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Nor Ain binti Sezali (55104316021)

Nur Aisyah binti Ahmad Musa (55104316001)

Nur Asiah binti Ahmad Musa (55104316002)
Nur Rabiyatul Adawiyah binti Amran (55104316071)
Zharifah Bari’ah binti Basa’ah (55104316037)
• A microwave oven uses microwaves, which are basically radio waves,
to cook food.
• Radio waves in this frequency range are absorbed by water, fats and
sugars. When absorbed, they are converted directly into heat
• But, metal reflects microwaves.
• The radio waves penetrate the food and excite water and fat molecules
pretty much evenly throughout the food, unlike a conventional oven,
where heat migrates toward the interior by conduction.
Magnetron ( Microwave generator) Wave Guide Food Chamber
Solo Microwave Grill Microwave

Over-the-Range Microwave Countertop Microwave Built in Microwave

• Longer exposure time give the maximum absorption of energy towards
the food product

• High wattage of microwave fasten the cooking food
• Achieve an internal temperature of 165oF to indicate the meal is
properly cook

• Higher temperature caused more moisture lost in product as the
evaporation of liquid occurred during process
 Ideal for reheating Does not induce Mallard reactions
 Defrosting food Uneven heat distribution
 Rapid cooking Specific sample size and shape for effective
 Minimal nutrient loss process
 Recipe variety Health and safety hazards
High power consumption
• Microwave pasteurization
• Microwave sterilization
• Microwave blanching
• Microwave cooking
• Microwave baking
• Microwave drying
• In earlier studies, it was known that pasteurization was done using
2450 MHz microwaves as the energy source.
• However, even more uniform heating of foods (pasteurization) was
achieved using 915 MHz microwave radiation, and it could be due to
greater penetration depths of 915 MHz microwaves than 2450 MHz
• Example of food products: Milk, cooked pasta.
• Microwave sterilization process is a high-temperature-short-time (HTST)
• It delivers energy to the food package under pressure and controlled
temperature to achieve inactivation of bacteria harmful for humans.
• Microwaves interact with polar water molecules and charged ions.
• The friction resulting from molecules aligning in rapidly alternating
electromagnetic field generates the heat within food.
• Example of food products: Macaroni and cheese, tomato sauce.
• Microwave blanching does not involve the use of water to retain the
nutritional content of the food product and for efficient heat transfer.
• Example of food products: Broccoli, green bean, spinach.
• The food is heated and cooked by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the
microwave frequency range.
• This induces polar molecules in the food to rotate and produce thermal energy in a
process known as dielectric heating.
• Microwave ovens heat foods quickly and efficiently because excitation is fairly
uniform in the outer of a homogeneous, high water content food item
• Food is more evenly heated throughout than generally occurs in other cooking
• Example of food products: Ground meats, bacon, sausages, luncheon meats.
• Baking process includes three phases: expansion of dough and
moisture loss initiates in the first phase.
• The second phase, in which expansion and the rate of moisture loss
becomes maximal.
• The changes then continue to take place in the third phase of baking
include rise in product height and decrease in rate of moisture loss.
• Example of food products: Biscuits, cookies, cakes, bread.
• In microwave drying, heat is generated directly in the interior of the
material, making possible higher heat transfer and giving a much faster
temperature rise than in conventional heating.
• Besides that, the temperature and moisture gradients are in the same
direction and microwaves are able to penetrate dry food solids to reach
unevaporated moisture.
• Example of food products: Dried banana, dried figs, dried lemon peel.
Blanching Sterilisation

Pasteurization Cooking
• Nutrient
 loses of minerals, water-soluble vitamins and other water soluble
• Color
Brightens the color of some foods by removing air and dust on the surface
• Flavor
Can lead to off-flavor during dried or frozen food
• Texture