulation. The minimum
bandwidth for FSK is given as

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

Example 2

Determine
(a) the peak frequency deviation,
(b) minimum bandwidth, and
(c) baud for a binary FSK signal with a mark frequency of 49
kHz, a space frequency of 51 kHz, and an input bit rate of 2
kbps.

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

## FSK signals typically occupy a wide bandwidth because of the

multiple sidebands produced by the FM process. Higher orders
of sidebands are also generated by the harmonics contained in
the fast binary modulating signal. Any abrupt signal changes
further aggravate the problem. Several techniques have been
developed to improve the spectral efficiency of FSK.

## spectral efficiency - refers to how well a specific modulation

technique produces a maximum data rate in a minimal
bandwidth.

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

## No phase discontinuities exist, so the resulting bandwidth is

less. This type of modulation is called continuous-phase
frequency-shift keying (CPFSK).

## An improved variation of CPFSK is minimum shift keying

(MSK). As in CPFSK, the mark and space frequencies are
some integer multiple of the bit clock frequency. This ensures
that the signals are fully synchronized with one another and
that no phase discontinuities occur.
MSK further improves spectral effciency by using a low
modulation index.

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

## For example, assume a MSK modem with fM 5 1200 and fS 5

1800 Hz. The bit rate is 1200 bps. The modulation index is

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

## MSK is a very spectrally efficient form of FSK. But the MSK

signal bandwidth can be further reduced by prefiltering the
binary modulating signal.

## This filter removes some of the higher-level harmonics that are

responsible for the added sidebands and wider bandwidth.

## Gaussian low-pass filter - It rounds the edges and somewhat

lengthens the rise and fall times. This in turn reduces harmonic
content. And that decreases the overall signal bandwidth.
Gaussian filltered MSK is referred to as GMSK. It is widely
used in data communication and is the basis of the popular GSM
digital cell phones.

PHASE SHIFT KEYING (PSK)

modulation.

##  similar to conventional phase modulation except with PSK

the input is a binary digital signal and there are a limited
number of output phases possible.

Variations of PSK:
 BPSK
 QPSK
 8 - PSK
 16 - PSK
 Differential PSK

PHASE SHIFT KEYING (PSK)
Example of Phase Shift

PHASE SHIFT KEYING (PSK)
Benefit
• Less effected by noise compared to ASK
Normally used in MODEM
• Require Bandwidth less than FSK

Difficult to detect phase shift in case of phase
difference (Φ1- Φ2) is too small

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)

##  simplest form of PSK (N=1, M=2)

 two phases are possible for the carrier.
one phase represents logic 1
othe phase represents logic 0
note: the phase of the output carrier shifts between 0 and 180
degrees
 also known as Phase Reversal Keying (PRK)
 also known as Biphase Modulation
 is a form of square-wave modulation of a continuous wave
(CW) signal.

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
BPSK Transmitter

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
Balanced Ring Modulator

## For the balanced modulator to operate properly, the

digital input voltage must be much greater than the peak
carrier voltage. This ensures that the digital input controls
the on/off state of diodes D1 to D4
BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
Balanced Ring Modulator

## Binary Input - Logic 1 (Positive Voltage)

The carrier voltage is developed across transformer T2 in
phase with the carrier voltage across T1.

## The output signal is in phase with the reference oscillator.

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
Balanced Ring Modulator

## Binary Input - Logic 0 (Negative Voltage)

The carrier voltage is developed across transformer T2 180°
out of phase with the carrier voltage across T1.

## The output signal is 180°out of phase with the reference

oscillator.
BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)

Truth Table
Phasor Diagram
A constellation diagram, which
is sometimes called a signal state-
space diagram, is similar to a
phasor diagram except that the
entire phasor is not drawn. In a
constellation diagram, only the
Constellation Diagram relative positions of the peaks of
© 2003 Altera the phasors are shown.
BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATIONS OF BPSK
Each time the input logic condition changes, the output phase
changes.

## For BPSK, the output rate of change (baud) is equal to the

input rate of change (bps), and the widest output bandwidth
occurs when the input binary data are an alternating 1/0
sequence. The fundamental frequency (fa) of an alternative 1/0
bit sequence is equal to one-half of the bit rate (fb/2).
Mathematically, the output of a BPSK modulator is
proportional to

## BPSK output = [sin(2πfat)] x [sin(2πfct)]

where fa = maximum fundamental frequency of binary input (hertz)
fc = reference carrier frequency (hertz)
BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATIONS OF BPSK

## BPSK output = [sin(2πfat)] x [sin(2πfct)]

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATIONS OF BPSK

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
EXAMPLE
For a BPSK modulator with a carrier frequency of 70 MHz
and an input bit rate of 10 Mbps, determine the maximum and
minimum upper and lower side frequencies,
•draw the output spectrum
•determine the minimum Nyquist bandwidth
•calculate the baud

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)

## Coherent carrier recovery circuit - detects and regenerates a

carrier signal that is both frequency and phase coherent with the
original transmit carrier.

## Balanced modulator - a product detector; the output is the product

of the two inputs (the BPSK signal and the recovered carrier).

## Low-pass filter (LPF) - separates the recovered binary data from

the complex demodulated signal.

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
If +sinωct (logic 1), the output of the balanced modulator is

## A positive voltage represents a demodulated logic 1.

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)
If -sinωct (logic 0), the output of the balanced modulator is

## A negative voltage represents a demodulated logic 0.

DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING (DPSK)
 a version of binary PSK
 the binary input information is contained in the difference
between two successive signaling elements rather than the
absolute phase.
For DPSK to work, the original binary bit stream must undergo
a process known as differential phase coding, in which the
serial bit stream passes through an inverted e xclusive-NOR
circuit (XNOR).

## WHY USE DPSK?

To simplify the demodulation process
DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING (DPSK)
XNOR output is applied to a 1-bit delay circuit before being
applied back to the input. The delay can simply be a clocked
flip-flop or a delay line. The resulting bit pattern permits the
signal to be recovered because the current bit phase can be
compared with the previously received bit phase.

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
 another form of angle-modulated, constant-amplitude digital
modulation
 is an M-ary encoding scheme where N=2 and M=4
 4 output phase for a single carrier frequency
 The binary input data are combined into groups of two bits
called dibits.

## Note: Each dibit code represents one of the 4 possible ouput

phases.
Therefore, for each two-bit dibit clocked into the modulator, a
single output change occurs, and the rate of change at the
output (baud) is equal to one-half the input bit rate (i.e., two
input bits produce one output phase change).
QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
WHY USE QPSK?

## To increase the speed of data transmission in a given bandwidth

without increasing the bandwidth.

One way to increase the binary data rate while not increasing the
bandwidth required for the signal transmission is to encode more
than 1 bit per phase change.

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
QPSK TRANSMITTER

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
QPSK TRANSMITTER
Two bits (a dibit) are clocked into the bit splitter.

## The I bit modulates a carrier that is in phase with the reference

oscillator (hence the name “I” for “in phase” channel), and the
Q bit modulates a carrier that is 90° out of phase or in
quadrature with the reference carrier (hence the name “Q” for

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
QPSK TRANSMITTER
Again, for a logic 1 =+1 V and a logic 0 = -1 V, two phases are
possible at the output of the I balanced modulator (+sin ωct
and -sin ωct), and two phases are possible at the output of the
Q balanced modulator (+cos ωct and -cos ωct). When the linear
summer combines the two quadrature (90° out of phase)
signals, there are four possible resultant phasors given by these
expressions:
+sin ωct + cos ωct,
+sin ωct - cos ωct,
-sin ωct +cos ωct,
-sin ωct - cos ωct

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATIONS OF QPSK

## QPSK output = (sin ωat)(sin ωct)

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
EXAMPLE
For a QPSK modulator with an input data rate (fb) equal to 10
Mbps and a carrier frequency of 70 MHz, determine the
minimum double-sided Nyquist bandwidth (fN) and the baud.

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
Power splitter - directs the input QPSK signal to the I and Q
product detectors and the carrier recovery circuit.

## Carrier recovery circuit - reproduces the original transmit

carrier oscillator signal. The recovered carrier must be frequency
and phase coherent with the transmit reference carrier.

## I and Q product detectors - where the QPSK signal is

demodulated, which generate the original I and Q data bits. The
outputs of the product detectors are fed to the bit combining
circuit, where they are converted from parallel I and Q data
channels to a single binary output data stream.

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
Mathematically, the demodulation process is as follows. The
receive QPSK signal (-sin ωct + cos ωct) is one of the inputs to
the I product detector. The other input is the recovered carrier (sin
ωct). The output of the I product detector is

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
Again, the receive QPSK signal (-sin ωct + cos ωct) is one of the
inputs to the Q product detector. The other input is the recovered
carrier shifted 90°in phase (cos ωct). The output of the Q product
detector is

QUARTENARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)
Again, the receive QPSK signal (-sin ωct + cos ωct) is one of the
inputs to the Q product detector. The other input is the recovered
carrier shifted 90°in phase (cos ωct). The output of the Q product
detector is

8- PHASE SHIFT KEYING (8-PSK)
 is an M-ary eing technique where M=8
 With an 8-PSK modulator, there are eight possible output phases.
 To encode eight different phases, the incoming bits are
considered in groups of 3 bits, called tribits.
8-PSK Waveform

note: with three input bits, there are eight possible conditions
(000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, and 111)
8- PHASE SHIFT KEYING (8-PSK)

## 8-PSK Truth Table

Constellation Diagram Phasor Diagram
8- PHASE SHIFT KEYING (8-PSK)
BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATION

## The output frequency spectrum extends from fc = fb/6 to

fc =fb/6,and the minimum bandwidth (fN) is

EXAMPLE
For an 8-PSK modulator with an input data rate (fb) equal to 10
Mbps and a carrier frequency of 70 MHz, determine the minimum
double-sided Nyquist bandwidth (fN) and the baud.

16- PHASE SHIFT KEYING (16-PSK)

##  is an M-ary encoding technique where M=16

 A 16-PSK modulator acts on the incoming data in groups

Truth Table

##  It is a form of digital modulation where the digital

inforamtion is contained in both the amplitude and phase
of the transmitted carrier.
 The amplitude and phase-shift keying are combined in
such a way that the positions of the signaling elements on
the constellation diagrams are optimized to achieve the
greatest distance between elements,thus reducing the
likelihood of one element being misinterpreted as another
element.

QAM)
 is an M-ary encoding technique where M=8.
 Unlike 8-PSK, the output signal from an 8-QAM
modulator is not a constant-amplitude signal.
 There are four possible phase shifts
 Two different carrier amplitudes

QAM)
8-QAM WAVEFORM

QAM)
8-QAM TRUTH TABLE, CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM,
PHASOR DIAGRAM

QAM)
BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATION OF 8-QAM
In 8-QAM, the bit rate in the I and Q channels is one-third of the
input binary rate,the same as in 8-PSK. As a result,the highest
fundamental modulating frequency and fastest output rate of
change in 8-QAM are the same as with 8-PSK. Therefore, the
minimum bandwidth required for 8-QAM is fb/3, the same as in 8-
PSK.

##  is an M-ary encoding technique where M=16. The data are

acted on in groups of four.
 There12 different phase shifts and 3 amplitude levels,
producing a total of 16 different phase-amplitude combinations.
 As with 8-QAM, both the phase and the amplitude of the
transmit carrier are varied.

16-QAM TRUTH TABLE, CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM,
PHASOR DIAGRAM

BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATION OF 16-QAM

Even higher data rates can be achieved with 64-QAM and 256-
QAM. Multilevel modulation schemes using 1024-QAM to 4096-
QAM are also used. These signals are used in cable TV modems,
wireless local area networks (WLANs), satellites, and high-speed i

BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY, BIT
ERROR RATE and
CARRIER-TO-NOISE RATIO

BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY

## It is used to compare the performance of one digital modulation

technique to the other.

## It is the ratio of the transmission bit rate to the minimum bandwidth

required for a particular modulation scheme.
fb
BWefficiency 
B

## fb = input bit rate

B = double-sided Nyquist bandwidth

BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY
EXAMPLE
Determine the bandwidth efficiencies for the following modulation
schemes: BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, and 16-QAM at a transmission rate
of 10 Mbps.

BIT ERROR RATE

Bit Error Rate (BER) is the number of errors that occur in a given
time

## BER is simply the ratio of the number of errors that occur in 1 s of a

1-s interval of data transmission.

CARRIER-TO-NOISE

## Carrier-to-Noise (C/N) is the ratio of the average signal power of

the carrier plus the sidebands to the noise power, usually the thermal
noise.

## Generally expressed in decibels.

Wideband Modulation

WIDEBAND MODULATION
PROBLEMS WITH CONVENTIONAL WIRELESS
COMMUNICATION
In conventional wireless a fixed frequency is used and this frequency
does not change over time.

## Interference – When s signal has a constant frequency that signal

subject to interference. This occurs when another signal is transmitted
on, or very near, the frequency of the desired signal.

## Interception – A constant-frequency signal is easy to intercept, and is

therefore not well suited to applications in which information must be
kept confidential between the source and destination.

WIDEBAND MODULATION

## The two most widely used wideband modulation

methods are spread spectrum and orthogonal
frequency-division multiplexing.

## Spread spectrum (SS) is a modulation and multiplexing

technique that distributes a signal and its sidebands over
a very wide bandwidth.

## Spread Spectrum modulation techniques are defined as

being those techniques in which:

## The bandwidth of the transmitted signal is much greater

than the bandwidth of the original message, and

## The bandwidth of the transmitted signal is determined by

the message to be transmitted and by an additional signal
Signal is sent at many frequencies.

After World War II, spread spectrum was developed primarily by the military
because it is a secure communication technique that is essentially immune to
jamming. In the mid-1980s, the FCC authorized use of spread spectrum in
civilian applications. Currently, unlicensed operation is permitted in the 902- to
928-MHz, 2.4- to 2.483-GHz, and 5.725- to 5.85-GHz ranges, with 1 W of
power. Spread spectrum on these frequencies is being widely incorporated into a
variety of commercial communication systems. One of the most important of
these new applications is wireless data communication.

## Numerous LANs and portable personal computer modems use SS techniques, as

does a class of cordless telephones in the 900-MHz, 2.4-, and 5.8GHz ranges.
The most widespread use of SS is in cellular telephones in the 800- to 900-MHz
and 1800- to 1900-MHz ranges. It is referred to as code-division multiple access
(CDMA).

● Security. SS prevents unauthorized listening.

## ● Resistance to jamming and interference. Jamming signals are

typically restricted to a single frequency, and jamming one frequency
does not interfere with an SS signal.

● Band sharing. Many users can share a single band with little or no
interference.

## ● Resistance to fading and multipath propagation. Frequency-

selective fading occurs during signal propagation because signals of
different frequencies arrive at a receiver at slightly different times
due to reflections from other objects.
• Frequency-hopping (FH)
• Direct Sequence (DS)

In frequency-hopping SS, the frequency of the carrier of the
transmitter is changed according to a predetermined sequence, called
pseudorandom, at a rate higher than that of the serial binary data
modulating the carrier.

## Sender don’t use a single frequency to transmit data. Multiple

frequency is used for transmission.

Sender send data using frequency f1 for 625 micro second and
then change frequency.

## Sender don’t use a single frequency to transmit data. Multiple

frequency is used for transmission.

Sender send data using frequency f1 for 625 micro second and
then change frequency.

## Frequency of carrier is periodically modified following a specified

sequence of frequency.

## The time that the synthesizer remains on a single frequency is

called the dwell time.

EXAMPLE:
Let’s say sender A want to send some data. Hopping sequence
for A is F1, F5, F3 and F8.

## At the time of transmission sender first modulate their signal

using frequency f1. Once dwell time is completed then it
modulate their signal using frequency F5, then F3.

## In direct-sequence SS, the serial binary data is mixed with a higher-

frequency pseudorandom binary code at a faster rate, and the result
is used to phase-modulate a carrier.

## Every user assigned a spreading code. This secret code is used to

encode the signal.

## This code is multiplied with the original message and resultant

message is then transmitted.

retrieve original.

For the duration of every message bit, the carrier is modulated
following a specific sequence of bits (known as chips). The
process is known as “chipping” and results in the substitution of
every message bit by (same) sequence of chips.