You are on page 1of 61

Learning and Learner

Def: Mental activity by means of which


knowledge , skills, attitudes ,
appreciation and ideals are acquired
resulting in a modification of behavior
Elements of learning process
• Goals
• Stimulus
• Perception
• Responses
• Consequences
• integration
Conditions for effective learning
• Motivation
• Psychological safety
• Experimentation
• Feed back
• Practice
• Reinforcement
Characteristics of learning
Learning is
• Growth
• Adjustment
• Organizing experience
• Purposeful
• Goal oriented
• Both Individual & social
• Self activity
• Transferable
Learning
TEACHING AND LEARNING
THEORIES
BEHAVIORISM COMPARISON CONSTRUCTIVISM

NEW TYPES OF LEARNING THEORIES

DISCOVERY LEARNING SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM COLLABORATIVE LEARNING

AUTHENTIC LEARNING COOPERATIVE LEARNING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

TRANSFORMATIONAL
HUMANISTIC LEARNING PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING
LEARNING

TECHNOLOGY & LEARNING


THEORIES PERSONAL REFLECTIONS
BEHAVIORISM
Behaviorism is a theory learning that focuses on objectively
observable behaviors and discounts mental activities. Behavior
theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of
new behavior.

The Universal Learning Process

CONDITIONING

BEHAVIORAL
CLASSICAL
OPERANT
CONDITIONING
CONDITIONING

A natural response to A reinforced response


a stimulus to a stimulus
CRITIQUES ON BEHAVIORISM

• Behaviorism does not account for all kinds of learning, since


it disregards the activities of the mind.

• Behaviorism does not explain some learning--such as the


recognition of new language patterns by young children--for
which there is no reinforcement mechanism.

• Research has shown that animals adapt their reinforced


patterns to new information. For instance, a rat can shift its
behavior to respond to changes in the layout of a maze it had
previously mastered through reinforcements.
SYNOPSIS OF BEHAVIORISM

Behaviorism is a simple theory which relies only on observable


behavior and describes several universal laws of behavior. Its
positive and negative reinforcement techniques can be very
effective. Behaviorism often is used by teachers, who reward or
punish student behaviors.
NOTABLE THEORIST
IVAN PAVLOV 1849-1936
Known for his work with Classical Conditioning.

B. F. SKINNER 1904-1990
Known for his work with Operant Conditioning.
CONSTRUCTIVISM
Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the
premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our
own understanding of the world we live in. Use of past
experiences help us to make sense of our experiences.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES
1. Learning is the search for
meaning.

2. Meaning requires knowledge


of wholes and parts. Parts are
understood in context of wholes.
3. To teach well we must understand
students mental models.

4. The purpose of learning is for the


individual to construct his or her
own meaning.
SYNOPSIS OF
CONSTRUCTIVISM

Constructivism is a philosophy which calls for the use of


curricula which is customized to the students' prior knowledge.
A key element of this learning process is hands-on problem
solving. As a teacher using this technique, one should
encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict
information. The use of open-ended questions allows for
discussion between groups of students. These discussion
help students form answers to the given problems.
NOTABLE THEORIST
John Dewey 1859-1952
Known for rejecting authoritarian
methods and believed education
should be integrated with life
experiences.
Jean Piaget 1896-1980
Theorized cognitive
abilities are acquired by
George Miller 1920- assimilation.
Known for theories of chunking
and information processing.

Jerome Bruner 1915-

Seymour Papert 1928- A founding father of


Constructivist Theory.
Expert on technology-
based learning.
DISCOVERY LEARNING
Mode of teaching that encourages students to ask questions
and find their own answers. Students also learn general
principles from examples and experience.

“…it is expected that the student will have to explore examples


from them ‘discover’ the principles or concepts which are to be
learned.” (Snelbecker)
AUTHENTIC LEARNING
A higher level of thinking when a student must interpret, analyze, or
manipulate information, because a question to be answered or
problem to be solved cannot be found through previously learned
knowledge.

“To succeed in the workplace, children need to become independent,


critical thinkers. They must know where and how to find information,
organize it, evaluate it, and then effectively express their knowledge
and ideas. They must work cooperatively in teams.”)
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING
A curriculum development and delivery system that recognizes the
need to develop problem solving skills along with developing and
acquiring necessary knowledge and skills.
1. Problems drive the curriculum - the problems
do not test skills; they assist in development
of skills.
2. The problems are truly ill-structured - there
is no single solution, and as new
information is gathered, perception of the
problem changes, and the solution,
changes.
3. Students solve the problems - teachers are
coaches and facilitators.
4. Students are only given guidelines- there is
no one formula for student approaches to
the problem.
5. Authentic, performance based assessment -
is a seamless part and end of the
instruction.
HUMANISTIC LEARNING
Abraham Maslow 1908-1970

Maslow's theory is based on the notion that


experience is the primary phenomenon in the
study of human learning and behavior. He placed
emphasis on choice, creativity, values, self-
realization, all distinctively human qualities, and
believed that meaningfulness and subjectivity
were more important than objectivity.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
Lev Vyotsky 1896-1934

Vygotsky shared many of Piaget's views


about child development, but he was more
interested in the social aspects of
learning. Vygotsky differs from discovery
learning, which is also based on Piaget's
ideas, in that the teacher and older
children play important roles in learning.
The teacher is typically active and
involved
COLLABORATIVE LEARNIMNG
Collaborative Learning is a philosophy that implores working
together, building together, learning together, changing
together, improving together, in order to learn skills and build
knowledge.

“Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort


than a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is
collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated
Sharing one's ideas and responding to others' improves
thinking and deepens understanding" (Gerdy, 1998)
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups
so that students work together to maximize their own and each
other's learning. The idea is simple. Class members are
organized into small groups after receiving instruction from
the teacher. They then work through the assignment until all
group members successfully understand and complete it.
TECHNOLOGY & LEARNING
THEORIES
Historically, what pedagogical methods have been the paradigms for instruction?
Behaviorism and Constructivism

How do the methods differ in belief and practice?


Behaviorism is based more on teacher instruction and Constructivism gives freedom to
the student

What have educators theorized and discovered about the processes of teaching and
learning? How have educational theorists/practitioners changed the concept of
teaching as “one size fits all”?
Every student brings something different to the classroom. Teachers should cater to
different learner styles and abilities.

How do the “newer” types of learning theories address the issues of incorporating
technology tools into teaching and learning experiences?
The newer theories allow more student freedom which is furthered by technology.

How are these “newer” learning theories changing the roles of teachers? Of students?
Teachers are becoming more of a guiding force than a driving force in the classroom
learning process.
TRANSFORMATIONAL
LEARNING
Transformational Learning is an unconventional theory of
learning which involves having the student work outside of their
comfort zone as far as thinking and learning. This idea depends
on the willingness of the teacher to change the learning to fit the
needs of the ever changing classroom.

Jack Mezirow
Father of the Transformational
Learning Theory
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Theory built out of the idea that everyone has his or her own specialties and
strengths which come out in different ways. The basis for the theory is that
everyone does not learn in the same manner.
The 10 Intelligences
1. Linguistic/Verbal
2. Logical-Mathematical
3. Musical Howard Gardner
4. Bodily/Kinesthetic Father of Multiple
5. Spatial Intelligences Theory

6. Interpersonal
7. Intrapersonal
8. Naturalist
9. Spiritual
10. Existential
COMPARING THE THEORIES
BEHAVIORISM CONSTRUCTIVISM

DIRECTED NON-DIRECTED
INSTRUCTION INSTRUCTION
OBJECTIVIST CONSTRUCTIVIST
TEACHER-CENTERED LEARNER-CENTERED
BEHAVIORAL COGNITIVE
OBSERVATIONS OPERATIONS
FOCUS ON THE FOCUS ON GROUP
INDIVIDUAL WORK
FOCUS ON SINGLE HOLISTIC IN
APPROACH APPROACH
• James Hartley (1998) four key principles of learning:
• Activity is important. Learning is better when the learner is
active rather than passive. ('Learning by doing' is to be
applauded).
• Repetition, generalization and discrimination are important
notions. Frequent practice - and practice in varied contexts - is
necessary for learning to take place. Skills are not acquired
without frequent practice.
• Reinforcement is the cardinal motivator. Positive reinforcers
like rewards and successes are preferable to negative events
like punishments and failures.
• Learning is helped when objectives are clear. Those who look
to behaviourism in teaching will generally frame their activities
by behavioural objectives e.g. 'By the end of this session
participants will be able to...'. With this comes a concern with
competencies and product approaches to curriculum.
Teaching

How
to
teach
Teaching
• Adam smith
this is system of actions to induce learning
• Gage
Explains teaching as any inter personal
influence aimed at changing the ways in
which others can or will behave. Inter
personal influence must work through the
perceptual and cognitive purposes
Teaching
• It is an activity aims at achievement of
learning and practice in such a manner
as to repect the students intellectual
integrity and capacity for independent
judgment
Aspects of teaching
• Training
• Indoctrination
• instruction
Functions of teaching

• To plan as per the requirement of the curriculum


• To develop problem solving skills in students
• To supervise constantly the development and progress
of students
• To evaluate the achievements of students
• Maintain records and prepare reports as necessary
• Participate in all teaching learning activity of the school
• To conform to the aim of teaching as per the
requirement of society
Principles of teaching
General Maxims of teaching

• Proceed from to known to un known


• Proceed from analysis to synthesis
• Proceed from simple to complex
• Proceed from “whole to part”
• Proceed from concrete to abstract
• proceed from particular to general
• Proceed from empirical to rationale
• Proceed from psychological to logical
• Proceed from actual to representative
• Until and unless we have dedicated and
committed teachers to take to teaching
as a mission in their lives, we cannot have
a good educational system

» Dr.Radhakrishnan, ,Former President of India


Essential elements of teaching
• A well planned teaching should
• Have clearly defined goals and objectives explicitly stated
• Select methods based on the subject matter , interest,
abilities and need of the students
• Be student centered and consider individual differences of
students
• Provide for active participation of students in the teaching
learning process
• Provide a suitable environment for learning
• Motivate the students to work independently
• Provide proper feed back to students about their progress
• Provide for concurrent and terminal evaluation to know
whether the objectives have been achieved
Who is a good teacher
• A GOOD TEACHER
– respects the individuality students
– Makes the teaching learning situation interesting
– recognizes individual difference
– Maintains interpersonal relationship with the students
• kind , affectionate , sympathetic to students problems
• Makes the diagnosis at students leaning problems and
makes remedial measures.
• Guides the learner by good teaching
• Uses teaching methods based on the subjects and the
need of the students
• By good teaching
• Improves the quality of life of every learner
• Creates challenging learning situations by using
variety of methods and techniques according to
the subject taught
• Is systematic and plans well before teaching
• Leads by example
• Works on young minds and instill in them the
dear of God and love for fellow men
• Guides students in their physical, social,
intellectual, moral and spiritual development
• Motivates students who are slow learners, give
them time to grow and mature
• Avoid segregating students as G Av & Dull
• By good teaching
• Uses praise and encouragement appropriately
and thus helps in changing student’s undesirable
behavior into acceptable behaviors
• Attempts to develop the educational institution as a
s community and human resource center by
keeping good relations with the society and
nation at large.
• Improves the quality of teaching by making
knowledge more meaning full, purposeful and
useful
Bloom’s Taxonomy
 Taxonomy” simply means “classification”, so the well-known
taxonomy of learning objectives is an attempt (within the
behavioural paradigm) to classify forms and levels of learning. It
identifies three “domains” of learning (see below), each of which
is organised as a series of levels or pre-requisites. It is
suggested that one cannot effectively — or ought not try to —
address higher levels until those below them have been covered
(it is thus effectively serial in structure). As well as providing a
basic sequential model for dealing with topics in the curriculum, it
also suggests a way of categorising levels of learning, in terms of
the expected ceiling for a given programme. Thus in the
Cognitive domain, training for technicians may cover knowledge,
comprehension and application, but not concern itself with
analysis and above, whereas full professional training may be
expected to include this and synthesis and evaluation as well
 Cognitive: the most-used of the domains,
refers to knowledge structures (although
sheer “knowing the facts” is its bottom level).
It can be viewed as a sequence of
progressive contextualisation of the material.
(Based on Bloom, 1956
Revised taxonomy of the cognitive domain
following Anderson and Krathwohl (2001)
 In higher education, "understand" is still—in my view—problematic in its
positioning. There is a higher, contextualised level of "understanding"
which comes only with attempting to evaluate ideas and to try them out
in new ways, or to "create" with them. It is what I expect at Master's
level. The taxonomy is an epistemological rather than psychological
hierarchy, but it also has a basic chronological element: you achieve
certain levels before others. This higher, Gestalt, level of understanding
comes last, in my experience: my principal evidence is in the use of
research methods. The "real", intuitive, contextualised, critical, strategic
understanding only happens when you have tried to be creative within
the field... Argue with me (use the "comments welcome" link below).
And thanks to all the people who have done so; I hope you found it a
useful activity. I did!
Affective domain

 Affective: It is concerned with values, or


more precisely perhaps with perception of
value issues, and ranges from mere
awareness (Receiving), through to being able
to distinguish implicit values through analysis.
(Kratwohl, Bloom and Masia (1964))
Bloom affective
Psycho-Motor domain

 Psycho-Motor: Bloom never completed work


on this domain, and there have been several
attempts to complete it. One of the simplest
versions has been suggested by Dave
(1975): it fits with the model of developing
skill put forward by Reynolds (1965), and it
also draws attention to the fundamental role
of imitation in skill acquisition.
Pscho-motor domain
Imitation
Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Performance may be of low
quality. Example: Copying a work of art.
 assemble  start
follow carry out
reproduce organize
attempt try
mimic construct
respond practice
begin volunteer
move dissect
sketch proceed
calibrate duplicate
copy repeat
Manipulation: Being able to perform certain actions by following
instructions and practicing. Example: Creating work on one's own, after
taking lessons, or reading about it.

 acquire  maintain
operate produce
assemble do
execute make
pace progress
complete use
improve manipulate
perform
conduct
Precision: Refining, becoming more exact. Few errors are apparent.
Example: Working and reworking something, so it will be "just right."

 automatize  excel
reach succeed
transcend advance
achieve master
exceed surpass
refine
accomplish
Articulation: Coordinating a series of actions, achieving harmony and internal
consistency. Example: Producing a video that involves music, drama, color, sound,
etc.

 adapt  rearrange
excel surpass
revise change
alter reorganize
transcend
Naturalization: Having high level performance become natural, without needing to
think much about it. Examples: Michael Jordan playing basketball, Nancy Lopez
hitting a golf ball, etc.

 arrange  originate
construct compose
transcend design
combine refine
create
SOLO taxonomy

 The SOLO taxonomy stands for:


 Structure of
Observed
Learning
Outcomes developed by Biggs and Tang
(2007)
 Pre-structural: here students are simply
acquiring bits of unconnected information,
which have no organisation and make no
sense.
Unistructural: simple and obvious
connections are
made, but their significance is not
grasped
 3 Multistructural: a number of connections
may be made, but the meta-connections
between them are missed, as is their
significance for the whole.
 4 Relational level: the student is now able to
appreciate the significance of the parts in
relation to the whole
 5 At the extended abstract level, the
student is making connections not only within
the given subject area, but also beyond it,
able to generalise and transfer the principles
and ideas underlying the specific instance.