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Nor Ain binti Sezali (55104316021)

Nur Aisyah binti Ahmad Musa (55104316001)


Nur Asiah binti Ahmad Musa (55104316002)
Nur Rabiyatul Adawiyah binti Amran (55104316071)
Zharifah Bari’ah binti Basa’ah (55104316037)
• A microwave oven uses microwaves, which are basically radio waves,
to cook food.
• Radio waves in this frequency range are absorbed by water, fats and
sugars. When absorbed, they are converted directly into heat
• But, metal reflects microwaves.
• The radio waves penetrate the food and excite water and fat molecules
pretty much evenly throughout the food, unlike a conventional oven,
where heat migrates toward the interior by conduction.
Magnetron ( Microwave generator) Wave Guide Food Chamber
Convection
Solo Microwave Grill Microwave
Microwave

Over-the-Range Microwave Countertop Microwave Built in Microwave


TIME EXPOSURE
• Longer exposure time give the maximum absorption of energy towards
the food product

WATTAGE
• High wattage of microwave fasten the cooking food
TEMPERATURE
• Achieve an internal temperature of 165oF to indicate the meal is
properly cook

MOISTURE LOSS
• Higher temperature caused more moisture lost in product as the
evaporation of liquid occurred during process
 Ideal for reheating Does not induce Mallard reactions
 Defrosting food Uneven heat distribution
 Rapid cooking Specific sample size and shape for effective
 Minimal nutrient loss process
 Recipe variety Health and safety hazards
High power consumption
• Microwave pasteurization
• Microwave sterilization
• Microwave blanching
• Microwave cooking
• Microwave baking
• Microwave drying
• In earlier studies, it was known that pasteurization was done using
2450 MHz microwaves as the energy source.
• However, even more uniform heating of foods (pasteurization) was
achieved using 915 MHz microwave radiation, and it could be due to
greater penetration depths of 915 MHz microwaves than 2450 MHz
microwaves.
• Example of food products: Milk, cooked pasta.
• Microwave sterilization process is a high-temperature-short-time (HTST)
type.
• It delivers energy to the food package under pressure and controlled
temperature to achieve inactivation of bacteria harmful for humans.
• Microwaves interact with polar water molecules and charged ions.
• The friction resulting from molecules aligning in rapidly alternating
electromagnetic field generates the heat within food.
• Example of food products: Macaroni and cheese, tomato sauce.
• Microwave blanching does not involve the use of water to retain the
nutritional content of the food product and for efficient heat transfer.
• Example of food products: Broccoli, green bean, spinach.
• The food is heated and cooked by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the
microwave frequency range.
• This induces polar molecules in the food to rotate and produce thermal energy in a
process known as dielectric heating.
• Microwave ovens heat foods quickly and efficiently because excitation is fairly
uniform in the outer of a homogeneous, high water content food item
• Food is more evenly heated throughout than generally occurs in other cooking
techniques.
• Example of food products: Ground meats, bacon, sausages, luncheon meats.
• Baking process includes three phases: expansion of dough and
moisture loss initiates in the first phase.
• The second phase, in which expansion and the rate of moisture loss
becomes maximal.
• The changes then continue to take place in the third phase of baking
include rise in product height and decrease in rate of moisture loss.
• Example of food products: Biscuits, cookies, cakes, bread.
• In microwave drying, heat is generated directly in the interior of the
material, making possible higher heat transfer and giving a much faster
temperature rise than in conventional heating.
• Besides that, the temperature and moisture gradients are in the same
direction and microwaves are able to penetrate dry food solids to reach
unevaporated moisture.
• Example of food products: Dried banana, dried figs, dried lemon peel.
Blanching Sterilisation

Pasteurization Cooking
• Nutrient
 loses of minerals, water-soluble vitamins and other water soluble
• Color
Brightens the color of some foods by removing air and dust on the surface
• Flavor
Can lead to off-flavor during dried or frozen food
• Texture
Soft